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JCahlana Fandita, 



Vol. ZI. 


Printed by' I. C. Bobe & Co., 8tanhop£ Press, 
249, Bow-Bazar St^bst, amd Published bt the Author. 

[Alt righls reserved.] 


Preface ... _. ... ... i 

An Introductory Essay on the History of 

Kashmira ... ... ... ... iii 

Tsrtrie of Contents of Book VII ... ... xxxi 

Table of Contents of Book VIII ... ... xxxvi 

List of Kings mentioned in Book VTII ... xlv 

Book VIII i 



<The writer has the pleasure now to lay before the 
public the second volume of his translation of 
Itajataranginl. He regrets *rhe long time which has 
intervened since the publication of the first volume 
in 1879 and the issue of the present volume. His offi- 
cial djities,* ill "health and long absence from Calcutta 
were mainly the causes of this delay. The volume, 
now published, completes the work of Kahlana and 
livings down the narrative to a period when the 
country of Kashmfra was just recovering from a long 
and disasterous civil war. 

1 JLahlana was contemporaneous with the last king 
whose account is narrated in -his history, and probably 
he used to read his work, from time to time, at the court 
of his sovereign. Tie has consequently made every 
effort to justify the conduct of the princes of the usurp- 
ing dynasty, and to censure, often unjustly, the conduct 
of the last king of the previous line. Writing for a courtly 
audience, Kahlana often indulges in style which is more 
artistic than clear; and his love of alliteration has 
clouded many an important passage. In several places, 
persons and events have been referred to by him so in- 
cidentally* as to make it .extremely difficult for us 
to identify them, llhough the sense was iu> doubt clear 

to people of his generation. And, lastly, his narratiorftflb 
is not faultless. Not only does he^flften attach" 
undue importance to insignificant incidents, but he* 
also travels from subject to subject without having the 
patience to complete the account of any ono» of th»mr 
He might have left us much more of useful and valu- 
able information of his owa> times than he has done. 

As regards the history of times anterior to his, %11 
that can be said is, that, in the absence of any i 
other historical records, his must be* considered very 
valuable. Wherever light has been received from 
other sources, his account appears to be meagre and 
incomplete, though generally correct. 

Rut whatever his defects may be, one is inclined to 
overlook them when he considers that he is perhnps 
the only author in Samskrita, now known, who attempt- 
ed to write a sober history. If he did not write 
quite in the spirit and style that would be approved in 
modern times, it was more the fault of the spirit of his 
national literature than his own. To him belongs the 
credit of discovering, as it were, a new department in 
literature which it was the 4uty of his successors to 

Calcutta, ) J. C. DUTT. 

The Uth March 1887. J 

Arttiitrodnctory Essay on the History of Kashmiri* 


R. C.-*DUTT. 


"The want of au authentic history of the ancieut Hindus 
ban been a matter of just regret from the days of Sir 
William Jones. Attempts have psea repeatedly made to fix 
the chronology of ancient India prat every attempt, however 
ingeniously commenced and assiduously conducted, appears 
to have resulted in disappointment and failure. Baffled 
antiquarians have at last recorded their conviotion that the 
task is hopebssi 3iat the nation which cultivated poetry 
and mathematics and some of the sciences in remote times 
with such wonderful success must ever remain without a 
history ; that the dead past of India is to us a volume sealed 
with seven seals, and tho seals will never be broken. 

While we share to a certain extent the regrets of anti- 
quarians at the want of an authentic history of India, we 
cannot at the same time share their belief that the past of 
Irdia is altogether a scaled volume to us. While we agree 
with them in considering the fixing of a chronology for 
anebnt. India a hopeless task, we venture to think that 
we may yet obtain much useful and interesting information 
about the ancient Hindus without knowing their chronology. 
While we despair of ever being able to construct a connected 
i narrative of the great wars and successive reigns, and im- 
portant occurrences that took place in ancient India from 
extant materials, we are nevertheless hopeful that those 
materials will enable the historian to trace the real history 
of the great people and thai-; peculiar civilisation, and to 
reproduce with faithfulness and accuracy, st least in general 
outlines, the story of their national rise an J progress, from 
the date of tlieir settlement as shepherd and agricultural 
tribes on the banks of the Indus, to the founding of powerful 
.independent kingdoms and the wonderful development of 
religions, literature, arts and sciences all over the continent 

* The above ej«ay appeared m a review of tho flrst volume of the prosent 
translation in tub Calcutta Review f«r July 1860. It la here inserted with the 
permfacjoii of tho writer J 


of India. And if we can succeed in doing this, if we* cin 
trace how the Hindifuation achieved its civilisation gradually, 
and through successive stages, ?jid if we can 3irther ascertain 
the general character of the civilisation of each stage oi* 
epoch, we shall not very much regret that a list of kings, or 
of wars, is wanting to complete the history of India. 

Indeed, ic seems to us that the disappointment and failrfft 
of the earlier antiquarians were to a great extent due to the 
wrong method they pursued). Our earlier antiquarians spent 
all their energies iu trving%> construct lists of kings.for the 
different provinces and kingdoms of India. Sir William Jgnes 
and his fellow labourers repeatedly had recourse to the 
Faranas, and such lists were again and again made out ; all 
more or less iuccorreet and valueless. * Later investigators 
followed in their foqtateps, and Mr. H. H. Wilson hca given 
us lists of some of the oldest reigning dynasties of India. 
We believe these lists to be more or less incorrect ; but 
supposing they were correct, we fajl to see what we should 
gain by having long lists of royal names of the Houses of the 
Sun or the Moon. If it were possible to construct such lists 
with regard to every kingdom in India, from Kashmir^ iu 
the north to Drabira 'and Carnata in the south, we should 
Still know as little of the real history of Iudia as if they had 
never existed ; the true history of the people would still 
remain for us a book sealed with seven seals. 

Fortunately, with the advanoe of antiquarian knowledge, 
such attempts have been given up and we have been 'taught 
to follow a better method. The labouss of living antiquarians 
generally,*and of Max Muller more especially, havt more and 
more brought home to us the conviction that the gradual 
development of civilisation in India followed a method which 
can be ascertained, and that the details, not of wars or 
reigns, but of the progress of the nation from age to age, 
can be ascertained from the materials in our possession. A 
great nation never pauses away wittanut leaving records of 
its thought w» . achievements. And if in India such 
records have been left unintentionally and almost 
unwittingly, — they' are for that very reason the more 
reliable, because ftngarbled. Kach successive age has left, 
in its literature, an impress, a photograph as it were, of its 
thought and civilisation ; and when we bring an these photo- 
graphs together, compare the features 81 the nation gradually 

developing intone strength of manhood, or declining to the 
furrows and feebleness of o* age,— we perceive at a glance 
the whole history of the Hiudu nation and its civilisation. 
There is no gap anywhere, no link is wanting ; we never 
I34g4 the ca V se when we perceive a great effect or change in 
society ; and a full, connected, and true history of four 
thousand years,— such as no other nation in the world can 
lay claim to, — is laid before our ejfes,— bo full, so clear, that 
he who runs may read. 

Such is the method that we are now pursuing, and there 
can be no doubt that the labours of the present generation 
will be rich in results. It is true that a history of Ancient 
India hag yet to be written ; but the matetrials we are gather- 
ing are so rich and so full, that such a hiBtory is only a ques- 
tion of time. Years of patient enquiry and criticism will 
perhaps yet be necessary to gather from the existing records 
and works of different ag%s the laws, manners, and customs 
of the people of India through successive stages of civilisa- 
tion ; and even after such enquiry, much will yet remain 
obsBure or doubtful, especially in the minuter details. Never- 
theless, the general outline of the history of the people will 
be ascertained with accuracy and distinctness, and the philo- 
sophical historian will trace with pleasure the progress of a 
nation isolated from the rest of the world, and working out 
its civilisation gradually and uninterruptedly, through a 
period of four thousand,years. 

When S'jch work of criticism and enquiry shall h»ve home 
its fruits, we shall know how over two tbousand years before 
the Christian era, bands or pastoral and agricultural tribes 
left their homes in Iran or Bactria and settled on the fertile 
banks of the five rivers of the Punjab. We shall know how 
they clustered together in small villages under their petty 
kings or ohiefs ; tended thgir cattle on the banks of rivers ; clear- 
ed forests to introduce a rude sort of sericulture ; and lived at 
first a semi-nomad and rude life. We suaU know how they 
fought with the black dwellers of the col .try and defended 
and extended their settlements by their strong right arm ; 
how they worshipped the sun, the sky, the fire, find whatever 
else was striling and beautiful fti nature ; and how the 
patriarchs of tribes, A the fathers of families were the 
natural priests, and invoked blessings on the tribe or family, 
and prayed to the gods for the preservation of cattle or tho 


confusion of their black enemies. Such hymnf are still pre- 
served to us after a period of three thousand years and mor«n 
and breathe a simplicity, a fervour, and a piety worthy of the 
earliest recorded poetry of the human race. 

"We shall further gather from such enquiry an,d critjgisoi 
how priestcraft and priestly influence crept into this simple 
and archaic state of society, spoilt its fervour, aud repress- 
ed its native energy. Agrms of worship were gradually 
elaborated and crystallised until they assumed monstrous 
proportions ; priests formed a caste by themselves, an9, as 
elsewhere in the world, domineered over laymen ; kings and 
soldiers formed a second proud caste, while the great mass 
of traders and agriculturists formed a tmrd. 'The :Jt>originea 
who had owned theftupremacy of the conquerors, were con- 
tent to be their slaves and formed a fourth caste. These 
divisions, and the increase of priestly influence and formal 
worship through hireling priests,* repressed the healthy 
growth of the people and restrained their activity of thought 
for hundreds of years.- 

The only element which disturbed from time to time'this 
unhealthy stagnation, was the rivalry of the great royal and 
military class, which could scarcely . brook the supremacy 
even of priests. In. the end this caste seems to have openly 
questioned priestly supretnaoy, and given a healthy stimulus to 
national thought and action. The earliest philosophical specu- 
lations of India are connected with this movement, inaugu- 
rated by the military caste, while the name oi Janaku of 
Uithila, who was the proudest asserter of Khatriya supre- 
macy, is also connpcted with the story of the first great 
Aryan invasion of southern India. Thus the national 
activity of this period manifested itself in action no leas 
than in contemplation. New lands were visited and new 
kingdoms founded, until the whole <jf northern India and a 
part of the south were carved out into strong independent 
kingdoms and races, living side by side, all following the same 
religion, all enjoying a high degree of civilisation, and form- 
ing a sort of united confederation of nations. Wars were, 
of course, of»frequeut occurrence, as every ambitious prince 
tried to establish a sort of supremaoy over his neighbours ; 
but these wars were of a humane nattire and never disturbed 
the peoples in their respective occupations ; and when the 
supremacy so much sought after was established, the victor 

and the surrounding princes w»re friendly again. One of the 
tnost signal of these international wars, if we may so term 
them, occurred about thirteen hundred years before Christ- 
it was the war of the Kurus. This war was the commeuce- 
urtSBi of a new epoch in the history of India ; it closed the 
Vedic epoch, and was the commencement of the epic period 
of India.* j 


The traditions of India assert that Vyasa, the compiler 
of tlie Vedas, was contemporaneous with the war of the 
Kurus. Vyasa was probably a mythical personage ; hut the 
tradition points at any rate to the fact ttat the great war 
happened about the time when the Vedas were collected, 
arranged and compiled, — that is to say, at the close of the 
Vedic period. But, altlfbugh this war happened immediate- 
ly at the close of the Vedic period, and although the first in- 
vasiou of Aryans into southern India occurred, as we have seen 
aboifc, at a still earlier period, that is within the Vedic times, 
the two great epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, 
describing these two events respectively, were composed 
many centuries after. Indeed these two epics are not the 

* It is ■ needless to remark that the real facts of tlio war and the names 
of those who fought it havo been much filtered and dostorted In the opic of 
the Mahabharata, which was .composed Jong after the occurrence took place. 
T,ha auly wviMvumvosmovji. allusim to tka vtx that has, -$ok Vwwn. 4i&«Wi<s& ift 
in the Satap.itnu Brahinaua of the Yajur Veda. In the curlier port of the 
Brahmana the Kurus and tho Panchahis are represented as two friendly races 
living together in peace. In the latter portions of the Brahmauti there are 
allusions to a violont occurrence and sin, and tho fall of Janamejayjt 
Fiirikahita and his brothers Bhimusona. Ugrasena and Srutasena. Tho gteat 
war must thoroforo havo tukon place xietwccn the time when the earlier por- 
tions of tho Satapatha Brahmana were composed and the time when the later 
portions were composed. And as the tUtapatha Brahmana wt\s composed 
towards tho close of the Vedlfc period, wo are right in placing the great war 
at the close of the Vedic poriod. 

There is no allusion in the Satapatha Brahmana or any other Brahmana 
to the Pandavas, and apparently thereforo, they were sot among the main 
actors in the real war botwecu tho Kurus nud tho Panchalas. The legend of 
the I'andaras is in fact of a later dato. The BuddUi&t workJLalita Vistara 
makes an allusion to the five Pandus in tho introductiou,-*-bul in tho work 
itself the Paudaviis are described as a wild mountiin tribe, living by maraud- 
ing and plunder? Tho I'andavas thorofoie, if they had any real existence 
at all, were probably a HontfLryan hill-tribe, among whom polyandry pre- 
vailed, and who may or may not have taken a part in the war between 
the Aryan Kurus and Panchalns. 

The name of Arjuna is mentioned in the Satapatha Brahmana, but not 
as a hero of the war, but as synonymous with the name of the god Indru j 


works of any single poets, bitere the predictions of saintly 
and imaginative writers of many centuries, each succeeding} 
writer adding fe>, 'jr altering, or modernising, the great heri- 
tage left by bis predecessors. The traditions of the two 
great events lived iu tlie memory of the nation and apat- 
tancously gave rise to Jays and songs, centuries after the 
occurrences had taken pktte. The names of the heroes of 
the wars had by that time been considerably altered, miracu- 
lous incidents bad been intertwined with the main story, 
and as the great works -went on increasing, numerous talea 
from the great storehouse of Hindu mythology were gradu- 
ally mixed up with the stories of the *wars. To throw a 
halo of sacredness*over the compositions, they were^ascribed 
to two great saints who were said to be contemporaneous 
with the two great wars, and under the shadow of these 
great names, each succeeding writer contributed his mite, 
until the poems assumed the ponderous proportions which 
they now exhibit. Thus the greatest literary heritages of 
India are in truth the results of national, not of individual, 
genius. Scholars like Weber and Max Muller agree that the 
main portions of them were composed before the spread of 
Buddhism in India in the third century before Christy but 
portions have been added, and the poems have been moder- 
nised perhaps in a still later period. 

Such being the history of the two ?reat epics of India, 
it is necessary to turn to the events which they describe. 
We have^observed before, that the war of the Kurus occurred 
at the close of the Vedic period. For several reasons it is 
necessary to fix the date of this occurrence. If we can fix 
the date of this period, we sliaU know when the "Vedic period 
closed and the Vedas were compiled and arranged ; we shall 
learn how early the whole of Northern India was divided 
into powerful and civilised independent tribes and kingdoms ; 
and lastly, and what is more immediately to our purpose, we 
shall know when the authentic- history of Eashmira begins, — 
for the history of Kasbmira, which is the subject of our 
present article, commences at the time of the Kura war. 

Fortunately we are able to fix this date flrith a greater 
degree of certainty than we can fix the. dates of most other 
events of ancient Hiudu history. A number of very dis- 
tinguished scholars, starting from different premises, and 
proceeding by different lines of argument, both astronomical 


and chronological, have yet arfived at much the same con- 
clusion, viz., that the Kuril war and the final compilation of 
the Vedas took place about the 12th or 14th century before 
Christ. We need not here recapitulate their researches and 
I'tfftgpning »n this point, but will only briefly allude to the 
results. Colebrooke, following two different lines of reason- 
ing, arrives nevertheless, at the same date, vis 14th century 
before Christ. Major Wilford* fixes 1370 B. C. while Dr. 
Hamilton puts it down to the 12th century B. C. Archdeacon 
Pratt accepts this last date on astronomical grounds, while 
Mr. H. H. Wilson accepts the conclusion of Colebrooke. All 
later historians and scholars have accepted either the 14th 
or the l^th century before Christ as the date of the moment- 
ous events which opened a new epoch in the history of India. 

To the results of the researches of these eminent scholars 
we will only add the testimony of such facts and figures as 
the history of two great kingdoms in India can supply. The 
history of Magadha, thanks to the Buddhistic revolution, 
presents us with some dates which cannot be disputed. 
Sakya Sinha, the founder of the Buddhist religion, died 
about 550 B- C, and thirty-five princes reigned in Magadha 
between the Kuru war and the time of Sakya Sinha. Seven- 
teen'or sixteen yeai-s are considered a good general average 
of the reigns of kings in India ; we shall accept the more 
moderate average, viz., 16 years, and this calculation shows 
that the Kuru war took place in the 12th century before 
Christ. • • 

Last, though not the least, is the testimony of the history 
of Kashmir*. Kalhsuia Pavidita, the writer of the history, 
lived in 1148 A. D. and his dates are perfectly reliable, and 
have rightly been accepted by Mr. H. H. Wilson, up to five or 
six centuries previous to the time of the historian. Indeed 
there can be no doubt ras to the correctness of Kalhaua's 
dates up to the reign of Durlabkabaidhana, who ascended 
the throne in 598 A. D.* When, however the historian 
travels to an auterior period, his dates become extravagant 
and unreliable, and require to be adjusted.* Mr. Wilson has, 
by so adjusting the dateB, ascertained that the reign of 

* Ur. Wilson makes it <A5 A. D. But we accept the dates given by Mr. 
Jogesh. Uhundcr Dutt, bcaiuso his work is a literal translation of the Sanscrit 
history, wheveas Mr. Wilson often consulted Persian authorities in writing 
his essay. The difference, however, is only of seventeen years. 

Gonanda I, who was contemporaneous with tkf heroes of the 
Kuru war, happened about 140* B. C. We should have very, 
much liked to see the present translator, Mr. Jogesh Chuncler 
Dutt, attempting such an adjustment of dates. Since, how- 
ever, he lias not done so, and, as we cannot for many reasons 
accept Mr. Wilson's dates, * we shall attempt to adjustthe 
dates for ourselves. 

We have seen that Durlahhabardhana ascended the 
throne in 598 A. D. Thirty-seven kings reigned between the 
time of Gonanda III and Durlabhabardhaua. Giving Six- 
teen years to each reign, we find that Gonanda III ascended 
the throne A. D. 6, that is about the commencement of the 
Christian era. 

What was the •period which elapsed between Gonanda I 
and Gonanda III ? We are told that fifty-two kings reigned 
from Gonanda I to Gonanda III, and they reigned over a 
period of 1266 years. This gives aifaverage of over twenty- 
four years for each reign, which, though not impossible, 
is highly improbable. Either, then, the period (1266 years) 
has been wrongly described, or there is a mistake iirtbe 
number given of the kings who reigned in this period. If 
we had as clear and reliable au account of these fifty-two 
kings before Gonanda III, as we have of the kings who ''suc- 
ceeded him, we should not hnve hesitated to give them each 
an average of sixteen years' reign as we have done' to the 
successors of Gonanda III. and so reduced the alleged period 
of 1266 jisars to 832 years. But so far from having any re- 
liable account of these fifty-two kings, the very names of 
most of them are lost, and we have therefore the bare asser- 
tion of Kahlana that fifty-two unknown kings reigned. It 

t ■ 

* Mr. Wilson gives 20 years to each reign which is too high an average to 
lead to a.correct conclusion. Accordiug to his calculation again, tho date of 
disputes between Iluddhists and Hrahmansein Kashmira is anterior to the 
birth of Sikya Sinlia. the founder of Buddhism, which is absurd. Lastly, 
ho mnkos the curious mistake of supposing that the first fifty-two kings of 
Kashmira, whose names have mostly heeu lost, wero anterior to Gonanda I, 
whereas tho following passage from the Rajatarangini clearly shews that the 
fifty-two kings whose names have mOBtly been lost were Gonanda I and hit 
tuccestora down to AbHimanyu. " No mention is made of fifty-two kings on 
account of thoii* irrcligion. Four of these, Gonanda, &c. are named by 
Nilainuni; Fadms Miltira, following Helaraja, gives an aocoAnt oi eight kings 
(descendants of Asoka) from Lava ; and Srich^hhavillaka speaks of five 
only He writes 'from Asoka to Abhimanyu, five kings have beon named 
out of fifty-two.* " — Jogesh Chunder DutVi Translation. We are much afraid 
■Mr Wilson's Persian authorities led him into these and similar mistakes. If 
he had faithfully followed the original Sanskrit work he would surely have 
avoided them. 


is more than* probable therefore that, in reckoning this 
.number, weak priuoea who reigned for short periods have not 
been included and that the actual number of kings who 
reigned before Gonanda III. was over fifty-two. That this is 
ijjtely, appears from a disagreement between two authorities 
whom Kalhana quotes in his history. Padmamihira says 
there were eight kings from Lava to Abhimanyu, while • 
Srichchhavillaka saya there were only five. It is clear, 
therefore, that no reliance cau be placed on the number 
given of the princes who reigned before Qouanda III. It 
is very likely that the number was over fifty-two, and it 
is not unlikely therefore that the period covered by these 
reigns has correctly been described as 1266 years. 

Even assuming that only fifty-two princes did reign from 
Gonanda I to Gonanda III, it is not impossible to suppose 
that the average of their reigns was twenty-four years, and 
that they ruled for 1265 years, which is the period given by 
Kalhaua. 'We cannot therefore be far from the truth if we 
accept Kalhaua's statement that 1266 years elapsed from the 
refgu of Qouanda I, to that of Gonanda III. But we have 
seen before that Gouanda III began to reign in 6 A. D. It 
follows, therefore, that Gonanda I reigned, and the heroes of 
the*Kuru war lived, in 1260 B. C. Such is the testimony 
borne by the history of Kashmira as regards the date of the 
war of the Kurus. 

Thus, then, by the concurrent testimony of all antiquari- 
ans and aqh.Ql&rk of note who have enquired into the subject, 
by reasoning based on astronomical, philological and chrono- 
logical premises, as well as by the evidence afforded by the 
histories of Magadha and of Kashmira respectively, the date 
of the war of the Kurus is fixed between the 12th and the 
14th century before Christ. This is the daje when the Vedic 
period closed and the Y e( ^ as were arranged and compiled, and 
a new epoch in the history of India was opened. And this, 
too, is the date from which the history of Kashmira com- 
mences. From this date, then, shall we follow Kalhaua's 
history of Kashmira, occasionally alluding to contemporane- 
ous events which transpired in other parts of india. 

• III. 

Gonanda I. then reigned about 1260 8. C. and was the 
friend of Jarasindhu and the opponent of Krishna. He 


invaded Mathura, the capital of Krishna, but^fas defeated in 
battle and fell piei-ced with wounds. The proud heart of 
Damodara I. brooded over the circumstances of his father's 
death, and determined to wipe out the disgrace, and he 
suddenly attacked Krishna iu the midst of some nupJjjaJ 
festivities on the banks of the Indus. Krishna, however, 
was again victorious, and Damodara, like his father, fell on 
the field of battle. His widow Yasabati was with child, and 
was raised to the throne. In due time she gave birth to a 
boy who was named after his grandfather Gonanda. It was 
in the reign of the boy Gonanda II, that the war of the 
Kurus was fought, but Gonanda II. was only a boy and could 
not therefore join either side. Then there is a long blank iu 
the history of Kafltiuiira, and nothing is known of the 
successors of Gonanda II for several centuries. Indeed the 
eventful period which elapsed from the war of the Kurus to 
the rise of Buddhism in India is a* blank in the history of 

But although this is a blank period in Kashmirian history, 
it is not a blank in the great story of the progress of tfhe 
Hindu nation and civilisation. On the contrary, we know 
with some degree of accuracy, the sort of change which 
Hindu society underwent during the centuries after 'the 
Kuru war. The Khatriyas, or warrior caste, of king 
Jauaka's time, had asserted their equality with Brahmans 
or priests in learning and in rank, and the successors of 
Janaka had signalized their prowess by carryingsihe Aryan 
banner to the southernmost point of India, as also by fight- 
ing the great war subsequently described in the Mahabharata. 
This activity of the Khatriyas manifested itself no less' in 
bold investigations into philosophy and religion than in wars ; 
and in the Upani^hads, composed about this time, very often 
by Khatriyas, we see the first recorded human attempts to 
solve those problems of philosophy which ages and centuries 
after puzzled the thinkers of Greece, Arabia or modern 

But this activity, of the Khatriyas appears to have abated 
after a time, and the Brahmans once more succeeded in 
assuming, and even monopolizing, that supremacy in thought 
and learning which the wamora had in°vain tried to share 
with them. In the Sutra literature, which was written after 
the Vedic period, we mark not only the activity of the Brah- 


minical intellect, but also* that unquestioned supremacy 
•which the priests at last established over the Khatriyas. 
Not only were philosophy, astronomy, rhetoric, grammar, 
metre and cognate sciences cultivated by Brahmans with 
wonderful acuteness and success, but social laws were laid 
down investing Brahmans with a halo of unapproachable 
sanctity and glory. Indeed Brahmans appear to have used < 
the power which they had now attained to their best advan- 
tage ; there was one law for them, another law for others ; 
Brahman offenders were treated with leniency, offenders 
against Brahmans were puDished with tenfold severity; 
Brahmans alone bad the right to expound the Vedas ; they 
alone performed all ceremonies and received gifts from other 
castes ; they monopolised all the highest and most honorable 
executive and judicial posts under government, and they 
also enjoyed a practicaj monopoly of philosophy, science and 
learning. However much we may admire the genius of tbe 
Brahmans of this period ; however highly we may esteem 
their six schools of philosophy, their astronomy, their science 
and their poetry, — the Ramayana aud the Mahabharata were 
originally composed at this period, — we nevertheless canuot 
help deploring the loss of that equality between man and 
man which the Khatriyas had vainly attempted to establish, 
and we deeply regret the civilisation of this period in which 
the rights of humanity were sacrificed in order to add to the 
privileges and heighten the dignity of priests and priesthood. 

Happity the Khatriyas made another attempt to shake 
off priestly supremacy and preach the equality of man, and 
the effect was the rise of that religion which even now, after 
the lapse of over two thousand years, counts a larger portion 
of the human race among Vs followers that) either Chris- 
tianity, or Muhamadanism, or Hinduism, oj any other reli- 
gion. This reaction against priestly supremacy, this second 
recorded attempt of Khatriyas to proclaim the equality of 
man is knowu as the rise of Buddhism in the sixth century 
before Christ. 

We need not here retrace the story of the great Sakya 
Sinha and his religion, which ignored caste inequalities and 
proclaimed the equality of man and humanity towards all 
living beings. Iudia listened to the great lesson and bene- 
fited by it, aud the great religious revolution evoked a social 
and a political change. Exteusion of ideas had its effect 


on the political economy of Iijdia, and thej supremacy of 
kins; Asoka and of the Buddhist religion over all northern" 
India, in the third century before Christ, was only an effect 
of the great lessons ami the enlarged views which Sakya 
Sinha had preached to the world. For two or three centuiwa 
more Buddhism remained the dominant religion in India, 
, after which it gradually gave place to that Brahmanism and 
priestly supremacy which prevails to the present day. Let us, 
then, turn to the history of Kashmira and see whether ^we 
discover here that contention between Brahmanism and 
Buddhism which shook all India for centuries before and 
after the birth of Christ. e 

After the long blank which we have spoken of abpve, wo 
come to a line of fight kings, from Lava to Sachinara, of 
whom Kalhana has very little to say. Sachinara was suc- 
ceeded by Asoka, who was the fifth prince before Gonanda 
III. and who, therefore, according to our calculation, reigned 
in the first century before Christ. Buddhism was then the pre- 
vailing religion in India; and Kalhana tells us tljat 
Asoka himself was a Buddhist and a truthful and a spotless 
king, and built many Buddhist stupas on the banks of the 
Bitasta (Jhelum.) He also built a chaitya so high that its 
top could not be seen, and he founded the city of Srinagar 
which exists to the present day. He also, according to 
Kalhana, pulled down the wall of an old Hindu temple and 
built a new wall to it ; and the writer of the Ayin Akbari 
is therefors. probably right in saying that Asoka «*abolished 
the Brahmiuical rites and substituted those of Jaina."* 
There can be no doubt, therefore, that the dispute between 
Brahmans and Buddhists had commenced before the time 
of Asoka, and that in the* first century before Christ 
Buddhism was the^prevailing religion in Kashmira, as elsewhere 
in India. t> 

The death of Asoka appears to have been a serious loss 

to Buddhism in Kashmira, for his successor Jaloka appears 

i to have been a Hindu and a Saiva. He was a powerful king 

tt$nd drove back the <Allechchhas (Scythians ?) who had overrun 

"•.J kashmira during the lifetime of his father and he extended 

J lis conquests to the eastern* side to Kauouj. This conquest 

^ of one of the great centres of "Brahmanism by a 

prince of Kashmira " possibly marksf the introduction of 

* H. H. Wilson, Asiatic Researches, Vol. XY. t Ibid. ' 


the Brahmanicfi creed in its more perfect form into the king- 
•dom" of Kashmira. Kalliuua informs us that from Kiuiouj, 
Jaloka carried to his kingdom some men of each of the 
four castes who were versed in law aud religion, (Brahinani- 
eakof courae,) that he created new offices after the orthodox 
method, that he established eighteen places of worship, aud 
used to hear the .Nandi Purtuia recited. The triumph of" 
Brahiaauisui seemed to be complete, but the Buddhists did 
sot-lose heart, and their attempts to win. over the king 
have been thus handed down by tradition in the shape of a, 
tale. We quote from Mr, Jogesh Chunder's translation— 

"It is narrated of this king that one day, when he was 
going tj the tem|>le of Vijayeshvara, hj met a woman in 
the way who asked him for some food, aud when he promised 
her whatever food she wanted, she changed herself into some 
deformed shape and asjeed for human flesh. Unwilling to 
kill any one to satisfy her unnatural appetite, he permitted 
her to take off what she liked from his owu body. This 
heroic self-devotion seemed to move her, and she remarked, 
that for his tender regard for the life of others she consi- 
dered him a second Buddha. The king, being a follower of 
Shiva, did not know Buddha, and asked her who Buddha was, 
whom she took him to be. She theu unfolded her mission, 
and said, that on the other side of the hill of Lokaloka, 
where'the sun never shone, there lived a tribe of Krittika 
who were' the followers of Buddha. 'This tribe,' she conti- 
nued witb*the eloquence of a missionary, 'were never angry 
even with those who did them injury, forgave them that 
trespassed against them, aud even did them good. They 
taught truth aud wisdom to all, and were willing to dispel 
the darkness of ignorance that covered the earth. But this 
people,' Bhe added, 'you have injured. There was a mo- 
nastery belonging to v* in which the beating of drums once 
disturbed your sleep, and incited by the advice of wicked 
men, you have destroyed the monastery. The angry Bud- 
dhists sent me to murder you, but our high priest interfered ; 
he told me that yOn were a powerful moiifirch^againsfc whom 
■we would not be able to cope. ,He said that if you would 
listen to me, and biylt a monastery with your gold, you 
would atone for the sins of which you are guilty in des- 
troying the former one. Here I came, therefore aud tested 


your heart in disguise.' Krit&devi then - ^turned to her 
people after extorting from the king a promise to build a» 
monastery, and agreeably to his promise he caused it to be 
erected on the very place of their meeting." 

Jaloka was succeeded by Damodara II, and in the «ac. 
count of his reign we have the counterpart of the story we 
have given above. For now it was the Brahmans who were 
angry with the king, probably for his favouring Buddhism, 
and their attempt to revive their faith is thus handed down 
by tradition in the shape of a tale which we also quote from 
Mr. Jogesh Chunder's work — 

" One day, when the king was going tojjathe, previous to 
performing a Sraddjja, some hungry Brahmans aekedjiim for 
food ; but he disregarded their request and was proceeding to 
the river, when the Brahmans by force of their worship 
brought the river to his feet. ' Look ' said they, ' here is 
Bitasta (Jhelum), now feed us!' But the king suspected 
it to he the effect of magic. ' Go away for the present,' 
. replied the king. ' I will not feed you till I have bathqd.' 
The Brahmans then cursed him Raying that he would" be 
turned into a serpent. When much entreated to withdraw 
their curse, they so far mitigated it as to say, that if the 
king could listen to the Ramayana from the beginning^ to 
the end in one day, he would be restored to his form. 
To this day he may be seen running about at Damodara- 
suda in the form of a thirsty serpent." 

These 'stories, which appear so childish on fee face of 
them, are simply invaluable when taken according to their 
proper sigiiificarce. They shew that in the first century 
Wore Christ the great religious revolution which had shaken 
the whole continent of India had also found its way into 
the secluded heights of Kashrnira, and that Brahmans and 
Buddhists in that country were struggling for that suprema- 
cy which eventually crowned the efforts of the latter. 

Such Brahman supremacy, however, was not achieved 
in a day, and in the joint reigns of Hushka, Jushka and Kani- 
shka, the immediate successors of Damodara II, Buddhism was 
once more triumphant, and u " during their long reign Buddhist 
hermits were all powerful in the- country and BudBhist religion 
prevailed without opposition."* Iu the reign of their successor, 
Abhimanyu, " the Buddhists, under their great leader Nagar- 

• R&jutantngini,— fcgah Chmdcr Bute j Trsrulntim. 


juna, continued to gain strength in the country ; they not only 
defeated in argument the Puucfttas who upheld the worship of 
Siva, and rejected the duties prescribed in the Nila Purana, 
but had the influence to discontinue the ceremonies and 
worship enjoined by it. The Nagas, in cousequence, rose in 
arms, murdered many people, mostly Buddhists, by rolling 
down ice from the mountains, and carried ou their devasta- 
tions year by year.* Thus religious differences, as elsewhere, 
culminated in civil war, man killed man for differences in 
belief, and the country was iu confusion. Brahman intellect 
and influence" prevailed in the end over Buddhism, and 
Chandracharya, the learned and noted grammarian, led the 
van of Brahmauicaf success. It was by the instrumentality 
of such powerful intellects which appear*! in India from! 
time to time, that Brahmanism slowly triumphed over Bud- 
dhism from the commencement of tlie Christian era. 
Chandracharya, of Kashftiira, was probably the first of these 
apostles of modern Bmhmauism ; Sankaracharya, of Sou- 
thern India, who lived aud preached in the 8th or 9>h ceuturj 
aftet* Christ, was the lust. Abhimanyu was the last of his 
dynasty. His successor, Gonanda III., began a new dynasty 
iu 6 A. D., as we have seen before. 


Here' we come across a curious test by which we may 
examine the correctness or otherwise of the dates we huve 
given to th% reigns of kings. The Chinese traveller Hieuu 
Tsiang tells us that Kanishka succeeded to the kingdom of 
Kashmira "iu the fourhundredth year after the Nirvaua." 
.(Beales' translation.) R. Davids fixes the Nirvana at about 
412 B. ('. So that Kanishka began his reign about the begin- 
ning of the Christian era. The profound antiquarian Lasaeu 
also proves from coins' that Kanishka lived between 10 
A.D., and 40 A. D. Accepting this conclusionas correct, and 
giving 16 years for the intervening reign of Abhimanyu, we 
find that Qouanda III. commenced his reigu at 5G A. D.,.i. c, 
just half a century after the date that ws have given him. 
If then, in testing our long chain of calculations und dates 
by a raudom and severe test, at one single point we fiud that 
wo are out only by 50 years, it follows that the chain of our 
calculations cannot bo very far from correct. 

* liajaturiuigiui.— Jogesli Chunder Dutt'a translation. 


•There is yet another fact aiout Kanishl'» which we wish to 
mention before we proceed further with onr story. Indian 
writers have carefully concealed the fact of foreign immigra- 
tions and conquests in India though we know such things have 
taken place. The present instauce is a casein point. Kalhaua 
suppresses the fact that Kanishka was a foreign invader. 
We learn from the Chinese historians however.that he belonged 
to the Gushau tribe of the Tuei-Chi, who came originally 
from the borders of China. We learn from Hieun Ttiiang 
that tributary princes from China sent hostages to him, ami 
that the town where the hostages resided was called China- 
pati. Chinese fruits were imported into Jindia with the influx 
of the Chinese, aud^the peach and the pear,— previously un- 
known in India — came to be known as the Chinani and the 
China-rajaputra. We must proceed however with our story. 

The fifth king after Gonauda III,, was Nara I, who " burnt ■■ 
thousands and thousands of monasteries and gave to the 
Brahmans who dwelt at Madhyamata the villages that sup- ' 
ported those monasteries." The reason assigned for^this 
conduct is, that a Buddhist bad eloped with the king's wife ; 
but this seems unlikely and false, and has apparently been 
got up by later Brahmaus to blacken the character Qf the ' 
Buddhists. The real cause seems to be, that, in the struggle - 
between Brahmanism and Buddhism, the former .had now 
gaiued complete ascendency, and the gradual extinction of 
Buddhism in Kasbmira was only a question of time. 

The 'filth king after Nara I. was Mukula, iff whose reign 
Mlechchhas (Scythians 1) once more overran Kashmira. His ' 
successor, Mihirukula, is described as a powerful but cruel 
Icing, and is said to have invaded and conquered Ceylon and 
then returned through Chftla, Karnata, Nata and other 
kingdoms. Gopaditya was the sixth king after Mihirakula, - 
and he bestowed ninny villages or* Brahmaus, expelled from ■ 
his country irreligious Brahmans who used to eat garlic, :' 
brought purer Brahmans from foreign countries, and forbade , 
the slaughter of animals except for religious purposes. Brah- 
manism in Kashmir*, as elsewhere in India, was apparently 
'assuming its' most rigid shape after its triumph over Bud-, 
dhism ; priests invented hew laws and prohibitions to enslave 
a superstitious people ; thought and culture were prohibited ■ 
to all except Brahmans, apparently to prevent any future 
reaction against Brahman supremacy ; gods aud religious ' 


rites and superstitions observances were multiplied by a 
number of modern Puranas, written by astute priests, but 
prudently ascribed to the great Vyasa the compiler of the 
Vedas, and the unhealthy and demoralizing religion, Pura- 
nism, fast reared its head over the ashes of Buddhism. The 
nation which had once dared to question the supremacy of 
Brahmans and Brahmauism was now shackled by its chains, , 
once and for ever. 

Three kings reigned after Gopaditya, after which Pratapa- 
dity\i began a new dynasty in the year 342 A. D. according 
to our calculation. A. severe famine visited Kashmira in the 
reign of Tunjina I, the grandson of Pratapaditya and the son 
and successor of Jiuauka, in consequence of the salt grain 
being bfighted by a sudden and heavy frllst. The king died 
childless, and Vijaya, of a different family, succeeded him. 
Jayendra, his sou, reigned after him, and after him his minis- 
ter, Sandhimati, became%ing, but resigned the high office 
in favour of Meghabahana, a descendant from the older royal 
dynasty of Uonanda III. 

Meghabahana, who ascended the throne in 438 A. D. 
according to our calculation, seemed to have been favorably 
inclined towards Buddhism, and his queens built numerous 
Buddhist monasteries in the kingdom. Following the 
Buddhist doctrines, the king not only prohibited the slaught- 
er of animals in his own kingdom, but is said to have " car- 
ried his arms to the sea, and even to Ceylon, making the 
subdued kifgs promise not to kill animals." Meghabahana 
was succeeded by his son, Shreshtaseua, and his son, Hira- 
nya, succeeded him. 

After the death of Hiranya, a foreigner, Matrigupta, 
obtained the kingdom of Kashmira by the help of Bikrama- 
ditya, king of Ojeiti. This was probably the great Bikrama- 
ditya of Ojein in whose^-eign the poet Kalfdasa lived (5th 
century A. D.), but the historian of Kashmira mistakes him 
for Bikramaditya, the foe of the Sakas, who lived in the first 
century before Christ.* Matrigupta was a courtier of 

* This is the one great reason of the confusion of Kslhana's dates. His 
dates are quite reliable from his own time 1148 A. D. to the reign of Durlabha- 
bardhana 598 A.T). Only six kings rulea between Durlabhabardhana and 
Matrigupta; and, as KaUuAia believed Matrigupta to be contemporaneous 
with Bikr.imadltyu of the Suka era, i. e. of the first century before Christ, 
he makes those six kings reign over the whole of the intermediate six cen- 
turies I Hence Kalhanu's dates are perfectly useless for the period anterior to 
£98 A.. D. 


Bikramaditya, and was rewarded by him with the kingdom 
of Kashmira ; ami the people of Kashmira acoepted the king 
sent to them by the renowned king of Ojein. 

In the meantime Pravarasena, the nephew of the late 
king Hiranya, and the rightful heir of Kashmir's, marched 
against Bikramaditya, who had usurped his heritage and 
bestowed it on a stranger. Bikramaditya died about this 
time, and hie protege, Matrigupta, resigned in grief, and 
Pravarasena, therefore, easily got back the kingdom ofyliis 
imcle. He was a powerful prince and defeated the people 
of Saurastra (near Suratt, and seven times defeated Siladitya, 
the successor of Bikramaditya of Ojein,* 1 and brought away 
from that place %e ancient throne of Kashmira; which 
Bikramaditya appears to have taken away from Kashmira. 
His son, Yudhisthira II., and graudson, Nareudraditya, suc- 
ceeded him in their turns, and the^latter was succeeded by 
his brother, Banaditya. Bikramaditya,. the son of Ranaditya, 
was a powerful king, and so was his brother and suocessor, 
Baladitya, with whom the dynasty ended. Baladifcya (tied 
598 A. D. and his son-in-law Durlabhahardhana, of Kayas- 
tha caste, began a new dynasty. From this date, 598 A. D., 
we cau rely on Kalhana's dates. „ 

We have now arrived at the close of the sixth century of 
the Christian era, when Bruhinauism had once moge asserted 
its supremacy over the length aud breadth of India. Bud- 
dhism had not yet entirely disappeared ; and, indeed, it did 
not entirely disappear from Benares, Magailha and other 
places till after the Mahomedam conquest. Nevertheless it 
was everywhere on the wane, and Buddhist monasteries were 
everywhere outnumbered by Hindu ^temples. We have a 
valuable and graphic account of the India of this period 
from the pen of the Chinese traveller, Hioueu Sang, just as 
we have a good accouut of the Hindu civilization of the third 
century before Christ from Greek visitors. Hiouen Sang 
came into India in 629 A. I)., and saw the great continent 
divided into 138 kingdoms and principalities <%f which he 
personally visited 110. Amon; otheP places he describes 
Kashmira, Mafchiira, Kiinouj, Benares, Magadha, Burdtvan, 
'Assam, Tumlook, Orissa, Drabir, Maharashtra and Ojein, and 
almost everywhere deplores the decadence of Buddhism. 


Siladilya, the king of Kanouj, was the Most powerful poten- 
tate in India at Jhe time, audiiad made all the other princes 
recognize his supremacy. The trade from Tumlook in fieogal 
to Ceylon was brisk, and numerous vessels crossed aad ro- 
. crossed the sea. Magadha and Ojein are described as the two 
kingdoms iji whioh learning was cultivated aud encouraged 
- with the greatest assiduity, while the Maharattas are described 
as a powerful race who had defied even Siladitya of Kanouj, 
who were brave in war, generous towards dependents, fair 
towards enemies-, and altogether tbe most warlike and deter- 
mined race in India. But we must return from these interest- 
ing and almost invaluable details to the story of Kashmira. 

Durlabhabardhana was succeeded by his son Durlabhaka, 
in 634 .A. D., an* his son Chandrapira, succeeded in 634 
A. D. Chandrapira was murdered by lii# brother Turapira, 
Who employed some Brahtnans to do this foul deed, in 693, 
but the impious brother, after a short reign of four years, 
himself fell a victim 1ft the iutrigue of Brahtnans and was 
murdered. His brother Lalitaditya succeeded in 697 A. D. 
and was a powerful and warlike king, aud .set out on- an ex- 
pedition to subdue the continent. He subdued Kanyakubja, 
aud Bhababhuti, the greatest dramatic poet of India after 
Kalidasa, came over to the court of the conqueror. He then 
proceeded on his march of conquest through Ealinga, Goura, 
and along the Bay of Bengal to Karnata, which was at that 
time governed by a powerful queen. 8he submitted to 
Lalitaditya, who is said to have then "crossed the sea, pass- 
ing from oi«e island to auother." Then the king turned 
northwards, crossed the Vindya and entered Avanti. 

Some hard fighting followed, when the king tried to sub- 
due the hardy races and kings of the country now called 
Raj pu tana, after which the king returned to his country. He 
built numerous edifices, Buddhist as well as Brahmanical, 
and his queens aud ministers followed his example. In the 
end the king appears to have lost his life in attempting to 
penetrate the Himalayas to conquer the unknown North. 

Kubalayapira succer ied his father in 733 A. D., but had 
to resign in favour of his more powerful brother Bajraditya 
who- reigned from 734 to 741 A. D. We rend that " this 
luxurious kinf had many females* in his zenana. He sold' 
many people to the Mlechchhas and introduced their evil ■ 
habits." Who are these Mlechohhas, with their luxurious 
and evil habits, and their custom of buying slaves in Iudia, 


of whom we now hear for the first time i The dates at once 
shew that they were Muhammad Kasim, «fche first Maho- 
medun invader of India anil his successors/who kept posses*, 
sion of Sciude from 711 to 750 A. D. The passage above 
quoted, then, is the first mention of Mahomedans in the 
history of Kashmira, unless some of the victories of LaJita- 
ditya, of which we have spoken in the last paragraph, were 
victories over the Mahomedans of Sciude.* 

Frithivyapira reigned for fonr years, and Sangramapira 
for seven days, after which the powerful Jayapira ascended 
the throne in 745 and reigned for thirty-one years. He was 
<i great patron of learning, invited men of genius to his 
court, and employed learned men in collecting the fragments 
of Patanjali'a, Cooftnentary on Katyana's Notes on 1 Panini's 
grammar. These are the greatest grammarians of India, and 
we know from the above passage that they must have lived 
long before the eighth century of the* Christian era. Jayapira 
travelled out of his kingdom in disguise to Gour, there 
married the king's daughter, and, returning to his country, 
vanquished and killed his rebellious brother-in-law, who'tad 
usurped Kashmira in his absence. Soon after he again set 
out for conquest. In the kingdom of Ehimsena, and again 
in Nepal, he was beaten and imprisoned, but on both occa- 
sions he managed to escape and to triumph, over his enemies 
in the end. 

Returning to his country, Jayapira followed the advice of 
Kayastha. ministers and financiers, and so offended the Brah- 
mans, who (being the historians of Kashmira) have not 
failed to heap abuse on him. The following accouut of the 
death of Jayapira, which we take from Mr. Jogesh Chunder's 

, £ 

* Thus wo ftro tild that Lalitadifcya, after crossing over to the north of the 
Vlndya mountains, " thrice defeated Dassan^and subdued him. He then 
conquorod the Bouttas, in whoso naturally pale faces no further sign of 
anxioty wan visible. He also conquered Darad." Dussani is not improbably 
a corruption of a Mahomedan name, while the pale-faced race may have bocn 
thu fair countrymen <>f Mahomed Kasim. Then again we read that " to mark 
bin coiiqu-HtH ho (liuliraditya) oMfgcd other kings to were a symbol of sub- 
jection, whiuh thuy bcifr to this day. The Turashkas commemorate the fact 
of their being Ivmmd, by generally clasping both then* bauds' behind their 
back* and sh.iviug th-j front part** of their havls " Who wete the Turashka* 
Mibilnetl by Lalirailityu unless they wero the Mahomedan Turks of hcinrtct 
]ji>l)>\ wo uro toULthat the "king of rho sandy Sindhu sent a messenger to 
lo ml-! tin* i:m^ '-f .oi-lur.i.M ah'l -» m.iku bim and his men perish in tbu 
Ui-i.-rl ; l>. r. tin: k ; ng iivirrcmio all .jbsUdcs aud ■• defoated the wily kins 
of amduu," aud ilov.^Lalud bis country 


translation, will give a good idea of the insolence and pride 
of the Brahmaus, as well as f>f the manuer in which they 
fabricated stories and interwove them with history in order 
to preserve their supremacy and glorify their power. 

•'Tho Bnihiuanaa wlio dwelt at Tularemia, once oame to 
say. somethvig to the king, but were struck in his presence 
by his door-keeper, aud consequently were very angry. ' Brali- 
mauas were never insulted before, even in the presence of 
. Mauu, Mandhata, Rama and other great kings ;' they said, 
' and when angry they can destroy in a moment the . heaven 
with Indra, the earth with her mountains, and tho nether 
world with its Naga-chief.' The king, who would not ask 
for advice, and was^deserted by his feudatory kings, replied 
with supercilious pride: 'You cunning people who eat by 
begging, what pride is this of yours that ""you pretend to do 
what the Rishis did.' The Brahmanas were cowed down by 
his frown, but one litti thus replied : — ' We conduct ourselves 
according to the times'; as you are a king, even bo we are 
llishis.' The king scornfully enquired : 'Art thou the great 
Rishi, Vishvamitra, or Yashishta, or Agastha}' And, as if 
flaming with anger, the other replied, ' If you be Harish- 
chandra, Trishanku or Nahusha, then I am one of those you 
mention. The king then answered with a smile, ' The curse 
of Vishvamitra and others destroyed Harishchaudra, &c., 
what will your anger effect V The Brahmana struck the earth 
with his hand and said, ' Will not my anger bring down 
Brahmadanda on thee V Then said the angry kin?, ' Let 
fall the Brahmadanda, why delay it longer?' '0 oruel man ! 
there it falls.' Aud no sooner had litti said so, than a 
golden bar from the canopy fell on the king. The wound 
degenerated into erysipelatous inflammation, and insects 
generated on the suppuration.* He suffered great pain, the 
sample of what he would hare to surfer in hell. After five 
. sights, he who had counted danger, died." 

His son, Lalitapira, reigued for twelve years and was 
succeeded by his half-brother, Sangramapira, who reigned till 
795 A. D. On his death, Chippatajayapira, the son of Lalita- 
pira by a concubine, was raised to the throne, and the five 
brothers of this woman shared all the ruling power among 
themselves.* They and their sous* successively set up three 
more kings on the throne, after which Avautivarma, the 
grand.- 011 of one of these brothers, ascended the throne, 
and thus commenced a new dj nasty in 805 A. D. 


" I 
It is in the reign»of Avantivarma that we first read an ' 
account of the country heing^ improved Jjy drainage and 
irrigation operations, and Suyya was the great engineer whc 
performed this work. Ue was of low birth, and, as usual, 
his attempts have been somewhat grotesquely described; 
but, neverthless, our readers will not fail to observe from „tho' 
following passage that Kashmira was greatly benefited by the 
industry and intellect of this great man. We quote from 
Mr. Jogesh Chunder's translation. 

" One day, when some people were grieving on account of 
the recent floods, he, Suyya, remarked that he had intellect, 
but not mouey, and he could therefore give uo redress. This 
speech was reported to the king by his spies, and the king 
wondered and caused him to be brought before him. The 
king aBked him as A what he had said. He fearlessly repeat- 
ed that he had intellect but no money. The courtiers pro- 
nounced him to be mad 5 but the king, in order to try his 
intellect, placed all his wealth at the* disposal of this man. 
Suyya took out many vessels tilled with dinnaras, but went 
by boat to Madava. There in the village named Naudaka, which 
was under water, he threw a pot of diuuaras, and returned. 
Although the courtiers pronounced him to be undoubtedly 
mad, the king heard of his work, and enquired as to what 
be did afterwards. At Yakshadara in Kramarajya he beigan 
to throw dinnaras by handfuls into the water. The Vitasta was 
there obstructed by rocks which had fallen into its bed from 
both its rooky banks ; and the villagers who were suffering 
from scareity, began to searoh for the dinnaraa* and in so 
doing removed the rocks whioh were in the bed of the river, 
and cleared the passage of the water. No sooner had the 
water flowed out than Suyya raised a stone embankment 
along the Vitasta, which was completed within seveii days. 
He then cleared the bed of the river, and then broke down 
the embankments. The passage was now quite open, and 
the river flowed easily and rapidly towards the sea, as if 
anxiously and eagerly, after this long detention ; and conse- 
quently the land agaiu appeared above the waters. He then 
cut new canals from the Vitasta wherever he thought that the 
course of the itiver had been obstructed. Thus many streams 
issued out of one main rivet, even like the several heads of 
a serpent from one trunk. Sindhu Which flowed from Tri- 
grama to the left, and Vitasta on the right, were made to 
meet one another at Vaiuyasvami. And even to this day the 


junction made by Suyya, near this town, existB ; as also the 
8wo gods Vishnusviimi and Vftiuyasvami at Phalapura and 
Parihas'ipura situated on either side of the junction ; and 
the god Hrishikesha -whom Suyya worshipped, just at the 
jui&tion. And to this day may also be seen the trees which 
grew on the banks of the river as it flowed before, distingu- 
ished by marks of ropes by which boats were tied to them. 
Thus Suyya diverted the course of rivers. He raised a stoue 
embankment seven yojanas in length ; and thereby brought 
the waters of the Mnhapailma lake under control. He joined 
the waters of the lake Mahnpadma with those of the Vitasta, 
and built many pgpulous villages after having rescued the 
land from the waters. • * He examined several places and 
irrigated many villages (the produce of wHich did not depend 
on rain) by means of artificial canals cut from the Chanula 
and other rivers uutil the whole country became beautiful. 
Thus Snyya benefited *the country such as even Kashyapa 
and Valadeva had not done." 

Avautivarma died in 883, the first Vaishnava king that 
we read of. Vaishuavism and Saktaism are later phases of 
Hinduism than Shaivaism, and in the history of Kaahmira 
we scarcely hear anything of Vaishnaism till the present time. 
■ His successor Sankaravarma, was a great conqueror and 
■conquered Guzerat. Returning to his country, be listened to 
the advice of bis Kayastha financiers and imposed taxes on 
the people which made him unpopular with them, or at any 
rate, witb.*the offended Brafrmana who narrate his history. 
He conquered many hill places on the banks of the Indus 
and was at last killed by the arrow of a hunter. Surendra- 
vati and two other queens perished with him on the pyre, 
902 A. D. • 

. In the short reign of his successor Gopalavnrma, the 
minister Prabhakara (who was a favorite of the queen mother 
Sugaudha), defeated "the reigning Shahi" because he had 
disobeyed his orders to build a town in "Shahirajya." This 
seems to have been some petty dependent or tri butary king, 
and we shall hereafter read more of the " Shahirajya." 

Gopolavarma's brother, Suckata, dying ten <*ays after the 
former, their mother Sugaudha *a dissolute woman, reigned 
for two years by the Help nf the Ekangas. The Tantri in- 
fantry, however, raised Parthn to the throne ; a civil war 
ensued, the Ekangas were beaten and the queen Sugandha 
killed,' 906 A. D. The Tautris, being now supreme, set up one 


king after another, according as they were bribed and court- 
ed, until Chakravarma with <he help of the Damaras auc>. 
Ekaugas at last broke their power in 935 A. D., and for the 
third time ascended the throne. Within two years he was 
assassinated by some Damaras and was succeeded by Partha's 
son, Unmattavanti. This young man killed his 'father, "but 
died soon after, and his successor Suravarma was the last of 
this unfortunate dynasty which ended in 939 A. D. 

Yasaskara, the first king of the new dyDasty, was the son 
of Prabhakara, who had been minister of Gopalavarma of ''the 
preceding dynasty, and was famed for his justice ; but in the 
very year of his death Purbagupta murdered his son, San- 
garma, and founded a new dynasty. His son, Kshemagupta, 
inherited the rices* and dissolute habits of his father and 
reigned eight years. His son Abhimanya, was the only 
virtuous and worthy king of -the line, and reigned fourteen 
years ; and on his death his mother, *Didd& (widow of Kshe- 
magupta), successively murdered three infant kings, (her 
grandsons), Nandigupta, Tribhubanagupta and Bhimagupta, 
and became queen iu 980 A. D. She reigned for 23 years, and 
in her reign her favorite, Tunga, defeated the king of Rajn- 

Didda's nephew, Kshamapati, ascended the' throrie in 
1003 A. D. and reigned till 1028 A. D. Tunga, who had been 
the favorite of Didda, was all powerful during the reign of 
ber nephew, and went out with a Kashmirian army and 
Rajput and other subsidiary forces to help the .Shahi king 
against the attack of the Turashkas. We shall quote Kftlha- 
ua's account of the event from Mr. Jogesh Chunder's transla- 

" The Kashmirians crossed the river Toushi, and destroy- 
ed the detaohmant of soldiers sent by Hammira to recon- 
notire. But though the Kashmirians were eager for the fight, 
the wise Shahi repeatedly advised them to take shelter 
behind the rock, but Tungga disregarded the advice, for all 
advice is vain when one is doomed to destruction. The 
general of the TnVks was well versed in the tactics of war 
and brought otit his army qarly in the morning. „ On this the 
army of Tuugga immediately dispersed, but the troops of 
the Shahi fought for a while." 

The heroism of the Shahi king, however, was unavailing 
he was beaten, and his kingdom was destroyed for ever. 


Now who Iras this Hfmmira (a Mahomedan came 
apparently) and who were these powerful Turashkas who 
defeated the Kashmirians and the Hajputs and annexed the 
" Shahirajyo," an ally or dependent of Kasbrnira ? The dates 
show at once that Kalhana is speaking of the iuvasion of 
India by the invincible Mahmud of Ghuzui.* 

Tunga was soon after murdered, and Nandiimitba was 
sent with another army against the Turashkas, but they, too, 
fled back to their country before the conquering Moslems. 

Hariraja succeeded his father, Ksharaapati, aud reisned 
only for 22 days* after which his brother, Ananta I)eva, 
ascended the throne and reigned 35 yeari^ i. <•. from 1028 to 
1063 A. D. We read that in this reign one Brahmaraja 
combined with seven Mlechchha kings and entered Kashmira, 
but was beaten back bj Kudrapala, the powerful Kashmirian 
general. When we remember that, from the time of Alahmud 
of Ghuzui, a part of the Punjab always remained under 
Mjhommedan rule, we are at no loss to guess who these 
seven Mlechchhas were. 

After a long reign of 35 years Ananta was prevailed upon 
by his queen to resign in' favour of his son Karia.litya ; but 
the' prince was unworthy of their confidence, and shocked 
his parents aud all men by his excesses of wickedness, folly 
and dissipation. Disheartened at this condnct of their son, 
the aged parents retired to Bijayeswara and passed their days 
in devotic*, but even there they vteve not uAlowoft to enjoy 
repose. Harassed by the enmity of this ungrateful son, 
Ananta at last committed suicide, aud his widow ascended 
the funeral pyre. 

The ingratitude of Ran'aditya towards his father was 
punished by the misconduct of his son, Karslut, who rose in 
rebellion. Banaditya «diod in 1089 A. I>., a victim to his 
dissolute habits; his son Utkarsha succeeded him, but was 
soon deposed by his abler and more popular brother, Harsh*, 
and committed ouicide. Bijayutnnlln, _ who had helped his 
brother Haraha to the throne, now thirStud for the kingdom 
himself, but the fraternal war £nally oaino 18 uu cud by the 
accidental death of Wjaymalla. 

* Hamiaira was therefore cither (lEunnrnl of Mnliimul, or wns great 
conqueror Mms-elf, " wfcll voiced" ludcort "in tlio tswttefl »\[ \ri\Y*'l "The 
letters r and rf nre IntcrriimiKcrililo ; unci if wo cllinliiiito the flint syllable of 
SAahammud, we get the Swiscritizod nriuio lliumnira 



Harsha's powerful general, IJandarpa, subdued the king of 
Rajapuri, bub at last retired from the court in disgust at the. 
growing jealousy of the king. Harsha subsequently attempt- 
ed to subdue Rajapuri and Dai-ad respectively but failed in 
both bis attempts. His excessive taxation and his,, oppression 
over the Damaras made them rise in rebellion ; and they 
had powerful chiefs in two brothers Uchchala and Sussala. 
Uchchala defeated the Lord of Maudala, but was subsequent- 
ly beaten by the royal-army. 

His brother Sussala defeated the royal commander Manikya, 
broke through all opposition and defeated the Lord of Man- 
date, but was at last beaten by Bhoja, the son of king Harsha. 
At last Uchchala defeated Harsha and his son Bhoja in a 
signal battle, burnt^he capital and became king. The unfor- 
tunate Harsha retired to the tent of a hermit, but was there 
traced out and killed, 1101 A. D. 

We have only one more remark to make of Harsha's reign. 
Allusions to Turashkas and their . kingdom become mors 
frequent now than ever before. Thus we are told that Harsha 
had a hnndred Turashka chiefs under his pay ; that, after 
besieging Bajapuri, he fled back to bis kingdom through fear 
of the Turashka who, he heard, were approaching ; and, 
lastly, that his oppressed subjects left their homes aud Went 
to the country of the Mlechchhas. Who are these Turashkas 
and what was their country of which we find such frequent 
mention during the reign of Harsha ? The dates of Harsha's 
reign shew at once that there was good reason for such 
frequent allusion to the rising Turashka power, for it was 
during Harsha's reign that Sbahabuddin Mahommed Uhori 
conquered Delhi, Kanouj, and the whole of northern India, 
and Hindu independence was lost once and for ever. Here 
appropriately ends Mr. Jogesh Chunder's translation. 

VI. * 

Thus we have traced the history of Kashmira from the 
earliest times to the date of the final conquest of India by the 
Mahoiuedans. We "have refrained from making any remarks 
on the value 'of Kalhaua's great work, because the above 
brief resume of it is the best- commentary on its 'great value. 
We have seen how every great social of religious revolution, 
and every great historical event which' transpired in India, 
have left their impress on the history of this secluded pro- 
vince. The history of this province has borne its testimony 


towards fixing the date of theip-eat Kuru war ; it has helped 
Us to understand how Buddhism was a protest against casta 
distinctions, and a Khatrya assertion of the equality of all 
men ; it has revealed to us how Buddhism was for a time 
the accepted/aith of the kings and peoples of India, and how, 
after the commencement of the Christian era, it began to 
decline under the renewed exertions of Brahmans to assert 
their supremacy and revive their old religion. In the history 
of Kashmira we find evidences of the dates of the two great 
dramatic poets of India, vie., Kalidasa and Bhababhuti ; iu 
it we find allusions to the first Mahomedan invasion of India 
under the renowned Mahommed Kasim ; in it we read of 
. that " General of the Turashkas'' " well versed in the tactica 
of war," the inviuoible Mahmud of Ghuzift, before whom the 
Kashmirian army twice recoiled in dismay and disorder ; 
and, lastly, in this history we read of the rising power and 
kingdom of the Turashkif at the end of the eleventh century, 
when Delhi and Kanouj and all Northern India fell under 
the power of the followers of the prophet. 

Such are some of the facts wo learn from Kalhana's 
history of Kashmira, and, considering the poverty of histori- 
cal records in India, the value of this record oan scarcely be 
overestimated. It is a matter of regret and surprise, there- 
fore, that Kalhana's 'work had hitherto not beeu translated 
into English. The only aecouut in English we had of it is 
the brief essay of H. H. Wilson in the XVth volume of the 
" Asiatic Researches," in which he gives a short resume* of 
the Sanskrit work. That resumg, however, is mixed up with 
facts' gleaned from Mahomedan historians, and is besides 
incomplete. Kalhana's Sanskrit work comes down to 1148 
A. D., and is continued by a series of writers to the date of 
the conquest of Kashmira by Akbar in the sixteenth century. 
Mr. Wilson's brief resiime comes down oulj to the reign of 
Didda Hani, ending in 1003 A. D. 

Such being the case, we hail with delight Mr. Jogesh 
Chunder Dutt's attempt — the first that has beeu hitherto 
made — to give a faithful and complete translation of the 
great Sanskrit work. He has already brought down the 
story to 1101%.. D. as we have seert ,- and intends to give us 
the remaining 47 years of Kalhana's history ( which short 
period, being in the writer's own time, has been narrated 
at great length) in a second volume. The third and last 
volume of the translator will include the continuation 

by the other ■writers, and will thus brine down the story 
to the date of the conquest ofKashmira By Akbar. SucL 
is the intention of the translator, and, though he 
distinctly states in his prefaoa that he can hold out no 
promise, we sincerely hope he may succeed in carrying. out 
his intention, and thereby make an important contribution 
towards the study of Indian history and antiquities. 


Table op Contents. 


King Kshamapati; — Attempt to destroy Tunga;-— 
Death of Chandrakara and of the sons of Punyakara ; — ' 
Rise of Tonga ; — Marriage of princess Lothika ; — Attempt 
to destroy Tunga and the king; — Rebellion at Pari- 
hasapura ; — Secret attempt to assassinate Tunga ; — Death 
of the king's Bon-in-law and others*; — Maladministra- 
tion by Tunga ; — Death of Tunga's brother ; — Tunga's 
expedition to help the Shahl ; — Fall of the Shahi ; — At- 
tempt to kill Tunga ;— Murder of Tunga, his son and 
others ; — Minor events following the death of Tunga ; — 
Ki»e of Partha; — Chandramukha. — Buildings erected in 
this reign ; — Bad character of the queen ; — Death of king 
Kshamapati ; — King Hariraja ; — Good work of the 
new king ; — His death ; — Attempt of the queen-mother 
to ascend the throne; — Coronation of Anantadeva; — 
Invasion of Yigrahar&ja; — His death; — Vices of king 
Anantadeva, and oppression of the people ; — Marriage of 
Rudrapalrf and of the king ; — Invasion of Tribfiuvana ; — 
His defeat ; — Invasion of the lord of Dvara with the 
Mlechchha kings ; — His defeat and death ; — Death of Eu- 
drapala and the sons of Skahi ; — Queen Subhata ; — Her 
good work; — Desertion of the old nalace; — King's 
grooms ; — Jester Ballaka ; — Administration of the 
queen ; — Balabhanja ; — Minister Keshava ; — Rise of 
Haladhara ; — His good work ; — Fall of Vimba ; — Dis- 
position of Sala, king of Champa ; — King's peril at 
VallSpura, and at Urasha; — Death of Rajeshvara; — 
Haladhara'ft imprisonment and release ; — Weakness of 
the king ; — His abdication ; — Coronation of Kalasha ; — 
Humiliation of Ananta ; — Reascention of Ananta to the 
throne ; — Inheritance of a kingdom ; — Defeat in the 

influence in the court ; — Arrangement of the 
ministry ; — Execution of Ngnaka and hjs half brother, 
and mutilation of his wife ; — Bestowal of minor 
posts ; — Dhammata ; — Disaffection of VijayamaUa ; — His 
prowess ;— His flight to Darat ; — Wintering at Darat ; — 
His sally from Darat ; — His death ; — Introduction 
of elegant customs &c, into the country ; — Harsha's 
liberality to the learned <fcc. ; — Rihlana ; — Embellishment 
of the capital; — King's routine; — Currency; — Minor 
affairs ;— Plunder of the monastery erected by the king's 
father ; — Attempt of Bhuvanaraja to possess Lohara ; — 
War with Rajapurl; — Imbecility Dandanayaka; — Victory 
tof Kandarpa ; — Sallying of the Rajapurlans ; — Their 
defeat ; — Arrival of Dandanayaka ; — Return of Kan- 
darpa to Kashmira ; — Kandarpa removed to Lohara ; — 
Ill-will of the king against Kandarpa ; — Retirement of 
Kandarpa to Benares; — His acts in the east; — Cons- 
piracy against the king; — Its failure;— Deaths of 
Jayaraja ; — Death of Vamana ; — Death of Dhammata ; — 
King's protection of Rihlana and ■Sahlana ; — Rebellion 
of Tulla and others ; — Their death ; — Murder of the 
two sons of Utkarsha; — Hl-advisers of the king; — 
Appropriation of the wealth of god Bhlma ; — Ransoms 
Of other gods ; — Desecration of images ; — The king's 
favourites'; — Chandala; — Stupidities of the 1 * king; — 
Attempts to' murder the king; — His vices;— Expedition 
against Rajapurl ; — Disgraoeful retreat ; — King's desire to 
bring back Kandarpa ;— Imprisonment and, release of 
Dandanayaka ;— -Expedition against Darat ; — Disgrace- 
ful retreat ; — v alor and reputation of Uchchala and 
Sussala; — Death of Madana and his sons; — Murder of 
Kalasharaja. Pestilence, famine and other calamities ; — 
Massacre of the Damaras ; — Attempt to murd«r 
Uchchala ajid Sussala ; — Their escape ; — Uchchala at 
Rajapurl ; — Uchchala among the Khashas j-*-Opposition 
met by Uchchala ; — March of "'Uchchala towards 
Kashmlra;— Uchchala enters Lohara; — He arrives at 


Parnotsa ; — Capture of the lord of Dvara ; — Joined 
by the Damaijis and the, Khashas ; — Imbecility of 
the royal army ; — Uchchala's further progress; — 
Rebellion of the Damaras ; — Battle of Taramulaka ; — 
Rebellion at Maiava ; — Victories of Ananda ; — Victory 
of "Uchchala; — Capture of the lord of Mandola; — His 
■wile ; — Uchchala's retreat from Parihasapura ; — Prepara- 
tions of Uchchala ; — Sussula ; — His victories at Shura- 
pura ; — Uchchala at Lohara ; — King's army at Lohara ; — 
Arrival of the enemies at Padmapura; — Their defeat 
by Chandraraja ; — Death of the maternal uncle of the 
rebel brothers ; — Bistress of the royal army at Lohara ; — 
Death of the lord of Mandala ; — Coronation of Uch- 
chala ; — King's council ; — His imbecility ; — Disaffec- 
tion of the king's people; — Death of Valdamangala; — 
Death of Malla and sdme of his household ; — Sussala's 
victory ; — Patta and Darshanapala ; — Sussala's intention 
to become king; — Prince Bhoja; — Pittha and his son 
Malla ; — Victory of prince Bhoja ; — Disaffection of 
Naga; — Disastrous battle on the bridge; — The conflag- 
ration;— Flight of prince Bhoja ;— Plunder and burning 
of the palace; — Pusillanimity of the king ;— Search after 
the prince ; — Dandanayaka ; — Desertion by the army ; — 
King at Akshapatla ; — King completely deserted ; — 
Wavering J conduct of the king ;— Setting in of the 
rains ; — King's retreat within the forests of Pitrivana ; — 
King's shelter in a hermit's cottage ; — Fall of prince 
Bhoja and Padma; — Conduct of the hermit; — News 
of prince's death ; — Second night at tho hermit's cot- 
tage ; — King betrayad ; — Last struggle *of the king ; — 
Death of Prayaga; — Fall of king Harsha; — Astronomi- 
cal time of his birth; — King's head sent to Uchchala; — 
Cremation of tho king's head. ; — Cremation of the king's 
body ; — Concluding reflections. 


Table op Contents. 


King Uchchala; — His brother's advice to kill the 
pamaras ;— Unfriendly spiisit of the king's brother 
and of the ministers ; — Kiug's brother made governor of 
Lohara; — Flight of Kanaka and his suicide at Benares ; — 
Bhikshachara son of Bhoja; — Intention of Janakachandra 
to make Bhikshaohara king ; — King's intention to 
give the governorship of Dvara to janakachandra; — 
Displeasure of BhTmSdeva ;— Fight between the adherents 
of Janakachandra and Bhlmadeva; — King in danger at this 
scuffle ; — Janakachandra wounded ; — Death of Janaka- 
chandra ;— Gagga and Sadda, tw« brothers of Janaka- 
chandra wounded; — Flight of Bhlmadeva ; — Gagsa sent 
to Lohara to be healed;— King's subjection of Kramo- 
ra J7 a > — King's advance to Madava ; — Destruction of 
Ilarajn; — King's character; — Kiug's rebuilding some 
towns and other architectural works ; — Queen Jaya- 
mati ; — King's persecution of the Kayasthas ; — Depo- 
sition and imprisonment of Sahela; — Distress of the 
Kayasthas ; — Ascendency of Shivaratha, the Kayastha ; — 
Punishment of Loshtadhara and others of Kar&ejapa ; — 
King's judgment; — His oppression of the people;— 
Flight and death of Damshaka, lord of Kampana ; — Depo- 
sition of Eakkaka, lord of Dva^raj — Disturbance at Dvara 
quailed ; — King's displeasure on Tilaka ; — Bhogasena 
made governor ftf Rajosthaua ; — SajJ.da, Chchhadda and 
Byaddasa son of Sadda, raised to the ministry ; — Tilaka 
and Janaka enrolled as ministers ; — Rapid succession of 
the lords of Dvara ; — Sussala's plan of usurpation ; — 
Sussala orossed the Yarahavartta ; — Battle between the 
brothers ; — Silssala's defeai and flight ; — His *return ; — 
Gaggachandra went out to meet him ; — Battle with 
Sussala ;— Sussala's defeat; — King's pursuit of his brother 



towards Kratnpj-ajya ; — Snsyita entered Darat j—Tviug 
filled Loshhvksi of Selyapura and entered Solya- 
pura ; — King gave up the pursuit ; — Me£hamaftjart ; — 
Sussala entered Lohara ; — Rising of Bhoja ;— Rising 
of *Pitthaka ; — RSmala ; — Bhikahnehora ordered to 
be killed ; — His escape ; — His return from foreign 
countries ; — Anecdote about him ; — Birth of Jayn- 
simha; — Religious acts of the kiug and qneeu j— » 
King's difficulty at Kamvnloslivnvn, nmd his re- 
ported death ;— -Confusion in the oapital ; — Deposition 
of Chundda and* others and subjection, to further 
humiliations; — Their intention to kill the king:— 
King's hatred of Jayavnatl and his marriage with 
Vichchala ; — Affairs iu E-ajapurT ; — Marriage of the king's 
daughter with the king of Rajapurl ;— Dismissal of Bho- 
gaseua ; — Hie subsequent condnot ; — Sooret combination 
agtfinst the king ; — Plau to assnssiii.ita him ;— 
Murder of the king ;— His funeral ;— Ra&dft steps in 
to the throne ; — His death ; — Murder and dispersion of 
the rebels; — Lamentation of Garga and of the CituseuBj-— 
Conduct of Jaynmatl ; — Burning of Viohohalft ; — Qarga'8 
refusal to ascend the throne ; — His plan to sot 
up Uohchala's infant sou as kiug; — Sahlaua made 
king; — Garga's commnnioations with Sussala ;-iSussala's 
maroh towards Knshmlra ; — Bhogasona joins Sussaln ;— 
Garga's fight with Bhogasena; — Death of Bhognsena 
and of others; — Defeat »of Sussaln; — His flight to 
Viranaka, and thence to Lohara; — Murdor of Hita- 
hita ; — Honors bestowed on Garga by SaWmnn ;— King 
Sallmna's character ; — Employment of Ujahtmrya at 
Dvara; — Oppressions of Garga and his ascendouoy;— • 
Rumour about Garga's intention to massacro the king's 
dependants; — Attaok on Garga ; — rfis departure to 
Lohara ; — Peace with the king*, Garga and Sussaln ;— 
Oppressions by the* king ; — Battle betweon Garga and 
Lakkaka; — Sussala' s approach towards Kashmlra;— 
Marriage of Sussala and Lis son with the daughters 


of Garga; — Straggle for tag kingdom ^Victory ofSus- 
gala ; — Capture of Salhana and Lothana ;— Snssala became 
king ; — His character ;— Opposition of Garga ; Destruc- 
tion of the royal army by Garga; — Garga besieged at 
Ratnavarsha ; — His submission ;— Capture of Salhana and 
Lothana ; — Attempt to murder the king ; — Banishment 
of Sanjapala &e. ; — They join Sahasramangala ; — Assem- 
bled chiefs at Kurukshetra; — Their meeting with Bhik- 
shachara ; — Claim of Bhikshachara to the throne; — People 
collect round him; — Bhikshachara's marriage; — Prepa- 
rations to place him on the throne ; — Failure of the plan ;- 
Another marriage of Bhikshachara ; — Rebellion of 
Prasa ; — Sanjapala ; — Gouraka made a minister ; — His 
character ; — Minor affairs of the kingdom ; — Temples 
erected and repaired by the king ; — Conspiracy against 
Garga ; — Battle of Amareshvara ; — Skirmishes about the 
Chudavana hill ;— Garga's peace with the king"; — Coldcesa 
between the king and Garga; — Imprisonment of Garga and 
his family ;— Murder of Garga and of his sons ; — Affairs 
at Kalinjara; — Affairs at Rajapnfi ; — Deposition of Tilaka- 
simha and Gouraka ; — Murder of Gafijaka ; — Imprisonment 
of the several nobles and execution of Arjjunakoshta ; — 
Prithvlhara ; - Coldness of the king towards Tilaka ;— 
Rising of the Damaras ; — Rising at Lohara ;— Defeat of 
the king ; — Cruel acts of the king ; — Vijaya's defeat and 
death ; — Arrival of Mallakoshta and Bhikshachara ; — 
Victory of Prithvlhara over the royal army ; — Depar- 
ture of the king's family to Lohara ; — Battle of Hiranya- 
pura; — Battle on the Mahasarib; — Disorders in the 
capital ; — Defeat of the king's army ; — Movements of the 
lord of Kampana ; — Siege of the capital; — Battles around 
it ; — Situation of the king ; — Treachery of Prithvl- 
hara; — Crisis, in* climax ; — King's retreat eventually 
to Lohara ; — Affairs *iu the capital y— Bhiksku's 
entrance into it ; Plunder of tiie treasury ; — Bhi- 
kshu's marriage ; — New favourites and ministers ; — 
Weak character of the king ; — Jealousy between Prithvl- 


hara and Mallakoshta; — Insertion of Mallakoshtaj— 
Disaffection of other nobles ; — Keduotiou in the value of 
'old dlnn&ras ; — Expedition of Vimba against SuBsala ; — 
Aid of the Turushka soldiers ; — Intrigue with Vimba's 
wife" ; — Myitio rites performed by the Brahmanas j — 
Movements of the king ;— -Battle of Painotsa ; — Battle of 
Vitol&;-<-BattIe of Sadashiva ; — Entrance of Sussala into 
the oapital ; — Flight of Bhikshu j— Fall of Vimba; — Move* 
ments of Prithvlhara and Bhikshu ; — Their victory at 
Vijjayakshetra j — Burning of Chakradara ;— Oppressions by 
Bhikshu j — New lords of Kampana aud Dvara ; — Battle on 
the Ksbiptika ; — Shrlvaka ; — Defeat of tie king at Mani- 
musha j^-Mares Kadamvarl and Pataka; — Abilities 
of Bhikshu ; — His speech ; - Fall of snow ; — Defeat of 
Bhikshu j — Subjection * of Madavarajya \ — Oppressions 
of the king and changes iu the ministry; — Bhikshu's 
march towards the capital; — Skirmishes in and about 
the capital ; — Disaster on the bridge over the Sindhu \ — > 
Death of Mills, the female warrior ; — Defeat of the 
king ; — Renewal of war ; — Partisans of Bhikshu and 
of the king j — Attack on the oapital ; — Bhikshu besieged 
at Gopadri ; — Arrival of additional forces on both 
sides ; — Obstinate and prolonged fights ; — Battle on the 
Kshiptik&J— Burning of the capital; — Kiug'b maroh 
to Lohara; — Victories of the king at Shuvamasauu, 
Surapura &c ; — Defeat of Shrlvaka by Prithvihara j— 
Death of Garga's wife ; — Rising at Madava ; — King's 
flight from Vijayakshetra ; — King's distrust of 
his countrymen j — Character of Prajji ;— Siege of the 
capital ; — Death of Tashoraja ; — Battles on the Kshipfcikg 
and about the capital ; — Earthquakes and storms j— 
Burning of the capital ; — Attaok on the king;-i- 
Famine; — Fights about the capital ;— Dea,th of queen 
Meghamanjnn; — Arrival of the prince; — His corona- 
tion j— King's distrust of the prince ; — Utpala j — King's 
plan to assassinate Tikka ; — Utpala's treachery towards 
the king ; — Battles near Kalyanapura ; — Defeat of Bhik* 

shachara; — Dispersion of f^e enemies j, — Desertion of 
tlcholiala's followers ; — Murder of the king ; — Lament of 
Simhadeva ; — Ascension of Simhadeva to the throne ;— 
Panic in the capital ; — Re-collecting the army ; — Bttik- 
shu's intention to enter the capital ; — Proposal to occapy 
Padmapura ; — Defeat of Bhikshu before the capital ;— 
Movements of Sujji; — Sujji pursued by the Damaras. 
Attack of the Damaras on Shrlvaka. Sujji's escape 
to the capital ; — Death of Luanda ; — King's generals 
besieged by the Damaras ; — Distress among the king's 
followers ;— Dhanya's arrival ; — Burning of the four 
queens ; — SussaWs head brought to Bhikshu ;— 
Bhikshu's speech ; — Last rites performed to the body of 
the late king at one place and to the head' in another ; — 
Bhasa besieged in the temple of Avautipura ; — Ohauge of 
governors of the different provinces; — Influence of 
the Pratlhara ; — Intrigue of the Damaras with Soma- 
pala;— Battle on the Gambhlra; — Dispersion of the 
enemies ; — Battle of Damodara ;— Disaffection in 
Bhikshu's camp j — Retirement of Bhikshu ; — Restoration 
of peace in the kingdom ; — Panegyrics on the king ; — 
Rivalry of the Pratlhara and Janakasimha ; — Murder of 
Utpala; — Submission of Sura, lord of Dranga;— 
Imprisonment of Janakasimha ; — Battle of ShamalS ; — 
Burning of Hadi ; — Reappearance of Bhikshaohara ;— 
Minor events about the time of Bhikshu's reappearance ; — 
The Pratihara's machinations against Sujji ; — King's 
illness ; — King's suspicion on Sujji j— -Sujji's deposition ;— 
His departure on pilgrimage to »the Gauges with the 
bones of the late king ; — King's favor on Koshteshvara ;— 
Sujji's league with Somapala aginst Kashmira; — 
League broken up by the Pratlhara ; — Sujji's pilgrimage 
to the Gangers ;— JeyshthapSla's advice to Sujji to joiu 
Bhikshu; — Bhikshu's march towards Kashmira ;— Dis- 
affection of the Damaras toward? the king ;— Sujji's 
return to Jalandhara from the Ganges ; — Abandonment of 
his idea to join Bhikshu ;— Bhikshu besieged at Kotta ;.— 



Bhikshu's last s^rugg 16 j — Hjp death ; — Death of Kuma- 
fiya and Raktika; — King's musings over the head of 
Bhikshu; — His orders to perform the funeral rites to 
the remains of Bhikshachara ; — News of fresh rebellion ; — 
Coronation 'of Lothana at Lohara; — Further aocounts of 
the rebellion at Kotta; — Expedition against Kotta; — Last 
rites paid to Bhikshu's head] — Rilhana's expedition 
against Kotta ; — War in Lohara ; — Treacherous designs 
of Somapala ; — Cause of Sujji's discontentment ; — His 
subsequent movements ; — Flight of Lakshmaka ; — 
Pursuit ; — Capture of Lakshmaka and of Lalla ; — Return 
of Somapala to Kajapuri ; — Loss of tentthousand men ia 
the army ; — Death of Lothana's son and wife ; — Ransom 
of Lakshmaka ; — Sujji appointed minister of Lothana ; — 
Lothana's marriages ; — Sujji's plan to enter Kashmira ; — 
Jayasimha's movements to defeat Sujji's plan; — Jayasim- 
ha's proposal to raise Mallarjjuna to the throne 'of 
Lohara; — Release of Mallarjjuna from prison and 
his coronation at Kotta ; — Mallarjjuna's opposition 
to Jayasimha; — Inglorious conduct of Mallarjjuna;— 
Expedition against Mallarjjuna; — Peace with Mallarj- 
juna;— Marriages of Mallarjjuna; — Sujji brought over 
to the side of Jayasimha; — Kampana bestowed on 
him with honors and favors ; — Flight df Kosh- 
teshvara ; — Battle at Vapyaulla; — Peace between Mallarj- 
juna and Lothana ; — Koshteshvara's attack on Kash- 
mlra ; — His defeat ; — Death* of the Pratibara ; — Death of 
Udayana ; — Battle on the Parnoshnl; — Difficulties around 
Mallarjjuna; — Death* of Majika and of Diddakara;— 
Sujji's expedition against Koshtaka; — Deposition of 
Mallarjjuna ; — Successful expedition of Udaya ; — Cons- 
piracy against Sujji ; — Intrigues in the court ; — Move- 
ments of Sanjapala ; — Murder of a Brah'mana by Sujji ;— 
Movements* of Rilhana; — Quarrels among the nobles ; — 
King's determination to kill Sujji; — Murder of Sujji; — 
Further disturbances and murders: — Rewards to the 
king's favourites j — Hostilities of Lothana ; — Koghtaka's- 


attempt to attack the capita^; — Battle between Koshtakn 
and the king's forces ; — Defeat of Chitraratha; — Victory o{ 
the Lavanya chief; — Exile of Koshtaka ;— Affairs at 
Rajapurl ; — Return of Koshtaka and the formation of a 
faction against the king ; — Oppressions of Chifraratha"; — 
Speech of the hard ; — Attack on Chitraratha ; — 
Skirmishes about Tarudurga ; — SubmissioE offered by 
Koshteshvora ; — Capture of Mallarjjuua ; — Murder of 
Koshtaka ; — Flight of Chitraratha and confiscation of his 
property; — Murder of Vijaya; — Shringara and Jauaka, 
two servants of Chitraratha; — Bestowal of Dvara on 
Udaya ; — Death • of Chitraratha ; — Prosperity of 
Shringara ; — Gifts of the king ;— Officials of the king ; — 
Shringara and Jauaka ; — Character of the king ; — Execu- 
tion of Shivaratha ; — Character %i the king ; — Public 
works executed by the king ; — Charaoter and works 
of Rilhana ; — Works and death of Susaala ; — Works 
of DhaDya and Udaya and of others ; — Works and death 
of queen RatnadevX ; — Works of the king ; — Public cala- 
mities ; — Death of Chhudda ; — Vikramaraja <feo. ; — Guh- 
lana raised to the sovereignty of Vallapura ; — Rewards to 
honorable men ; — Affairs in Darat ; — Death of Shringara 
and others; — Vicious practice among the officials ; — Affairs 
in Darat* — Rebellion of Alankarachakra ; — Defeat of 
Lothana; — Flight of Udaya j — Public opinion on the plan 
of subduing Madava; — Conduct of the lord of Dvara 
and of Dhanya ; — Movements of the lord of Dvara ; — 
Works raised by Dhanya; — War in Darat ; — Siege of a fort 
not named ; — -"Delivery of Lothana to the king and the 
surrender of the fort ; — Reception of the victorious army 
and of Lothana by the king ; — Salhana ; — Return to the 
capital ; — Bhoja and Alankarachakra ; — Rajavadana ; — ■ 
Flight, of Bhoja to Darat; — Bhoja's reception in Darat; — ■ 
Rajavadana and his son;-*-Nagti; — Rising of ?rillaka and 
Jayaraja ; — Death of Jayargja ; — Influence of the Brah- 
man&s ; — Skirmishes ; — Victory of Rilhana ; — Movements 
of armies on both sides ; — Plunder of Bhuteshvara ; — 


Disorders in yie kingdom*; — Help from the Mabome- 
*daus ; — Accession of strength on the side of Bhoja ; — 
Movements of Bhoja's armies ; — Son of Garga ;— • 
Victory of Bhoja ; — Approach of the rainy reason; — 
Various movements of the armies ; — Lotkaka ; — His de- 
feat; Contest between Bil liana and Trillnka; —Minor 
battles ; — Defeat of the army of Darat ; — Intention of 
concluding peace between the parties ; — Naga aud Raja- 
vadana; — Movements of Bhoja ;— Flight of the Vala- 
bara; — Discomfiture of Bhoja; — Desire of the people of 
Darat to establish peace with the king ; — Valor of the 
Valahara ; — Movements of the enemies ; — Death of Vid- 
dasimha ; — Suppression of the rebellion; — Outbreak of a 
fresh rebellion ; — Rising of Alankara ; — Defeat of Alan- 
kara ; — King's pursuif of Bhoja ; — Rise of the pamar- 
as; — Quarrel between Bhoja and Alahkarnchukra ; — 
Death of the lord of Dvara ; — Hostile attitude of Tril- 
laka; — Dhanya at Tavamulaka; — King's desire to oou- 
clude peace with Bhoja; — Mismanagement of the king's 
affairs; — Proposal to exchange Naga with Bhoja ; — Mur- 
der of Naga and the rise of the Damavas ; — King's at- 
tempt to win over Bhoja ;— Bhoja's attempt to make 
peace with the king; — Negotiations between the king and 
Bhoja ; — Movement of Trillaka ;— Rise of the Damaras ;— 
The Valahara's speech ; — Preparations for tho "destruction 
of the king's army; — Obstructiveuess of Bhoja; — Charac- 
ter of the flatterers of kings ; — DangerouB situation of 
the royalists; — Conduct of Bhoja; — Position of the 
ministers; — Escape of Bhoja to the royalist camp;.— 
Bhoja's reception in the capital and at the palaoe; — 
Bhoja's residence with the king ; — Battle of Mai-tanda;— 
Plight of the Lavanya; — Gulhana made king of Lo- 
hara; — Movements of Rajavadaua ;— DoaJ;h of Jaya- 
chandra and of Lothana, aud tile subjugatiou of others ; — 
Edifices erected by klug Simharaja ; — Gayapala made lord 
of Kampana ; — Death of Dhanya ; — His character, and 
the reforms he introduced ; — King's conduct towards 


Dhanya; — Religious edifices ^erected by $e courtiers Ac; 
—Temples at Sureshvari ; — Sons and daughters of the 
ting ', — King and the queen j — Images &c, set up by 
the queen; — Influence of the queen over the king;— 
Marriage of the princess Menila ; — Ghafcotkacha and 
Panchavata; — Eemarks on Sirahad eva's reign; — Names 
of the kings of Kashmlra ; — Concluding reflections. 


. List of ffie§$ ®f Kmhmim^JSmh Tilt, 

Uchohflla .. 

RoAda aftas Sanikljpr5ja 



Sussala (second time). 
Simbadeva .. 









XXXVI. 87 


XXXVI. 87 

XXXVI. 88 
XXXVI. 96 

XXXVI. 97 




30 f&w, 

4 WiHttiiS 

imdl day- 

Ow» prs* 
bnra at 
afgtifc *wi 
ra of day. 

3 mcmtfee 
and 27 

and 12 


15 yraasi, 
uvcl M 

112;] StiUmfa 
: .».it({iifl*iii^i ' 


Vol. II. 


[Invocation as ustfXl.] 

Fob sometime the favors and frowns of the new king 
lay hid in him as the nectar and the poison lay hid in 
the sea before it was churned. His brother and the 
Da-maras excited him, even as contrary winds excite the 
clouds. His brother in his pride of youth did whatever 
he liked, and his wicked acts were painful to the affec- 
tionate king. Constantly riding an elephant with drawn 
aword, he, like the sun, drank dry the juice of the fruitful 
earth. One day he advised the king to destroy by fire 
all the Diimaras who had assembled together, but the 
kind king did not listen to him. 

< This time the king was in a great dilemma. His 
ministers and petty chieftains acted like highwaymen, his 
brother wished a civil war in the kingdom, and his tresl!; 
sury was empty. He honored his brother by bestowing 
on him the government of Lohara, and sent him to that!' 
province. His brother took with him olephants, arms, 
infantry, cavalry, treasures and ministers, and the king, 


fear fled to the north of the bathing place, and Bhima- 
deva with his arms ran after him in order to kill him. ' 
Bat the accountant of the house saw the affair from 
behind a pillar and cut Janakachandra by •■the swokI 
into two in the middle. On his death, his two younger 
'brothers, Gagga and Sadd, ran to the spot and they too 
were wounded by the sword by the same man who still 
remained unseen. A fierce man, who kills a great enemy, 
like the thunderbolt that smites a tree,"does not remain 
long. Thus on the*2nd of Bhadra of the same year and 
neither more nor less than three fortnights after the 
death of Harsha, Janakachandra Vas killed. He too 
wasted away in brooding over his sin of murdering his 
master who did him good. The king, though inwardly 
pleased, feigned anger and grief, and hence Bhunadcva 
fled. Gagga, however, trusted the king and was sent 
by him to Lohara to have his wounds healed, but tho r 
Damaras took flight, left their country and fled. 

Thus order was slowly restored in the country which 
Uchchala had got by artifice and had cleared of oppres- 
sors. The king who thus obtained peace, felt a desire 
for conquest, and within a few days drove out the 
Damaras and their cavalry from'' Kramarajya. The 
king then went to Madva and having captured Kaliya and 
other Damaras who were against him, impaled them. 
The king with g, strong army attacked within the city, the 
powerful Ilaraja who had gradually possessed himself of 
a part of the kingdom, and destroyed him. 


The king loved Gagga as his own son, probably because 
"the king knew the heart of this man or probably it was 
owing to friendship which existed between them in their 
foraaer birtfa. He was never angry with Gagga even when 
Gagga did wrong. The king loved his subjects but could 
not brook oven the name of an enemy. He remembered 
the two good advices which wise Bhimadcva had given 
him when he commenced to reign. Following the first 
advice, he used to* set out in the morning and would 
wander through the streets to learn the views of the. 
people. According to the other, ho would march even 
at midnight when he heard of an enemy and put down a 
revolt. He was patient and wise, and his character was 
not polluted by bad deeds. The sin of describing the 
acts of bad kings will be cleansed in describing the good 
deeds of this king which were like the waters of the 
Gaugos. As the rising sun dispels the darkness which 
prevents seeing with perfect clearness, so he, yet immature, 
suppressed those who gave evil advice. Through lus 
judges he caused a search to be made for men who com- 
mitted religious suicide by starvation. When he heard 
the cry of the helpless and the oppressed, he never failed 
to punish the oppressor, even though that oppressor 
happened to be his own self. When a cry arose on account 
of the delinquency of an officer, it was,soon assuaged by 
the cries of Jbho delinquent's frignds. The lfing was eager 
to favor the weak,* and while he lived, the powerful 
dwelt but under the sway of the weak. 


The king, as he wandered atyne on horseback, heard the 
people talk of his faults in his hearing but not knowing' 
who he was ; whatever these faults were he soon cor- 
rected them. No one who came to him to ask went away 
totally disappointed. Even in his private council he could 
not desert his servants. He did good to his subjects, his 
words were sweet, and he was obliging to and beloved of 
his people. His servants who served him diligently could 

see. him three or four times in the night. He was charitable 

and rewarded men after short service. When he heard the 

voice of sorrow of his neighbours, he would leave all other 

work to assuage their grief, even as a father docs to his 

\son. Just at the commencement of a famine, when his 

/Servants drawing small pay were beginning to sell their 

Store of gold, he checked the famine. The kind-hearted 

king prevented thefts in the kingdom and raised the 

people addicted to stealing, to the post of treasurei and 

gave them a decent calling. He knew the circumstances of 

all his subjects through his spies, and his mind was ever 

busy in trying to find out who deserved riches, and who 

required protection. He had no desire for wealth and 

had many other qualities besides those mentioned before. 

For the maintenance of peace, he punished those who 

were worthy of punishment, but through fear of sin, ho 

did not confiscate their wealth but caused it to be spent 

on good works. When he 5 gave alms he woulA Hardly stop 

without giving a thousand fold of w'hat he had at first 

intended ; and as the beggars were then heard to say, 


"give me, give me," so he was also hoard to say, "give- 
him, give him." He always spent a part of his time 
in giving large gifts, nor were his servants seen to sharo 
half of the gifts. In mournful ceremonies or in festivities, 
he would not make gifts like a painted branch of a trco 
that yields no fruit. But at festivals like the Shivar&tri 
&c, ho used to shower riches on his people, oven as Indra 
does the rain at the conjunction of the planets. Even 
king Harsha did"*not do as much as this king did, in bes- 
towing betels * in great festivities. He inherited the king- 
dom with nothing but bricks in the treasury t bit bis 
gifts were so large, that the god of gold could not emu- 
late him. He spent his wealth in building and pulling 
down houses, in buying horses, and though ho was a 
Kashmlrian, his treasures were- neither robbed by the 
thieves nor did he bury them underground. . As the soul 
knows all events by yoga and by the means of the five 

of strength, knew the work of men. To the Brdhman&s 
were assigned meals befitting kings, to the sick, medicines, 
and to those who had no subsistence to live upon, pay 
was allowed by the king. On the occasions for the 
performance of rites for his dead ancestors, at the time 
of eclipses, and at the ascendency of evil stars, the king 
gave thousands of cows and horses and gold &c. to tho 

• Sign of favor. t »• t. Empty treasury. 


Ho re-built Nandikshotra which liad been burnt by a I 
destructive fire, and made it more beautiful than it was' ' 
before. The king who was bent on repairing the dolapi- 
datcd buildings repaired Shxichakradhara, Yogesha and 
Svayamblui. He set up anew at Parihiisapura, the god 
Shriparihasakeshava which king Harsha had taken away. 
He was devoid of cupidity and adorned Tribhuvan:u>vfuui 
with the Shukiivali, described before, which had also been 
taken out by king Harsha. He also renewed the m^t 
beautiful throne ^ln his kingdom, the same that was 
brought by Jayiipila but had been burnt by fire during 
the revolution which led to Harsha/s dethronement. 

Jayamati, though of humble condition before, was now 
raised by the love of her husband to the high post of 
queen, a place which she did not abuse. Though of low 
birth, she became lady-like by her virtues of kindness, 
sweetness, charity and love for the good. Even the -most 
lovely women, if they obtain the king's affection, behave 
like demons towards the subjocts. King Uchchala how- 
ever who loved his subjects and was devoid of avarice had 
for his wealth this one virtue, which stood above his 
other virtues, that he protected his people from the royal 
underlings who were murderous, sinful and who robbed 

Following the wjse teaching of history, the king dis- 
carded the Rayasthas. Ho used to say, thjit besides 
spasmodic cholera, cholic, and the disease Avhich ends in 
sudden death, the Kayustha officers are the sources of 

KINGS OF ldSHMfni. 9 

speedy destruction of the subjects. "Crabs kill their 
fathers, small bees their mothers, but the ungrateful 
Kayasthas, when they become rich, kill all. The Kayasthas 
like evil spirits, kill the good man who give them instruc- 
tion. As the land on which a poisonous tree grows is ren- 
dered unapproachable, even so the person under whom 
a Kayastha lives and prospers is rendered unapproach- 
able to others." The wicked Kayasthas were put down 
by the king at evefy step by insults, dismissals and impri- 
sonments j the wise king removed evei? Sahcla from his 
post several times, and clothed him in torn thread cloth 
in prison. Sometimes da a diversion he clothed them with 
good dresses or made them ran through the files of his 
servants like Dombha warriors. Who did not laugh at 
one of them, tall in person, his beard dressed, a turban 
on his head, a spear in his hand, and his thighs and knees 
bare. ,Or at another bound naked to a cart, his head half 
shaved, and his braid of hairs marked with Chinese cake 
(red lead). Spoiled of their honor, they wSrc known 
by such names as "Shaved head," &c. Some of 
them were seen wandering, removed from their posts^ 
weak for want of proper food, insufficiently dressed and 
begging for every thiiig. Some old men among them be- 
gan to receive instruction like boys, in the houses of learn- 
ed Brahmanas, vainly thinking that learning could bo easily 
obtained. Others again begged for food, ohanted pane- 
gyrics and their children chanted after them, which made 
the people laugh. Some conciliated others by londing 


them their motherSj sisters, daughteis^tnd thereby got 
some work. Some had recourse to astrologers to know 
their future, and the astrologers were grieved at their pros- 
pects. Some were seen emaciated* their faces* as dried* up 
as those of ghosts s their hair and beards not oiled and 
bound in chains which clanged at their feet. It was when 
they were thus reduced and their pride humbled by the 
king that he came to know the real state of the kingdom. 
They took to chanting the MahabharatS, or hymns to the 
sun <fcc. and witE tears in then* eyes recited songs to 
Durgii Thus in his reign the ever wicked Kayasthas 
were seen to be sinking in great distress at every step. 
They were unable to win the favor of this king, as they 
had done of other sovereigns, by presents of large wealth 
and articles of food. By these wise means the king made 
powerless these oppressors of the people who had pros- 
pered before. One learned man named Shivaratha *ecited 
the following line on a Shivaratri night. " As the place 
of Mahadeva which was burnt was restored to its former 
grandeur at your command, so let Panchanani after 
having placed Uchchaladeva in the beatitude of eman- 
cipation, guard, his royal town, and the Kayasthas 
and the ministers with their dependants and relations." 
This man was at once made Chief Superintendent 
General. Though this man knew not the duties of 
his post, yet* by the purity and nobility oj his heart, 
he conducted the affairs as well, as in Satya-yuga. 
The king visited the Kayasthas with speedy punishments, 

KINGS 0? KislIllinA, 11 

and wise men approved these acts. The administra- 
tion code did not forbid the punishment even of thosd. 
Kayasthas who were possessed of small wealth. For 
.a Ibpg tim'e the Kaj-asthas suffered and submitted 
even to capital punishment. But the just king never 
oppressed the sons or wives or kindreds or friends of 
those people; he punished only those who deserved 

■ He checked this wickedness of Loshtadhara and 
Others who inhabited Kamejapa by ' subjecting then) 
to painful work, As a child, when it is born, forgets 
the desire it had when it was in the womb, so one, when 
he becomes king, forgets the plaqs etc., ho had before he 
came to the throne. Before he came to the throne, 
Uchchala remembered what existed and what did not, 
but he remembered them during his reign as much as 
pne remembers the events of a former birth. Those 
whom he had pursued before as guilty were considered 
by him not guilty, and he shewed his address "in doing 
what was due towards them. It is not likely that the 
paramour of a bad woman will remember how badly 
she treated her former husband or that the employer of a 
bad servant will remember the servant's enmity towards 
his former master. 

The wise king's administrative faculty became gradually 
developed, Once he thus settled a dispute between a 
merchant and the plaintiff, which the judges had foiled to 
fathom. A rich man, whose business went wrong, deposited 


one lakh of Dfnara -with one oS his friends,*, merchant; and, 
out of this he spent something little by little. After 
twenty or thirty years had gone, he asked for the remain- 
der of his deposit. But the -wicked merchant, intending 
, to appropriate the deposited money, gained time under 
various pretences. The water of the sea agitated by 
currents is obtained from the clouds, but a thing deposited 
•with a merchant is never got back again. The trader, 
who is ready to quarrel in order to appropriate money 
deposited with him, differs from the tiger only in having 
a face smoothed with oil, in his power of speech and his 
humble mien. The cunning of a merchant which is 
displayed little by little never abandons him till his 
death. He smiles the smile of friendship even in dispute. 
Prostitutes, Kayasthas and big merchants are naturally 
deceitful, as if they imbibe poison from the instruction 
of their teachers. The merchant is but a savage - , only 
marked with lines of santlel paste, wearing white cloth 
and perfumed with incense, and he who trusts him is not 
free from danger. A merchant who daubs his forehead, 
eyes, body, the two ears and chest with sandel paste is 
like a six spotted scorpion that kills one in an instant. 
A merchant painted white and dark, like fire and smoke, 
is like gourd fruit which sucks away flesh and blood 
having the mouth, like a needle but a large * stomach. 
The merchants false plea$ were exhausted, Jie became 

* This alludes to the process of cupping which used to be per- 
formed t>y a needle and a dried rind of gourd fruit, 


angry irid his bjpws became ,ruggcd, and he shewed the 
accounts' to the relentless plaintiff. "When you wrote," 
said he, " ' Be it for my good,' * it turned to your evil.' 1 
" Here, you ! wise, took six pieces to cross the river, 
when the bridge on it was broken. When your shoes were , 
torn, you gave one hundred pieces to a cobbler to repair 
it. When you had a boil in your leg, your female servant 
took fifty pieces worth of ghee. When the vessel broke and 
the potter's wife wept, you out of pity gave her Dinnaras 
several times ; see this entry of three hundred pieces. 
You bought fish and jnice to the value of one hundred 
pieces and out of affection, gave them to children for 
feeding a cat. With seven pieces you bought ghee and 
powdered sali rice for application to your feet, and you 
bought ghee for seven hundred pieces at the time of 
Shr&ddhapaksha bath. The ginger and honey which your 
boy took cost one hundred pieces, but the boy cannot 
testify to it as he had not then learnt to speak.. A per- 
fidious and strong man appeared before you and begged 
as a mendicant ; to refuse was to fight with him, you 
therefore gave him three hundred pieces. When the 
great men came, besyle other expenses, *three hundred 
pieces were spent in perfumed light, shanddmula and 
onions." The merchant left out the other expenses, 
and added up these unreasonable items* and calculated 
the interest mi them. He counted the years, months &c. 
on his fingers but did'not come to au end. Adding up 

• The usual form to commence a document. 


the capital and interest, he opened, his lips and 
ilosed his eyes and mildly said. — " Let the amount of 
leposit and interest be now calculated ; and the sum 
lue which was given in confidence will be restored 
without fraud." The creditor, taking the words of 
the merchant to be correct, was for a short time 
satisfied, but he afterwards repented and found that 
the merchant's words were like a razor steeped in honey. 
But in lawsuits he could not overcome the merchant 
whose wickedness made him base ; nor could the judges 
who judged convict him. The judges could not 
settle the matter and the case was brought before the 
king. The king judged the case and thus said to the 
merchant : — " If there be any sum left of the deposited 
Dinnaras, bring it to me and I will then decide as will 
appear just." When the Dinnaras were brought, ho 
saw them and thus said to the ministers : — " Do kings 
coin mongy in tho name of the kings to be ? How is it 
that the DlnnSras deposited in the reign of king Kalasha 
came to bear my name 1 Tho one lakh pieces deposited 
with the morchant have been gradually spent by him in 
buying merchandize. Give back to^the plaintiff the gains 
derived from the merchandize which was bought with 
his money from the time from which it was used. Let 
the morchant pi*y the whole interest on one lakh pieces 
from the day after the dale on which the mcaiey was de- 
posited." Thus the king acted with strict justice, and 
sometimes, like king Yashaskara, dispensed justice with 


severity. ' In a s^it if there Ae any doubt, it is wise to 
forgive, but men Who do wrong should be punished. In 
lawsuit which it was difficult to master, and presented 
many points for discussion, the king acted with much 
deliberation. Thus the king's impartial administration^ 
became famous. The king was liko Manu and was atten- 
tive to his subjects. 

Friendship does not exist without a cause, nor supremacy 
without pride, nor chastity in a woman without some cen- 
Bure of neighbours, nor learning without wealth, nor youth 
without impulsiveness^ nor maladministration without a 
speedy close of the roign. Even such a king as Uchchalti 
began to harass his subjects. Being proud of his noble- 
ness, heroism, intellect and patience, ho robbed innumerable 
men of their honor and life. He too was insulted in 
return bythose honorable men to whom he used harsh words. 
Men's energy, like that of sleeping serpents, is not known 
till they are angry. There is none among the many living 
beings whoso body or lineage or character is not open to 
some blame. Even Brahma is not faultless, as he is born of 
lotus which rises out of mud, his color is brown, his 
head was once cut off„and his fame is poHuted by impure 
acts. Where then can a perfectly faultless person be 
found 1 Without paying consideration to this, the king 
began to publish personal or family fauits of his servants. 
He found out faults in innumerable warriors and had thorn 
killed by making them fight with one another. For halt' 
a month, during the festivity in honor of Indra, he induced 


the assembled warriors to fight by bestowing riohea on 
them, and caused their death in mutual strife. There 
was no festivity in that time in which the yard of the 
palace was not drenched with blood, and the voice of 
lamentation did not arise. The warriors on these festive 
occasions set out from their houses dancing, but they were 
brought back by their friends with their bodies cut up. 
The king was glad and not sorry to see the well-dressed 
warriors with their black and oily hair and beautiful 
beards lying dead. The ladies would count those days happy 
in which their husbands would return from the palace, but 
remained distrustful till their return. No one could oppose 
the king. He made some persons accept the post of minis- 
ters, and proudly declared that whatever he ordered must 
be obeyed. The wicked king dispossessed learned men of 
their estates and several times insulted them. Damshaka, 
lord of Kampana, incurred the king's anger because 'he was 
wajoying prosperity ; he fled to "Vishalaya and was kitted 
by the Khashas. The king had raised Rakkaka, lord of 
Dvara, to prosperity ; biit on seeing the great riches ho 
enjoyed, Uo deposed him again. Manikya, a leader in the 
king's army, quelled a tumult at Djara and was allowed 
by the king a subsistence at Vijayakshetra. The excellent 
Tilaka and others who were employed at Kampana in- 
curred the king'sj anger and were not therefore created 
ministers. The king was pleased with the* services of 
Bhogasena and though he was without follower or a house, 
the king made him the governor of the Rajasthana 

kings op kAshmIra. 17 

(palace). He had seen Bhogasena's valor in the battle 
en the day of Illdradvadashi when Gaggachandra, though 
he had a large army under him, fled from the engage- 
ment. The king raised Sadda, Chehhadda and Byaddasa, 
sons of Sadda, a common soldier, to the post of ministers. 
Tilaka and Janaka sons of Vijayasimha, who had been ' 
reduced to misery for deserting the king's service were 
now enrolled as ministers. And who can count how many 
Yama, Ela, Abhay^ Vana &c, were made lords of Dvara 
and other places, and whose prosperity lasted but for short 
periods. Prashastakalasha and two or three other old 
men then appeared like worn trees by the side of 
new saplings. Kandarpa, although he was invited by 
the king's messengers and was offered a post, refused to 
accept it, as he saw the intolerent character of the king. 
The etiquette of the court of Kashmira assumed a new 
aspect in the reign of this new king. The possession of 
wealth and subjection to fascinating women of ill fame 
cause even sensible men to walk in evil ways. * 

Royalty is like Pratata, a thorny creeper ; it destroys 
family affection and becomes harmful to kinsmen. 
Sussala, though possessed of wealth of all kinds, planned 
the usurpation of the •kingdom and meditated an attack 
on his brother. The king heard all of a sudden that hi» 
brother had crossed Varahavartta and had fallen on him 
with the speed of a hawk. The active king issued out for 
battle before his opponent could gain a firm footing, and 
'ell on him with his large army and did him much harm. 


The younger brother fled towards his quarters, leaving his 
baggage behind. The king ' returned W$th success but 
heard that his brother had returned on the following day, 
bent on mischief. By his orders Gaggachandra marched out 
with a large army to crush the force of Sussala. The 
s battle raged for a long time and innumerable hardy 
soldiers of Sussala departed to heaven, and assuaged 
the fatigue of the women in the garden of that place. 
In this battle Sahadeva and Yudhishthira, two Eajputs, 
paid with their Jives the debt of favor they owed to 
their master. Gagga captured the fleeing horsemen 
of the enemy who rode on beautiful horses which excited 
the curiosity even of the king who had many horses. 
The king marched with his army, quickly pursued his 
brother towards Kramarajya by the way of Selyapura 
road. Thus pursued by his elder brother, Sussala with 
his handful followers entered the country of Darad. The 
king killed Loshtaka, the Damara inhabitant of Selya- 
pura, because he gave passage to Sussala, and entered 
the city [Selyapura]. When Sussala had gone far away, 
the king though polluted with sins, did not try to possess 
the hills of Lohara out of love for his brother. Sussala 
was married to the pure Meghamaiijari, daughter of Vija- 
yapala. She had lost her father and had been affection- 
ately brought up by her mother's father Kahla, king of 
Kalindara, pjb his own child. Such was the power of Sus- 
sala that though it was then winter yet fiis enemies at 
Lohara could not oppose him. This patient prince after 


issuing out of difficult roads and traversing mountains of 
difficult passage^ reached his own territory. It took him 
many months to go over thin way. 

This danger over, king Uohchala had other minor 
difficulties which arose and passed away. Bhlmaacva set 
up Bhoja, son of the lato king Kalasha, and brought ■> 
Jagaddala, king of Darad, to help them. Sahlu, a son of 
Harsha and Saujapala, brother of Darshanapala, were in 
the party. The king of Darad came out to attack Uch- 
chala but the wise king induced him, by friendly words 
to return to his own country. Sahla privately followed 
the king of Darad. Bhoja retired to his country, but 
his servant having accepted a bribe betrayed his master, 
and Bhoja soon received from the king the punishment 
befitting a robber. 

Even Pitthaka, son of Deveshvara, aspired to take pos- 
session of a part of the kingdom aud revolted with the 
I>amaras during tne absence of the king. Vulgar saeu 
become objects of laughter when like thoughtkss brutes 
they are incited by others to run about, and act without 
any judgment of their own. 

Then came one versed in intrigue ; his trade was that 
of an assistant cook, and he said that he *mw the sou of 
Malla and his name was Raniala, and that he had been 
travelling in foreign countries. Many foolish kings who 
loved revolt assisted him with wealth and rank as ho 
passed through their countries. Ho entered Kfshmir.i 
alone, perspiring with heat. The king's servants know 


him and cut off his nose. And again men saw him 
following the profession of his caste, walking about as ho 
sold food to the king's soldiers, and they smiled. 

Vain are the efforts of the statesmen to rise by their 
own power, for they cannot do otherwise than what 
■■the gods will. The strength of men is aided or re- 
pressed by the will of gods, as fire is sometimes inflamed 
and sometimes extinguished when it is flaming, by wind. 
Man cannot avoid his fate by flight, as the bird cannot 
escape the fire burning on his tail. Men who are fated 
to enjoy certain things cannot be killed either by 
wound or fire or poison or aims* or arrow or by being 
thrown into a hole or by magic. Bhikshaohara, on 
account of his amour towards Jayamati, was ordered 
to be killed. He was by the king's orders taken 
by the executioners at night to the place of execu- 
tion. There he was dashed on stone and thrown 
into the Vitasta. But kind fate landed him on a 
bank where the trees were waved by the wind. A 
certain Brahmana who had some money revived him 
to life; and thinking that isamati was a relative of 
Didda, the daughter of Sahi, he brought Bhikshaohara 
to Didda, and wily Didda, took him and sent him to 
another country and there in the south he lived pri- 
vately. When Naravarmma, king of Malava came to know 
who he was, hg instructed him in learning and in arms as 
his own son. Some say that Jayamati saved Bhikshaohara 
by destroying another boy like him, and of his age. When 


the king learnt, through his spies that Bhikshachara hod 
returned from foreign countries, his affection towards 
JayamatI began to abate. But the patient king without 
disclosing his designs concluded terms with the kings 
through whose territories Bhikshachara was to come to_, 
prevent his entrance into Kashmlra. Foolish people who 
do not hide their jealousy for women or their fear of their 
enemies are imposed upon by others. Some again say, 
that aftsr Bhikshachara had been killed, Didda brought a 
boy like him and caused him to be known by Bhiksha- 
chara's name. This report whether true or false was widely 
believed, and even gods did not suppress the belief. 
Such facts are more wonderful than what is dreamt in 
dreams or seen in magic or illusions. The king secretly 
planned to destroy this man. 

In order to destroy a poison-tree another poison-tree 
grows "up, and the star Agasta rises when the waters are 
muddled in the rainy season. The fur seeing Yidjiata takes 
steps to undo any evil that threatens the universe. At 
that time was born a son of Sussala who could raiBe the 
world from the misery into which it was sinking ; and the 
child was named Jayagimha by the king-* on account of 
the victories which he gained from the time of the boy's 
birth. His acts fully sustained the import of his 
name as Buddha's name of Sarvarthasiddha was sustained 
by his acts. • When the king saw that the* foot of the 
child was marked with the impression of saffron, he for- 
got his anger towards his brother. That sign in the 

22 kings of kIshmJEra. 

child's foot prevented the enmity betweeij, its father and 
uncle and established peace between the two countries. 

The king in the name of his deceased father raised a 
matha in the place where his father used to worship ; and 
in the great festival he gave in charity cows, lands, gold, 
clothes, food, and spent a large amount of money and 
was like a kalpa tree to all who asked for charity. The 
other kings were astonished at the presents which he 
gave to them. TJie queen Jayamati, in order to spend on 
some good parpose the money she had received from her 
husband when he was well pleaded with her, built a 
matha with Vihara. The king being somewhat short in 
virtues in his previous birth the matha which he built in 
the name of the child came to be called by the name of 
" New matha." The matha which he erected in the name 
of his sister Svala in another of his father's places of 
worship did not attain the celebrity it deserved: 

Once xhen the king was at Kramarajya he went to the 
mountainous village of Varhanachakra in order to see 
the fire that lights of itself. When he was passing by 
the road of the village of Kamvaleshvara some armed 
Chandala robBers who lived there, surrounded him. 
Though they were intent on striking, and though the 
king's soldiers were few, yet being struck with panic 
they could not lise their arms and so they did not strike. 
The king lost his way 1 and wandered abotit with a few 
followers, and spent a night in a deep cavern. Soon on 
the morning this bad news reached the camp. From 

KINGS OP kAsHMi'bA. 23 

camp the 1 news slpwly reached the capital. The Super- 
intendent of the city was Chhudda of the family of 
the hero Kamadeva and brother of Kadda. He quelled 
the disturbance in the city by arms, and then entered 
the palace with his brothers in order to determine what , 
to do. When deliberations were going on as to who 
should be made king, Sadda a wicked Kayastha wishing 
to benefit his own caste people thus addressed him : — 
" You with your many friends, kinsmen and servants are 
unconquerable, rule this kingdom without opposition." 
When thus addressed the wicked man wished to enjoy 
the kingdom and soon tried to get on the throne. 
Whoever was conscious of his descent from the lino 
of Shrlyashaskara felt a desire to rule the kingdom. 
It appears that the wish that was inherent in them 
was inflamed by the words of an evil frieud. They were 
not inclined to follow the right path, or why should they 
think of Sadda's evil counsel ? The low Sadda wqp born of 
the family of Lavata, the porter. TCshomadeva's son who 
held a small appointment behaved harshly like a very 
desperate and brave man. He stole a golden vase from 
the palace, and though ho was suspected yotf, being a grave 
man, he was not discovered. He kept a small sword, 
was without a turban, laughed at all and prided himself, 
and like a prince despised the world. 51c always moved 
his fingers, Mid his notions of Government were cruel. 
By the words of this man and by their own evil desire, 
Chhudda and others aspired to the kingdom, but their dc- 


From that time the desire of being kjng was neither 
rooted out from their minds, nor was asleep, nor did 
it find an outlet. The king whose regard for them 
became unsettled gradually removed them from Govern- 
> ment offices, and reduced them to an humble state. 
The king who was naturally rude in his speech now told 
them heart-piercing words. In the reign of king Harsho, 
they lived in the house of their young widow-mother 
after their father^ death. Their neighbour an youthful 
friend and soldier named Madyasattaka was suspected 
with having formed an intrigue with their mother, and 
they killed him. But the king judged that they had 
not punished their unchaste mother and cut off her 
nose, and published this news behind their back ; and 
enquired after them as sons of the " Nose-cut." The king 
who was like death towards the Kayasthas had made 
Sadda the treasurer of the great treasury &c., and pre- 
■veuted him from doing mischief Bat oppressed by 
Sad&a's harshness his own accountant told the king that 
Sad da used to defalcate money from the treasury. The 
kino; in anger took away from him his post of Pravesha- 
hhagika and hc'tigain drove Radda and Chhudda to adopt 
their former plan. 

Intont on killing the king, they sought for an oppor- 
tunity and joined the wicked minded Harosaratha, &c. 
They had stolen much wealth, they intended' to kill the 
king, but fcmnd no opportunity for four or five years. 
With many men and in many ways and for a long time 
did they plan, but their counsels were not discovered 

kings of KisrainA. 25 

through the men. They roported to one another 
that the king hart used hard words, and thus thoy 
^worked themselves to enmity against tho king. With 
the intention of killing the king they followed him with- 
out intermission ; secretly covoring their breast, sides, 
back with, iron mail. 

The king, who could not bear to be separated from 
Jayamati, and like a common man did every thing in his 
power to please her, had now for two years withdrawn 
his affection from her. Such change of character por- 
tends approaching deathj Some say, that this was owing 
to the protection which the queen gave to Bhiksliacharo, 
others say, that love, like lightning, is fleeting. Tho king 
married Vichchala, daughter of the king of Varfoila, and 
she became his favourite. 

At this time king Sangramapala died and his son 
Somapalii inherited his father's kingdom. Tho elder 
w2w shwild baiwgvt *i\? tbivse H'.as isnpnisaocri «ly •jvavw 
conspirators who coronated this prince. This enraged 
the king of Kashimra against HujapurT. Nevertheless 
he married his daughter who was like the pieturo of tho 
meek goddess of fortune, to tho great kingflof Eajapun] 
who was boloved of all his people and was tho chief 
of kings. This was tho last festival given by this rich 
and subject-loving king [of Kubhmlva.] • When his son- 
in-law ha,d gone, he favored th6 Tantris bxit being on 
some account angry with them, he drove away those 
who had intended to rebel against him. At this time 
also- ' he was angry with Bhoguscna and dismissed Jiftty 


from the post lie held at Dvara and thus made him his 
enemy. Bhogasena was a very powerful man j he had 
subjugated all the Damaras. He now marched towards 
Lohara with a view to overcome Sussala. The king's 
enmity towards Bhogasena was tempered with love, ho 
opposed his march and then blamed him for his con- 
duct at wbioh Bhogasena was angry. 
,- The hero Bhogasena who was formerly the king's 
friend, when thus insidtcd, brought again Kulda, Kadda 
and others to .on appointed place from which the king 
did not drive them back. Thus they who were insulted, 
dismissed from their posts and were evil-minded now met 
together. The wily Sadda disapproved the confidence 
which the rebels reposed on Bhogasena, because Bhoga- 
sena was a hero and a simple-hearted man. Sadda 
advised that the king should bo killed that very day 
as otherwise the bimple : nnuded Bhogasena would betray 
them. §adda was not wrong in what he said of Bhoga- 
sena, for the latter had intended to betray and would 
have told the king of the existence of a treason, but 
the king insulted him by proposing to bestow on him the 
Southern Dv&ro, and thus made him adhere to the party 
of the rebels, When a man's end approaches, he is dis- 
pleased even with those who instruct him, ju^t as ono 
is displeased with those who awake him from hid sleep 
jn winter even when it is day, 

Fhe Tantria whp were sentinels now retired to their 
jjosts,- and the rebels joined their own soldiers in the 
jpqpitaL They gave signal to the Chajidulas saying '.' kill 


,;mm wnom we s&all strike in the night" and led them 
into an open building. When*they were there, the king 
had token his meal, and the rebels frightened civ, ay the 
king's servants telling them that the king was very 
angry. The king urged by love was going to the house 
of Vijjala and his way was lighted by a lamp. When 
he, attended by a few followers, had reached a house in 
the midway, Sadda surrounded the house behind him, 
and there killed sonic men. Others stopped all the doors 
in the front and surrounded the king with a view to 
kill him. One of the j?arty, through pride, advanced 
towards the king and pulled him by the hair. The king 
"was a powerful man and pierced him with his weapon. 
Then the daggers fell on his golden nicin as serpents 
fall on the peak of Sumeru. The king then cried out 
" treason," " treason," and by the help of his small weapon 
undid tEe hold which they had on his hair, and with 
his teeth unloosed the stick from tlieiij hands. 
Sujanakara, the servant, who was bearing the king's dag- 
ger fled on being struck by the enemies. The king 
therefore snatched a' light knife worthy of a boy and 
planted the little weapon between tho knees of his op- 
ponent, and with its help came out with difficulty from 
his grasp. He retired to a little distance and bound his 
loosened hair. The king did not lose* his spirit and 
showed Buch»valor that his foes, Struck at vital parts, fell 
on the ground. The king pierced Had da who had struck 
him from behind, and yelling like a lion he turned round 
and pierced Vyaida. The king brought down another 

$8 kings of eIshmira. 

soldier who was clad in armour, and^he died within a 
short time and after suffering some agony. Availing him- 
self of this opportunity he ran towards the house in order 
to gain admission into it, but the gate-keeper did" not 
know him as the king, and closed the door. He then 
made for another door when Chchliulila opposed him 
saying ,f where do you go V and struck him with his 
'sword, The king then saw Bhogasena standing at the 
end of the door with his bock turned rthd scratching the 
wall with a piece of wood. The king addressed him and 
said, " I have forgiven Bhogasena why are you then hero." 
He replied, abashed to the fleeing king something in- 
distinctly. Bayyavatta, the torch-bearer, who was with- 
out weapon, went into the fight with his iron lamp and 
fell wounded by the rebels. Somapala, a Bajpoot, son of 
Champa, was wounded and fell covered with the blows 
he received. His behaviour was not censurable Majjaka, 
a Rajpoot, son of Shurapala, fled hiding his weapon, like 
a dog hiding his tail. The king ran towards a wooden 
fence intending to scale it, but the Chaiidalas cut him in 
the knee and he fell on the ground. One Shxingara, a 
Kayastha, who was not a rebel, threw himself over the 
king's body, was severely beaten and was prevented from 
, protecting the king. 

The king intended to rise again, but all his enemies 
struck. him u with their weapons, and his garland of blue 
lotus was torn away by kali.* The low Sadda cut 

* A sort of weapon. 

AAJMtTO UX J\Ai3jAJU.4iuat 

him in his neok suspeoting that the king was yet alive 
though he seemjd dead. " I am he whom you dismissed 
from.his post," he said, as he cut the king's Augers 
and snatched the jewel rings. The long-armed king 
was seen sleeping on the ground, his shoo in 0220 
foot, his garland fallen from his head and his face covered. 
The king's cruelty towards men was atoned by his great 
valor in his last moments. Shuraja, a royal sei-vant, 
came out and cried aloud " treason," but he was killed 
by the angry Bhogasena. 

Thus the king perished by the kali on his way to 
the appartmcuts of his^ queen. Kings become restless 
with enjoyments in their kingdoms as black bees becorao 
restless with tho pollen of flowers in gardens. Alas I 
They are then struck by fate, as bees are felled by the 
wind, and disappear from the sight. Bavaria who 
conquered the three worlds was at last defeated by 
monkey's, and Duryyodhaiia who was superior to 
innumerable kings received a kick on his hcrid. Thus 
after enjoying great glory they were insulted like ordinary 
men. After musing on these things who can say that 
he is great 1 

The umbrella-bearers of the kinjj; brought tho naked 
body of their master, as of a helpless m.tii, to bo burnt. 
One took upon his shoulder, tho h<mds of tho king, 
another took up in his hands, his legs,*his neck broken, 
his hair hanging, his body besnieared with blood and 
wounded and uncovered like that of a helpless man. 


'They Won burnt him on an island in the great river 
Vitasta. No one saw him die, no one sattv him burnt, a? 
if he fled ob wings and disappeared. At the time of his 
death he had completed the age of forty-one. It was 
'in the year 87, in the month of Pausha, on the sixth day 
* vi the bright moon. 

Bftddd* clad in armour and holding the sword and bes- 
meared in blood stepped towards the throne as an evil spirit 
fetepfr on the stones of the burning ground. When he 
ascended the thf one, his powerful and warlike friends 
and servants prepared themselves for battle. His friends 
Ba$ta, Patta the Tantris foughtafdr a longtime and fell 
at the principal gate of the palace ; the warriors Katta 
Suryya &c, also fell there. The ting Rodda with sword 
and shield killed many of his enemdeB in fight within 
the palace. At times his opponents despaired of victory; 
but Radda fell in battle after a long struggle and after 
iiHiag-ssasj'c^ Mj&vsa After the minder ef bis late 
master Utthchala, Gagga disclaimed wealth and punished 
J&adda, though dead, as befitted a rebel. 

Near Diddamatha Vyadda's face was submerged 
in a drain and he was killed by the oitizens who 
threw stones and asheB on him. In several places 
the rebels were dragged by ropes tied to their ankles 
ohd the citizens spat on them as they deserved. Sadda, 
arfcha and others fled, to suffer an agony worse 
Tho news of Radda's defeat ancf the death 
eh came on Bhogascna like a deluge. He 

KINGS or kAshmIra. si 

returned intending to oppose, but seeing the soldiers flee, 
Jle was struck ■•with fear and fled to sonic place, accom- 
panied with a few kindred men. Thus Gargaohandra by 
his^ own valor either killod or routed the principal men 
of the rebel party. No where in history have I heard 
of feats of courage like those of the valorous Garga. 
One prahara of night and one of day did the rebel Badda 
reign and he obtained the title of SluunkharSja. He 
got the punishment due to the wicked. The rebels proved 
that they were born of the line of Yapjiaskara for they 
reigned for a short time like Vamatadova. Hunters kill 
lions &c., by fire andtftrap ; they are themsolvcs killed 
by the sudden fall of fragments of s>tono. All go the 
same way, the way to death, so it is useless to distinguish 
the murderers from the murdered. Those who hear with 
pleasure the voice of women proclaiming their happiness 
at their marriage, listen not long after to their lamenta- 
tions and voices of waiL He who feels happy at having 
averted a danger finds othor sources of unhappiness not 
long after. Ignorance is blinding. The rebels thonght 
of violence in the evening, at night the thonght was 
matured into action, and on the next day it brought on 

When the work was finished, Garpt left the scene of 
action, his anger was appeased, and ho came near the 
throne and wept long for his master. *At this time the 
citizens had shaken off then- fear and found an opportu- 
nity to weep for their beloved king. The insincere- 


Jayamati wishing to excite pity and in the hope of still 
living after her husband's dc.ith gave weajth to" Garga and 
said, "0 brother tell me what I should do." Garga knew 
her intention and gave her assurance of safety. There 
is crookedness in the tresses of women, restlessness^ in 
» their eyes, hardness in their heaving breasts, and no 
one can fothoni their hearts. Women 'who live in vice, 
and who even kill their husbands easily enter the fire. 
No confidence can be placed in women. While she was 
riding in a conveyance, and loitering in'the way, Vichchla 
came out first, by that time and entered the funeral fire. 
As she was going up the pile, the ^people robbed her of 
her ornaments and thereby hurt her person. The people 
wept to see the late king's umbrella and chamara burn- 
ing and felt as if their eyes were being consumed. 

Though all asked Garga to ascend the throne, he did 
not do so, and thus he held his duty sacred. He in- 
tended to set up the infant son <rf Uchchala to the throne, 
and enquired after the boy. The people now wondered 
at the work of those whom they at first had thought unfit 
even to beg. Mallaraja had by queen Shveta three sons, 
Sahlana, &c, of whom the second had died before. 
Shamkharaja (Raida) had sought to kill the surviving 
Sahlana and Lothana and they fled in fear to the 
Navamatha. Learning that the rebels were dead, the 
shameless Tantri' , and cavalry officers consulted together 
and brought them back. Garga did not feee any one 
else fitted for the kingdom and he anointed Sahlana, 


tke elder of them. ! that within four praharas of 


day and night there were three kings. The wicked 
servants of the king who at evening served Uehchala, 
and Badda the next morning, came to Sahlana at noon. 

Sussala was at the gate of Lohara when he heard of 
the death of his brother, a day and a half after the 
event, and became excessively grieved. The messenger 
sent by Garga threw himself on the ground weeping 
and dispcllod all "doubts as to the truth of the occurrence. 
From this messenger Sussala did novhear of the acces- 
sion of Sahlana to the throne, but only learnt the news 
of his brother's death and received an invitation from 
Garga. Garga, when he left his house, did not think that 
he would be able to accomplish the difficult task of put- 
ting down the enemies so soon, and had sent a messenger 
to Sussala asking him to come. Sussala spent that night 
in weeping, and at dawn he set out towards Kashmira 
without collecting his army. Another messenger from 
Garga met him on the way, told him all that had hap- 
pened and asked him not to come. " The rebellion was 
soon put down and you were not near so your younger 
brother Sahlana has been made king. What is the use 
of your procecdiug 1 " When he heard this message from 
Garga he was unable to bear it, and through anger he said 
with a smile to his servants. — '' This vj not our ancestral 
kingdom that our younger brother would possess it. I 
and my elder got it by the strength of our arms, when 
we got the kingdom, no one made a gift of it to us ; and 
has the means by which we first got it, now disappeared ?" 


He said so and stopped and marched witli his men and^ 
sent many messengers to Garga. 

Sussala reached Kashtavata, and Gargachandra on 
behalf of Sahlana came out and arrived at Hushkapura. 
..When the night approached, men who came and went 
called Garga a rebel, though he spoke kind words to all. 
Though the king [Sussala] was very busy with his work, 
yet ho sent Iiitahita, son of his nurse, to Garga. 
Bhogascna devoid of his senses came at this moment 
to the king accompanied with the Khashakas inhabit- 
ants of Vilvavana. Ho sent Kajnabhuti, a horseman, 
to the king and assured him that he would over- 
come Garga. Without waiting for an opportunity, he 
searched for a fitting place to kill the rebellious brother 
and was considered a bad man by the people. Garga 
rebuked the king through his messengers and asked 
how he can accept the help of him who rebelled "against 
his brother. Bhogascna had retreated from tho road 
and halted, it being d ark. At tho end of the night 
Garga attacked him and killed him and his followers. 
Karnabhuti fell a hero gracing the battle with his fall ; 
his step-brother Tejahscna did likewise. By the king's 
[Sahlana's] order the latter was set up on a pale, and 
the like was also done to Marichi, son of Ashvapati, 
inhabitant of LaVarajya. On account of the opposition, 
the king inflicted punishments <fcc, but 1 " his army 
became too uneasy to remain in order. 

Safijapfda who had preceded king Sussala but, at even- 
ing, was left behind, collected many horsemen and joined 

KINGS OF xlsHMl'nA. 35 

the king. On their arrival Sussala's army received some 
opposition. Garga's general Suvashpa with a large num- 
ber of troops arrived. On seeing them the enemy 
bedame eager for fight, and the king, clad in armour, was, 
by his own men, with difficulty, sot up on a horse. Tho 
arrows from the enemies covered the sky like locusts and 
fell on all sides in continued showers. They attacked tho 
whole body of tho royal [Sussala's] army. The brave 
king whose men iay killed and wounded got out alone 
from amidst the enemies and fled hi haste. He fled 
riding his horse and crossed the roaring and headlong 
current of the Sindhu without going over the bridge, 
and got himself out of the range of the arrows. Saflja- 
pala and one or two nioro were able to follow him and 
dispersed those who opposed them at several places. 
Sussala's enemies gave up the pursiut as he, with twenty 
or thirty followers, entered Vlrfmaka, a town of the 
Khashas. Without raiment or food, attended with a few 
followers, he stopped there, and \i ithout fear attacked and 
chastised the Khashas. He fortunately returned to 
Lohara in time, passing through roads dirticult to traverse 
on account of fall of snow. He faced deith at every 
step but his period of life was not yet ended, and he 
lived and thought of the means of obtaining Kashmira. 

Garga became angry with poor Hifrhita and threw 
him into tjie Vitasta. after tying his harfds and feet. 
But Hitahita's servant threw himself into the water 
just before him, and though he descended down [into 
the water] he ascended [high in heaven.] 


Garga was particularly honored by kjng Sahlana on 
his return ; for it was he who gave Sahlana a kingdom 
and destroyed his enemies. The king was without a 
minister and without valor, and with an unsettled mind 
«he looked on the kingdom as on a wheel turning round 
him on all sides. He had no policy, no valor, no wiles, 
no simplicity, no charity, no avarice, nothing predomi- 
nated in him. During his reign even at noon the thieves 
would steal things from the people in the capital, what 
then must they have done to others living outside the 
town ! Even lame persons could violate the chastity of 
women, while the king, although a man, lost his senses 
through fear. The kingdom was shared in common by 
Sahlana and Lothana, one reigned on one day and the other 
the next day. The king understood not the nature of 
men and when he erred, he was laughed at by the men 
of state. He employed Ujahsurya, father-in-law of 
Lothaua, in Dvara where much valor and sternness were 
required ; but Ujahsurya was fit to be among hermits. 
He said that if he repeated his mantra a hundred 
thousand times there would remain no more cause of 
fear from Sussafa. 

The wicked king, through the orders of Garga, tied a 
piece of stone to his enemy Vimba, a Nllashva Daniara 
and threw him into the Vitasta. Garga had killed the 
enemies of the king and the king bestowed favors on 
him. He killed many Hitlaha Damaras by means of 
poisoned food. The king was disregarded and the life 


and death, of all, ^whether great or low, whether in the 
capital or without, were at the mercy of Garga. 

Onoe when Garga returned to the king from Lohara, 
the 'citizens in the metropolis became anxious and fright- 
, ened. There arose a rumour that the furious Garga had 
come to kill all the dependents of the king, on boats by 
fixing pales. Such a fearful rumour which can cause 
abortion in women kept all men in a fever of anxiety 
for two or three "flays. Tilakasimha and others, there- 
fore, without waiting for the king's Orders, attacked 
Garga's house. The whole country became excited and 
the people armed themselves Und ran to and fro ; and 
Gargachandra was alarmed. The shameless Dilhabhattara, 
Lokkaka and others were seen riding about in the road 
leading to Garga's house. The king did not prevent 
them but on the contrary sent Lothana to encourage 
them as 'they were weak. Lothana with his soldiers 
blocked the road but could not surround Garga's houso 
nor could he burn it by fire. One Kaushava, a good 
archer and the head of a matha at Lotikamatha, greatly 
checked Lothana's soldiers by killing many of them 
with iron arrows. When the king's partisans had retired 
as they had come, Garga set out on horse-back at even- 
ing, with his followers and unopposed, he went to Lohara. 
On his way he captured Ujahsurya^ who was at 
Tripureshvara suffering from ill health. " But what is 
the use of arresting this hermit" he said, and he liberated 
him the next day. Sussala was overcome with anxiety 
but. Garga did not dispossess him of Lohara. 



From that place the citizens receive^ at times, rumours 
of Garga's approach and used to bolt their houses. The 
weak king was anxious to come to terms with Garga 
and for that purpose the great Sahela went to Lohara 
as a messenger. With difficulty Garga was made to 
promise to bestow his daughter on the king. Peace was 
then established with Sussala, but the proposed alliance 
although asked for was never made. 

When Garga went to Visharakfita iit Mandala, the king 
caused Sadda, Hamsaratha and Nonaratha to be brought 
to him by messengers. The wicked king tortured them 
by sparks of fire and points of needle and left them all 
but dead. The king determined to dishonor Alia, tho widow 
of Bhogasena, who was, after the death of her husband, 
leading a pure life and was living privately. Ho saw 
the weakness of all around and was only afraid of 
Dilhabhattara and poisoned lrim. This vicious 'sovereign 
was not born of the royal line nor was he powerful, since 
he removed persons into his secret manner. Dilhabhat- 
tara's sister Alia reproached the king for his effeminacy 
and proudly burnt herself. His reign though of short 
duration beemme intolerable owing to these fears, as a 
night becomes intolerable with bad lengthy dreams. 

Sussala understood the signs of the times, and though 
as yet there mjas peace, he had misgivings about Garga. 
He was ailxious to cotno to Kashmlra but he first sent 
Safijapala. The king had bestowed wealth and Dvara 
on Lakkaka who with difficulty reached Barahamula. 

KINGS of KAsmiiuA. 89 

Garga remembered that it was Lakkakn who hud attack- 
ed him in hia house, he came up to him from behind, 
destroyed his army and plundered both the soldiers aud 
the placo BarahamOla. Lakkaka fled. Amoug the dead 
that lay on the ground and graced it like « garland of 
pearls were the leaders Ruppachuda aud others. Their 
character was good aud they woro bom in good families. 
On the approach of Safijap&la, Lakkuka's fear abated 
and, helpless as he^vas, ho was brought to Sussalu. 

Wheu Saujapala who was apjiroaehing KShhmlra to 
attack it was yet at a distance, the king was induced by 
the citizens and the Damaras to go and meet him. 
Sahclaka left Salhana promising to establish pcaco 
between him and Simula. The citizens went over to 
the good king Sussala and eagerly watched his rising 
power, as the kokila watches the rising cloud. Chhudda, 
wife of Garga, came with her two daughters to Sussala 
to many them. Kiug Sussala married Hfljnlrtk&htui, tho 
elder of the two, aud married her younger sister 
Gunalekhg, to his son. 

When Safijapala came and surrounded Ssdlmnn who 
was with his younger brother, king Sussala <camo from bis 
court and arrived at the Simha gate of the palace. One of 
the enemy's servants closed the door in Sussala's sight 
but failed to capturo him as he had ^intended. Tl(0 
enemy with Jus soldiers was slAit up within" the palace, 
but the army of Sussala feared an attack from Garga. 
They had no confidence in Garga though ho had married 


his daughter to Sussala ; and they remaned therefore in 
constant fear, being alarmed even at the motion of a 
grass. As the day expired, the army thus stood panic- 
struck, but Sussala, out of pity for them, burnt down the 
strong position occupied by the enemy. Sanjapala entered 
the palace by moonlight through the straight gate facing 
the "village, and opened the gate and fought with the 
soldiers who were in, the court-yard. Tilaka apprehended 
that Safijapala's death was inevetable amidst the enemy's 
soldiers within the palace and therefore followed him. 
Eeshava also who was brought Jrom Darad by Sanja- 
pala fought equally well with Sanjapala at the dreadful 
fight that took place at Kashtavata, Thus Tilaka and 
Keshava followed Sanjapala in the fight as Satyaki and 
Bhima followed Arjuna when the king of Sindhu was 
seeking for an encounter with him. Though beaten, they 
with difficulty opened the gate of the court-yard, when 
king Sussala himself entered. The two forces mingled 
with each other in the fight and many perished in the 
court-yard. Ajjaka, the minister of king Salha, perished 
in tho fight. Ho was born in the village of Patamjja. 
Budra, a EayaStha, who was made a treasurer, now fell in 
the battle and showed himself worthy of his master's favor. 
lu the cvoning the birds settle on trees and make a noise, 
but when a steno is thrown at them they fly away and 
no more sound is heard ; even so tho field of battle which 
was full of sounds before, now became silent as a picture. 
King SussftLu bhouted as he rode on his horse. When 


he was in the court-yard and had not yet seated himself 
«n the throne, tlfe voice of "Victory to Sussnia," tmd the 
sound of drums were heard. In the family of Mallarilja, 
the, honor that was lost by Salhana and Lothana was «un 
back again. Sussala embracod Sidhaua and Lothaiu 
who were on their horses, and clad m mail and addressed* 
them both calling them ns "boy" and "youth" and cun- 
ningly caused them to be disarmed. He then secured them 
and ordered thomjto be removed to another house. Thus 
ho got the kingdom and entered the court. Salhana was 
captured after a reign of four months! minus three days, 
on the third day of bright moon in the month of VaishBr 
kha of the year 88. 

When Sussala ascended the throne, the people forgot 
their sorrows within a short time .ind became glad as 
at the rising of the sun. Harassed by constant rebel- 
lion, Sussala kept his sword always unsheathed from 
the scabbard, as the liou. keens his. mouth apew. to 
wards his hunter. He extirpated the families of 
those who hod rebelled against his brother, and thus, 
this politic king did not leave a single enemy alive. 
Seeing the wickedness of men, he n-isuined an unapproach- 
able appearance, and never showed any leniency ; on the 
contrary he issued orders accordmg to the deeds of men. 
He was in reality a kind-hearted man. but in order to curb 
wicked men, he assumed the severe character , which was 
not his own. * No one understood the times as he did, 
or could check mischief like him, or was more energetic, 


or had more brilliant conceptions, or was more far-sighted 
than he was. His character was similar t#that of his elder,, 
brother, in some qualifications he was superior, in some, 
equal, and in some, he was inferior. His elder brother's 
anger was like the poison of a dog, but his was like 
■•the sting of the bee. He did not disregard the Veda, 
and he maintained his dignity by curbing the haughti- 
ness of his dependents. He did not wish for the death 
of the proud by duel but he settled their quarrels 
amicably. His Jirother used intolerably harsh words, 
but his words were affectionate and without abuse. He 
was avaricious of money and so collected a large fortune, 
and his charity was limited as he selected proper objects 
and proper occasions. He loved now constructions and 
horses, so. that artists and native horse-dealers were 
enriched; The king was eager for conquests and also 
loved peace, he gave riches in charity, and had nothing 
with which he could not part on occasions bf great 
danger or emergency. On Indradvadashl day, he gave 
away many clothes such as were not seen by any. As 
Uchchala was easily accessible and loved his servants so 
this king was inaccessible by his servants. None had 
a greater passion for horse, conveyances than Uchchala; 
and no one excelled Sussala in the administration of the 
kingdom. Uchchala relieved famines which occurred 
now and then But in the reign of king Sussala, famine 
never appeared even in dream. In short,"this king was 
superior to his elder brother in all qualities except in 

kings op KASiraftu. 43 

charity, in disregard for wealth, and in not being easily 
accessible to mexi 

Garga was Sahasraniangala's guardian and tried to 
make him king, but Suasala banished Sahasramangala. 
WhenGoyga-wasafc Bliadvavakasha, SahasramaiagaWt; son 
Prasa bribed the Damaras with much gold and conspired* 
with them. Garga did not give up Uchchala's infant 
son to Sussala when asked by him to do so, but 
showed his enmity on that occasion. An innumerable 
army which the king sent against Garfja was destroyed 
by him, as grass is destroyed by the forest fire. Garga's 
wife's brother, Vijaya., bom at Devasarasa, also killed 
many of the king's soldiers. It was but a month and a 
day after the king had ascended the throne that this 
danger caused anxiety in his mind. It was at the con- 
fluence of the Vitasta and the Sindhu where there were 
the godp Suroshvarl and Amaresha, that the royal 
army was annihilated by Garga. In this great battle, the 
two ministers Shringiira and Kapila were killed, as also 
the two brothers Kama and Shiidraka. They were 
Tantris. No one could remove their bodies from the 
field where they lay amongst those of many other good 
warriors. Many soldiers belonging to Harshuraitro, lord 
of Kampana who was the sou of the king's maternal 
uncle, were killed by Vijaya at Vijayeshv.ira. There 
fell Tihla, son of Mangalaraja, of the Kshctriya caste 
and also iflie Tantris Tivdakara and others. In the 
king's army, Safijapala showed the greatest valor for 


though he had few soldiers under him yet Garga with a 
large army could not overcome him. * 

The steady king sent Lakkaka and others to collect 
his scattered army at Vijayakshetra, and when this was 
done, he himself marched against Garga. On the nest 
«iay he searched and burnt the innumerable oorpses of 
soldiers destroyed by Garga. Pressed by the powerful 
king, Garga burnt his own place of residence and 
marched towards Phalaha. There, deserted by his 
followers, and deprived of his horses which were captured, 
Garga took shelter in Ratnavarsha, a hill fort, to which 
the king laid siege. Safijapala whs rode on his horse sur- 
rounded him there. Garga then gave up the son of 
Uchchala and submitted to the king, who came to him ; 
and he soon gained the king's confidence by bringing to 
him Malakoshtha, son of Kamakoshtha and an enemy to 
the king. The king accepted his submission, and as 
Yijaya was dead, and the disturbance was over, he slowly 
returned to his capital. He went to Lohara and sear- 
ched and captured Salhana and Lothana. He was then 
served by Kalha, Somapala and other petty kings. 

The king entered Kashmira again and bestowed greater 
favors on Garga than on any other. The king was like 
the summer sun, his queen was like the cool shade of a 
tree and his son, like the woodland breeze. Vrihattikka 
and Sukshma+ikRa, two Damaras, born at Devasarasa and 
of the same line.ige as Vijaya, arrived -within the limits of 
the king's territory, and asked for help from him. They 


entered in his ^presence and stood like innocent men, 
and their followers wept. The king, confident of suc- 
cess On aocount of hit) peace with Garga, aban- 
doned good manners and caused them to be driven 
away by those who had oanes in thoir hands. Thoy, 
and their proud followers thereupon drew their arms 
and boldly attacked the king's soldiers. Bhogadeva, 
the Damara, the king with his dagger and the cool 
G-ajjaka also struck the king at his back with his sword. 
The attack of the enemies on the king proved fruitless, 
because he was yet destined to live ; but the nmro oil 
which he rode perished. The admirable Shrhigatusimho, 
of the family of Vann, us ho rodo on his horse, warded off 
the blows which were directed against the king, and in 
that act he died. Vrihattikka, Bhogadeva and others 
were killed by the king's soldiers, but SAkshmati lkka, the 
cause of future rebellions, escaped. The rebels Uujjnka 
&e. were impaled and killed, and the king whosii life was 
so lately endangered became more attached to Harga. 
A man will survive great calamities, if the onlamed time 
of his death has not yet arrived, and when the time of 
death comes, even a flower destroys life. Tne pearls that 
lie within the sea are not deprived of lustre by tho heat 
of the submarine fire that touches them ; but when they 
are worn by young women on their breasts, they are 
spoilt by the iicat of youth. 

The king remembered not the services done by Safija- 
pala and others, and not being able to brook haughtiness 

46 kings of kashmira. 

in others, banished them from the country. Yashoraja 
who was related to the Kaka family was banished by the 
king, and he came over to Sahasramangala who enlisted 
him in his party. He also enlisted others who had been 
Vanished from the country, and had attained wealth 
and fame, and he set himself against the king. His son 
Prasa intended to enter Kashmira by the K&nda road, 
but returned in fear after Yashoraja had been wounded 
by the king's soldiers. He then joined tfie exiled servants 
of the king and gained great celebrity. 

At the time when preparations for war were being 
made, three hill chiefs Jasata of Champa, Vajradhara 
of Vallapura And Sahajapala of Vartula and two hoir- 
apparents Kahla of Trigarta and Anandaraja of Valla- 
pura assembled together and arrived at Kurukshetra. 
They found Bhikshachara who was saved by AsamatE 
with Naravarmma; and Naravarmma gave gold "to the 
former for, expenses on the way. Jasata was rela- 
ted to Bhikshachara and treated him well, and the 
other chiefs also honored him. They then arrived at 
Vallapura. Vimba and others who were out of Kashmira 
joined Bhikshachara so that the fame of Sahasramangala 
was eclipsed. The people said that king Harsha had 
directed Bhikshachara to be king and questioned who 
the others were, s.nd left Sahasramangala and his pai"ty 
and flocked to Bhikshachara.' Darpaka of tfaje royal line, 
son of the maternal uncle of Kumarapala, father of 
Bhikshachara, though not banished from Kashmira, for- 

KINGS OF kAshmIra. 47 

, got the gratinado due to the king in his love for his 
relative and went over to Bhikshachara. He had been 
raised to prosperity by Sussala as if he were his own 
son. Advised by the heir-apparent and Jasafa, the 
chief of Vallapura married his daughter to Bhiksh'aeharff 
and bestowed Padmaka on him. Gayapala, the Thakkura 
of the country, assembled many chiefs and desired to 
place Bhikshachara in the seat of his grandfather 
[Harsha]. The king heard this news, and became an- . 
xious, but in the meantime the powerful Oayapala was 
murdered by his relatives through stratagem. Darpuka 
who had joined them at Padmaka and was the chief of 
Bhikshachara's army fell in a battle. This reduced 
Bhikshachara to an insignificant state, like a cloud in a 
rainless season. • Asamati had gone away from him, and 
his gold for the road expenses was reduced ; and even 
his father-in-law ill treated him then. For four or five 
years he lived in the honso of Jasata and -where Mb had bare- 
ly food and clothing with difficulty. Dengapala, a Thak- 
kura, who lived by the Chandrabhaga, married his 
daughter to Bhikshachara and took him to his house. 
There for sometime he lived not in poverty and without 
fear, there he was beloved and there he attained his 

In the meantime the excited and bojffl P/Ssa, son of 
Sahasra, inOlvrrcd the anger of the king by his frequent 
movements. Bent on rebellion, ho entered Kashmira by 
the Siddhapatha road, when he was captured by tho 

nnmrnnki j-»f +Y*yi VlTWV On/1 lirOO Yw/11 1 Cr\rt +■ VtdfrtW* lllTV* 

48 KINGS OF KAsHirflM. 

Amidst these troubles, the nobleness <*£ Safijapala was 

conspicuous ; for though aggrieved, he did not rebel but 

retired to another country. This noble hero spread his 

great fame in foreign countries by his valor. What 

"•more shall I say of him 1 

The king had banished Sahela and other nobles, and 
gave the post of Sarwadhikara to Gauraka, a Kayastha. 
This person was distantly related to the hermit of 
Vijayeshvora, an4 by his service had become the favourite 
of the king when he was at Lohara. The king gradually 
removed the Kayasthas who weje in the service and 
made Gauraka, his minister. When he attained this post, 
he made new arrangements and he supported the king's 
dependents by means of the income which easily flowed 
in from various sources. The wickedness of this man 
was not known owing to his mildness, as the fatal taste 
of poison is hidden when it is sweetened. The king 
who had squandered the wealth treasured before, now 
filled his treasuries with the wealth of misers, -even as 
the cloud discharges snows on the snows. When king's 
treasury is polluted with the wealth of misers, it is 
either robbed by thieves or by enemies. The king was 
avaricious, and always sent the hoarded treasure to 
Lohara hills, Vattapafijaka and others, creatures of 
Gauraka and servants of the state, impoverished the 
country, as if some great calamity had befalfcn it. 

After the death of Uchchala when the stone had been 
placed on his head, the servants of the state, like hun- 
ters, again oppressed the people. After the death of 

KINGS OF EisnillRA. 49 

J'rashastakalasha^ his brother's son Kayasthakanaka 
made good use of his money. He constantly re- 
lieved the miseries of persons who came from a dis- 
tance, driven l>y fiimine. The king now, without due care, 
gave good posts to them whose character was proved after t 
Uchchala's death to bo bad. He placed the notorious Tila- 
kasimha at Dvara and Tilakasimha's brother, Janaka, at 
Bajasthana [palace.] Tilakasimha vigorously attacked 
Basadhipa and exacted tribute from him. Tilaku [another 
person of the same name] of the family of Kaka, to whom, 
the king had bestowed ICampana, began to act very mis- 
chievously, as the storm docs to trees. Sajjaka, lord of 
Sheddarajasthana, armed himself with rustic weapons 
and subdued some poworless enemies. AvSpishta, servant 
of Attamelaka, had, through tho favor of the Kaka 
family, access to the king, and the king accepted his 
advice. 'Thus the king, leaving aside his pride, spout 
some days in selecting ministers high and low nocording 
to merit. 

The • king commenced to build throe high temples on 
the banks of the Vitasta, one in his own name, one in 
the name of his mother-in-law, and ono irt the name of 
his wife. He spent much wealth and renewed tho Didda- 
vihara which was burnt by fire, during tho revolution. 

When tho king went to the town of tAttilika, ho n as 
advised by life faithful friends, Kalpa &c, who were with 
him, to destroy Garga. They were envious of Garga, 
because his son Kalyiinachandra showed greater ability 


50 kings of kAshmi'ba. 

in hunting than they. They repeatedly urged that the„ 
king should put down one who was most powerful, and 
they caused him to tarn against Garga. One of king's 
servants told Garga of the king's intention to imprison 
whim and keep him at Lohara, and Garga was frightened. 
He with his son fled to his home, and after a few days 
the king also returned to his capital. The mutual dis- 
trust and difference between Garga and the king were 
matured by instigators who frequented their houses. 

The kmg drove from him, Vijaya, brother of Garga's 
wife, though out of affection, # t ho king was after- 
wards grioved for him. He now set free Mallakoshlaka, 
Garga's enemy, whom he had imprisoned before, and in 
his anger, also liberated the Damaras who were confined 
with M.illako&htaka and raised him to poweT. The king's 
army slowly marched out for battlo, but was, as before, 
annihilated by Garga at Amareshvara. There* Prithvl- 
fcasa, a SwawAa, Dsaviiia, ©£ tho pasty of tTae king, gained 
great reputation by behaving more boldly than any 
others. Tilakasimha, lord of Dvara, was defeated by Garga 
and he fled, and his valor was the subject of laughter for 
all. Out of $ity Gargachandra did not kill Tilakasimha's 
surviving soldiers who woro wounded and wore without 
arms or clothes. When the dead were burnt, the funeral 
piles were countless. 

The king then led back his army, he Burnt Garga's 
duelling, and Garga retired from Lohara to the Chuda- 
vana hill. The king arrived at its base, and Garga daily 

KINGS op KAsmifnA. 51 

maintained fight with the royal army on tho roads load- 
ing up to the hill. He harassed the king's soldiers 
every night by secret warfare and killed Trailokyariija 
and other Tantris. In tho month of Phalguua there 
was a heavy fall of snow, Garga's followers wcro few 
and the king was his enemy : yet he did not lose his* 
presence of mind. The patient Tilaka, lord of Kampana, 
of tho family of Kaka, was alone able to pursue him to 
the peak where"fee had taken shelter. Thus pressed by 
Tilaka, Garga sent his wife to his daughter [who was 
married to the king] and received tho good will of the 
king who hid his anger in his assumed kindness. But 
he was secretly annoyed with Garga, and though he made 
peace with him and went away from the place, yet he 
favored Mallakoshta instead of crushing him. 

While the king's intentions were thus kept undisclosed, 
Garga for two or three months suffered the rivalry of 
Mallakoshta. and bore insults from his inferiors. In. the 
meantime the king caused disunion in the army of Garga 
and caused his servants to spread evil reports among 
themselves. Garga's inferior relations wore treated as 
his equals by the king, and Garga felt bjrt at this ; ho 
took advice, and he with his wifo and sou came to the 
king when the latter was in his bath. The king rebuked 
him and disarmed him. Who can feel a pride in manli- 
ness, or oan^espect heroism, wlftn even Garga, when re- 
buked, remained powerless liko a coward ? Where was 
then his pride of making and unmaking kings when like 
a _ common man, he conducted himself with weakness ? 


The beings in this -world yield to the will of Vidhata, 
even as the strings of an instrument yield to the 
■will of their maker. Some of those tricked persons, 
now favourites of the king, who could not even look on 
Oarga in battle, came and bound his arms at every joint. 
Kalyana and others who were in a house near Shrlsan- 
gramamatha desisted from rising on the approach of 
the king. Videha, son of Garga, consoled himself when 
he heard that his father was alive, and was with difficulty 
made to give up his arms by the king. According to 
the king's orders, Garga and his wife and son were 
confined in the palace and were served with befit- 
ting food. The son of Garga fled from the house to 
Chatushka but the low Kama saw him and brought 
him back to the king. The favor of the vulgar people 
is as inconstant as that of a king; it appears and 
disappears by turns. 

'Whaa Afaaidhaw, lord of Darad, came to see the icing, 
the king went out to visit him and at the same time 
ordered Garga to be killed by bis servants. After liv- 
ing for two or three months in prison, he and his three 
sons were violently killed at night by means of ropes 
tied round their necks. In the same way that the royal 
servants killed Garga, Vimbamukha tied a rope round 
his own neck a^id with his son threw himself into the 
water, and tmis obtained fame. In the year* 9 i, in the 
month of Bhadra, the king killed Garga to make his path 
easy, but ho had to suffer misery, for he had to meet a 
great rebellion. 

kings or kAshmiba. 5S 

The king was very much grieved at the accession of 
Kahla to the flu-one of Kalifljara and at the death of 
MaJla, mother of his-principal queen. 

In. the meantime Nagapala, brother of Somapala, 
when the latter had killed his elder step-brother Pratii- 
papala, took fright and killed the minister who was the»> 
instrument of the murder, and fled from his country 
and took refuge with king Sussala. The king was angry 
at this and discarding the love for his obedient servant 
Somapala determined to march again&t # him. Somapala 
felt certain that the enraged king could neither bo 
resisted nor be induced to return, and he brought the 
kings' enemy .Bhikshachara from Vulliipura. When the 
king heard that Somapala had brought his relative, ho 
was angry, and he attacked Kajapurl and entered it. 
Somapala fled, and Sussala bestowed the kingdom on 
Nagapala and remained there for seven months over- 
awing his several enemies. The great king thus gave 
Vajradhara and other kings an opportunity of serf iug him, 
and was greatly pleased at their service. His soldiers 
frequently wandered about the banks of the river Chan- 
drabhaga, Ac, and his enemies were unable even to 
look at the faces of his soldiers. 

Tilaka, lord of Kampana, went before him and the Da- 
maras. Prithvlhara was charged to guard the way. Tho 
virtuous king saved Brahmapuri and the ftmjjjes of gods 
from the enemy and attained the high fruits of virtue. 
What shall I say of tho furniture of this rich king ? 

54 KINGS o* kIshmira. 

Even the grass for his horses were brought all the way ' 
from his own kingdom. Here Sussala -passed his days -- 
in pleasure and trusted those who were near him and 
raised them to prosperity. He became angry with 
Gauraka who was now at a distance ; it was the king 
■himself who had placed Gauraka in Kashmira for its 
protection. But ho now found out that he was wicked 
and was stealing all Jus money. In connection with this 
affair, the king rebuked Gauraka's brother, Tilaka- 
simha, and madc^ his heart uneasy. The king became 
angry with Tilakasimha, despoiled him of his possession 
and made Auanda lord of Dv&ra. > This person was born 
at Parnotsa and was master of Ananta. Somapala and 
other ministers were at that time much admired ; for 
though the king was there, yet they did not come to 
him. In the year 95, in the month of Vaishakha, the 
king returned to his country, and Nagapala, driven from 
his kingdom, followed him 

The ktng reduced his expenses through avarice and 
punished some of his dependents. He dismissed Gauraka 
from his post and punished Gauraka's dependents ; hence 
all his ministers were displeased with him. But ho lost 
much of his wealth by his unwise acts and through the 
inexperience of the newly created ministers. He made 
bricks of gold and sent them to Lohara, as also heaps of 
gold like mpun&ins. In. order to punish the servants of 
Garga, he made Gailjaka who was Garga's minister, the 
superintendent of punishments. The servants of Garga 

kings op kAshuIra. 55 

apprehending chastisement took refuge with Malla- 
ko&htaka who in (luger killed Gafijaka in disguise although 
Gafijaka had reposed his trast on him. At the breaking 
out of this disorder at Lohara, the king imprisoned 
Arjjuna who was near him. He was the elder step-bro- 
ther of Mallakoshta. He also imprisoned Hasta, son ofr* 
Saddachandra, though his kinsman, aud Hasta's brother 
Vindaka. The king, in pursuance of past enmity, im- 
prisoned Suryya and his son and then Auandachandra 
and others ; and thus acted against the dictates of sound 
policy. When Mallakoshta fled out of Lohara, the king 
in anger, impaled Arjjuna.kosb.ta. 

The king left his army there and entered the city, 
destroyed his faithful men and made all the Damaras 
his enemies. He was even angry with Prithvihara who 
served him and .who by the king's orders was attacked 
by the lord of Kampana and other ministers. But he 
wewpeA Nntiti difficulty sua/i -wont to. the, honaa of his. 
friend Kshira. Nono of his enemies opposed Ifim as on 
the way he passed through Avautipura and other towns 
in a miserable plight. Tho distress of Prithvihara 
mined the subjects of the king, even like the curse of 
some angry spirit. Then the quick-witted Kshira sent 
eighteen Damaras with Prithvihara to ShamagSsa. The 
king went to Vijayeshvara and employed Tilaka, lord of 
Kampana, to suppress Prithvihara and 'his, unsubdued 
men. The most valient Tilaka cut the enemies to pieces 
in battle and dispersed them, as the strong wind scatters 


the clouds. When he returned after conquering the 
Damaras, the king, instead of honoring aim, insulted him- 
and disallowed him from entering the city. And when 
the king had entered it, Tilaka, disheartened and grieved 
and discouraged in his master's service, retired to his own 

When a master treats men of superior rank and men 
of inferior rank in the same way, and does not try to 
improve the position of men in middling condition; 
when he exhibits greater cruelty and enmity towards 
servants than towards open enemies ; and when, after his 
servants h.ive done his work, he offers insult instead of 
reward to those who have shewn unusual skill in such 
work ; — such a master is deserted by his servants, as a 
house full of snakes is deserted by men. When the lord 
of Kampana left the king's service, thp Damaras every 
where destroyed provisions, as blight destroys the har- 
vest. The Brahmanas were struck with fear and began 
to starve*, and in every city, they brought much in- 
famy on the king. Horses and elephants began to 
die indicating the approach of some great calamity to 
the country. Men trembled in fear at the nearness of 
danger, even as trees tremble in the wind just before 
they are struck with lightning. 

In the beginning of the year 96, the Damaras were 
ready to fajl, as the snow on the eve of melting at the 
touch of summer. At fii'st the rebellion Broke out in 
Devasarasa and thence it spread, even as the pain in the 

kings of xAsmduA. 57 

,oheek-bone spreads over the whole face. The powerful 
Vijaya made common cause with his kinsman Tikka 
and surrounded the royal army that was stationed at 
Sthama. Nagavatta, son of a Kayastha, was the com- 
mander of the army at Sthama ; he sustained for a long- 
time the rush of the enemy. The lord of Kampana waa 
asked by the king to go to battle and he went after much 
entreaty, but with relaxed powers, remembering the 
faults of the king? In the battle which ensued between 
him and Vijaya, victory remained long doubtful. 

When Mallakoshta gained power in Lohara, the king, in 
the month of Vaishakha, went to the village of Thalyoraka. 
His army was many times misled, and it found it- 
self before the enemy, as a man is led by dreadful dreams 
before death. But he who relying on his own strength 
had defeated even king Harsha in the fullness of his power 
and force," who with great valor and jealousy had conquered 
the world and to whose courage there was no limit, 
even he, in time, was defeated and his army suddenly 
broken. When he fled, Prithvlhara who was at the 
village of Hamigrama came unexpectedly and defeated 
the hero Sajjaka. Sajjaka fled and the cruel* and power- 
ful Prithvlhara pursued him. Prithvlhara burnt Naga- 
matha near the city and returned. He and other cruel 
Damaras made away with the horses of the king and 
those of the ISng's men and of the spies. 

The king became furious and cruel and took to the 
wicked ways of wretched men. The policy of Prithvl- 

58 kings of kAshm^ra. 

hara failed, and the king at night avoided the Damai'aS, . 
as one avoids food sprinkled with poison. He sent his 
brother Hamva to Vindaka and likewise sent his other 
brothers and sons to other men. He tore the nose and 
*he ears of the mother of Jayaka who lived at the village 
of Siphinna and sent her to him. In the city he im- 
paled Suryyaka and his son, and in anger killed others,— 
those who deserved death and those who did not deserve 
death. Furious,,, as Death, ho was feared by all, — both 
by his household people and by outsiders, and they were 
all disgusted with him. Though, the king disapproved 
the unjust policy by which king Harsha had lost his 
kingdom yet he adopted it in practice. He who is him- 
self without a fault and who never makes a blunder in 
matters of policy can alone, from a distance, point out 
the failings of those who enter in battle or are addicted to 
elephant fight, or of those who are engaged in gambling 
or arc placed in charge of the affairs of kings. The king 
made vigorous efforts and somewhat checked Mallakoshta 
and others. 

Now Vijaya slowly brought Bhikshachara, grandson of 
king Harsha, by the road of Vishalanta, but being defeat- 
ed by the lord of Kampana, he fled towards Devasarasa. 
As he was running along a gap, he fell to the earth. The 
victor sent A hiS head to the king as a fruit of the tree 
of victory. But the ungrateful monarch wHs not pleased 
with this groat act nor gave him fitting honor. He sent 
him a messenger saying " it was the Hollow, lord of Kam- 


ipana, [alluding to Vijaja's death in the hollow] that 
has killed the rebel, why then do you boast T Tilaka 
knew the king to be thoroughly ungrateful and 
in disgust thought of rebelling. If one is insulted 
and he desists from work, the good people do not» 
blame him, but if he actually rebels, then his conduct 
becomes blamable. Let those who delight in politics 
say what may appear proper to them, but the 
proud, when they are requested by gi-iiteful persons, do 
good to others .even at the sacrifice of their lives. When 
the cloth has caught §re, when the serpent lias bitten 
on the skin, when secret plans have reached the enemy's 
ear, when a dilapidated house is about to fall, when the 
king appreciates not service and when friends arc faith- 
Jess and ready to turn away in time of danger, — a wise 
man can attain prosperity only by avoiding them. But 
those who, instead of merely leaving their wicked 
master, proceed against him in anger, are callcci rebels, 
and who are greater sinners than they ? We are indebted 
to our parents for our birth, but are indebted to our 
master for everything ; so that those who rebel against 
their masters are greater sinners than tfiose who kill 
their parents. 

When Vijaya was killed and others subdued, Tilaka did 
not think the country had become quiet-. For a short 
time he held fcimself aloof and spread disaffection, and 
all people knew that the sedition had spread. In order 
to bring back Mallakoshta and Bhikshaehara, he sent his 


army to Vishalanta. The lord of Kampana, though a 
rebel, informed the king of their approach, but the king 
forbade him to give him such information and thu8 said 
in anger : "Allow them passage without obstruction and 
"Ve will kill them as they run before us, as horsemen kill 
a jackal when it comes before hunters." Though the 
king knew how to behave when the kingdom was thus 
divided, yet led by fate, he remained inactive on the 
present occasions The rebel Tilaka gained over Marmma- 
raja, and other Damaras brought in the followers, of 
Bhikshachara by mountainous/jroads. Such tales as 
reflected glory on Bhikshachara and discredit on the king 
were heard from place to place and were told by one to 
another. " Bhikshachara talks in none but the classical 
language." " He can pierce through ten pieces of stone 
by an arrow." " When walking, he can go and return 
one hundred yojanas without being tired." Such lauda- 
tory stories about Bhikshachara were repeated even by 
the aged, grey and long bearded men, and all listened with 
pleasure. Even those who knew .nothing of the king 
told and sought for tales regarding Bhikshachara, as if 
he would be the sole king- of the country possessing all 
the treasures. Old men who bathe in the bathing houses 
in the river, the inferior servants, the numberless men 
who pass ar, sons of kings, the naturally wicked but as- 
piring warriors, teachers who teach their students, the 
old men who live in temples, dancing girls, the chiefs of 
temples, the merchants who appropriate money deposited 

KINGS OF KisHllfEA. 61 

with them, the effort Brahmanas who hear what is read 
and 'who are versed in. magic, the soldiers mostly drawn 
from the agricultural population, the Diimaras who 
live near the capital; — these humour tho people 
with exciting news, and generally become rebels in, 
Kashmlra. The people trembled and the king became 
anxious as tho report of the approach of Bhikshachara 
gained ground. 

The very powefful Prithvlhara who stationed himself 
on a level plain covered with trees and bordering on the 
mountains came out and defeated the royal army. 
Ananda, lord of Dvara, of tho lino of Ananta, Kiika and 
Tilakasimha ; — these three who had once fled from battle 
were made ministers. Vijaya fell in Jaishta, and the 
king suffered a defeat on the sixth day of bright moon 
in Ashadha and became disheartened. As when the cows 
run about, or the serpents ascend the tops of trees, or the 
ants lay eggs, the approach of rain is known 4 so the 
king knew by evil omens, that clanger was nigh and 
did what was necessary to be done. On the third day 
of bright moon, in tho month of Ashadha, he sent his 
queen, his son and other relatives to the fortified Lahara. 
He followed them, but the bridge on tho Vitabta broke 
down and some Brahmanas and the twice-born inhabitants 

of Loshta fell in tho river. Grieved at this ill omen, he 

accompanied kis family for two or .three days to Hushka- 
pura, and then again returned to his capital. Bereft 
of his queen and son, he appeared as if he was forsaken 

62 KINGS OF KiSHlrfRA." 

by wealth and power. This step appeared a good one* 
for him in the time of danger; for though at present 
he was greatly frightened, yet afterwards he gained pros- 
perity. Like king Harhha, he caused his own danger, but 
on account of his taking this step his line still rules the 

In the month of Shriivana, the warriors of Lahara 
brought Bhikshachara to the powerful Damaras of 
Madava. As fijends accompany the bridegroom to the 
house of the bride, so came they who followed 
Bhikshachara from Lahara. Mallakoshta and others 
having satisfied the people of Lahara, sent them back 
to their own homes to annoy the lord of Kampana. 
When the enemy had approached on every side, the king 
began to enlist infantry at an enormous expense. 'Bent 
on his purpose, he spent so much money that even 
artisans and cart-drivers took up arms. The leaders 
of the army who were in the city left their armours on 
their horses, and prepared themselves for competition 
in athletic exercises in eveiy street. 

When Bhikshachara was at Mayagrama, the people of 
Lahara came out and fought with the king's soldiers who 
were at Amareshvara. In the fierce battle that took 
place near the town of Hiranyapura, the men of Lahara 
killed Vinaya'kadeva and other leaders of the king's 
army. Early in the battle, the enemy "captured a fine 
mare belonging to the king, and thought that he had 
got the king's good fortune. On the banks of the 

Sings of kIshmira. 63 

k £shiptikS, near f tho capital, Prithvlhara killed many 
good soldiers of the king. Though Tilaka was at Vi- 
jayesha, the Damaras who dwelt at Svangachlholada 
came and fought a battle on the banks of the Mahasarit 
(great river.) They besieged the city in some places, 
they burnt the inhabitants in sonic places, they plun- 
dered them and yelled day and night. Every day thero 
were disorders in the roads on account of the rebellion. 
The music of soldiers marching out, the entrance 
of the wounded troops, lamentation for the death of 
relatives and friends, the, retreat of the defeated soldiers, 
the flight of birds and the falling of arrows, tho carrying 
of armours, the march of horses and the dust con- 
stantly raised by them ; — all these continually disturbed 
the citizens. Every morning the enemies came ready 
with, every thing and the people thought they would 
overcome 'the king on that very day. Who was mora 
enduring than the king, since he gave no expression. 
of grief when his kingdom was so much disturbed by 
the enemies? He was seen causing bandages to be 
bound on the wounds of the wounded, or the blades of 
arrows <fec, to be extracted from the wounds, or causing 
money to be distributed. Immense sums of money 
were spent in daily expenses, — such as extra allowance 
For living in foreign districts, or in distributing good 
Food and moilicinc. Thousands of horses and soldiers 
were daily destroyed in tho field, or wounded in their 
bouses. Hallakoshta and others of Lahara were checked 

64 kings op kIshmi'ra. 

in their excesses by the king's army in which there were * 
many horsemen. Advised by their partisans who were 
gained over by the king, the soldiers carried BhiksM- 
chara to Sureshvari by a certain way. But as they were 
.grossing a pool by a narrow bridge, they had to fight a 
battle. Bowmen formed the larger portion of their 
army, and though they were frightened by tho king's 
horse, thoy gained the victory in the end. Tho lord of 
Kampana who had rebelled against the king, came out 
of Vijayeshvara where he lived and checked the powerful 
Damaras. He was afraid leajfc the Lavanya people 
(Damaras) would come to know his weakness and fall on 
his rear and harass him in his march ; wishing therefore 
to conceal his weakness, he fell on the soldiers of Ajaraja 
who arrived at Vijayeshvara, killed two hundred and fifty 
men of tho enemy, left Vijayakshetra and entered the 
city. The Damaras, thus terrified, did not pursue him, 
bat with, shouts ascended tho top of a hiU and left him 
tho road free. When leaving Madava, tho lord of Kampana 
entered another province, ho remembered the former 
behaviour of the king towards him and smiled at the 
welcome which tho king now offered to him. But having 
shown his valor in battle, the lord of Kampana, like other 
inferior ministers, remained inactive. 

At tliis time all the Damaras came to Madava and 
reached the banks of the Mahasarit, (great river). All the 
means which the king employed against the enemy be- 
came fruitless, as his plans were betrayed by his own 

KINGS OJ K&HlrfOA. 05 

men. He who had attacked several kings before wa« now 
engaged in defending his own capital. The lord of 
Dvara remaiued at, Auuiresha with the king's sons and 
the Kajasthamya ministers remained near Kajnuagardeu. 
They went to Prapasada, but did not fight. They 
remained inactive as if they had been in a distant island** 
The anny of the rebels sometimes gained and sometimes 
lost battles but Prittrrikara always gained victories. 
In a battle,, the .joldiers in the king's army, great and 
small, were all defeated by PrithvTharajus ho fought ex- 
cited with wine. The valor of Udaya, born of the line 
of Ichchhati, was conspicuous in battle, although ho was 
very young. Ho dwelt with Prithvihara, but the latter 
pulled him by the beard, whereupon he boat Prithvihara 
and snatched the sword from his hand. The battle took 
place just by the side of the capital, and oven women and 
children were killed, being accidentally struck by arrows. 
Thus, there was an increased slaughter of men, and the 
king became confounded and he was unable to get out of 
the array of the soldiers. When the king's movement 
was thus stopped, Somapala took this opportunity to 
plunder Chatalika. Where is the valor in the village- 
jackal approaching the lion's den, when the lion is engag- 
ed in fighting with the elephant ? 

The king was so grieved at the misfortunes that befell 
his two kingdoms (Kashmlra .and LakanT) th/it he could 
not even look on himself. Evil deeds, dangers and miseries 
were around him, nevertheless his determination did 


not leave him. The Brahmanas in the palace who were 
vexed with the king performed mystic rites to cause harm 
to the king under the pretence of doing him good. They 
told the king that his ministers were indifferent as to the 
issue of battles and asked him therefore to take away his 
treasure from them and send it to the hills of Lahara ; 
otherwise, they urged, if £hese troubles continued and if 
the enemy took, possession of the autumn harvest, there 
would be no means left for defence. «A11 the ministers 
were alarmed wlfen their indifference was thus pointed 
out by the Brahmanas to the king. He waited for suit- 
able opportunity and conducted himself as if he had not 
noticed the lukewarmness of the ministers. The wily 
and avaricious Brahmanas who could not so much as turn 
a grass, now upset the plan of the king. The hot 
headed courtiers and others who served "the king obtained 
influence with him and became as harmful as an .army of 
the enemy. Many evils arose out of this. The country 
was harassed and plundered, as it had never been 
before. The wily people who had never seen the king's 
court before, and who did not know • manners, spoke 
harshly to tl?,e aggrieved king when he was trying to 
quiet them. These troubles became more tumultuous 
than those caused by the Lavanyas, just as a disease in 
the throat becomes more painful than that in the leg. 
The king baibed those who were most active in cons- 
piring against him and prevented the performance of 
mystic rites to some extent. 


Vijaya, of the Jino of Vamasoma the warrior, a com- 
mander in the army of Bhikshachara, made a sudden 
entry into the capital, but was killed by the horsemen. 
He had nearly upset the kingdom by spoedily penetrat- 
ing into the city. The king was intending to cause a 
dissension in the enemy's party, and Prithvlhara, whose 
ardour had been somewhat chocked, expressed his desire 
for peace with him. Whon this great warrior wished for 
peace with the kmg, the soldiers of both parties thought 
that their wars wore at an end. The* king sent three 
confidential ministers to bring Prithvihara to the neigh- 
bourhood of Nagamatha, but he came and treacherously 
murdered them. Mammaka, son of the nurse, Ganga and 
Dvijarama the Varika, and their three servants were 
murdered by the sido of Tilakasimha. Gauraka, although 
he gave much wealth, was murdered by his merciless 
enemies and he died meditating on god Shiva to the last 
moment and amidst the cries of his friends and jelatives. 
The king heard of this wicked deed ; and all the 
people of the country became vexed and bpoke ill of him 
in the capital. 

The king found it difficult to pass tl* fourteenth 
bright lunar day of Sshvina. His kingdom was in tumult, 
he was weary and void of further hopes, and he asked 
even unworthy persons as to what ho should do. 
When the ki?jg was thus in danger, those around him all 
rejoioed in their hearts, but in their outward behaviour, 
they expressed sympathy for the king. The king was 


Unable to bear the great calamity ; his servants gradually 
left him and joined the opposite party. Vimba, the step 
brother of the lord of Kampana, accepted the post given, 
to him by the king at Dvara, and went over to the 
onemy's side. Janakasimha engaged through secret 
Messenger to marry his brother's daughter with Bhiksha- 
chara, and remained inactive. The cavalry men daily 
went over to Bhikshachara taking horses, swords, mails 
<fcc, with them. AVhat more shall I say .of those who re- 
mained idly with*the king during the day, but whose 
shameless figures were seen at night with Bhikshachara ? 
When the king became powerless J to execute his orders, 
the people freely and openly changed sides and created 
much tumult. The Damaras from all sides plundered 
the autumn harvest, and the people who had neither 
money nor men lived on roots. Men faluely believed that 
when king Sussala would depart, Bhikshachaj-a would 
fill the earth with gold. When wore the charities of 
Bhikshachara seen, or where wero his riches ? Men who 
follow other men are deceived. The crescent of the moon 
has no clothes to give, and yet men bow down to it in the 
hope of obtaining clothing ! Fie to the avaricious who 
have no judgment. When the king's party obtained vic- 
tory, the people hung their heads, but when Bhikshachara's 
party won, the people would create a tumult in their joy. 
The king au-d the Damaras stood in four of each other, 
like the Brahmana and the dog. The king was afraid on 
account of the defection of his people, and the Damaras 


'unshed to flee on* account of the king's firmness. Both 
patties remained in fear, neither knowing what stop the 
other was going to adopt. The king mistrusted his friends 
and believed them to be rebels at heart, and despaired of 
bis life whether he remained there or fled. At the time £J? 
this great danger, he bestowed garments, gold and jewels 
to the soldiers, yet none of them spoke well of him but all 
spoke ill of him. The people said without fear, " he is 
lost," "he will not be king again." a Tlie king heard 
this and felt disheartened, even as a sickman whom 
his physician has givan up feels to hoar the words, 
" he will not live," " he is dead." Even when the king 
came before his servants who wore called in by his orders, 
they would look disrespectfully and indifferently On him. 
At this timo the soldiers became so timid that they 
could not, through fear, get out of their own homes. 
There was disaffection among the king's men and tho 
Damaras intended to attack him, and ho was placed in 
great danger by his own soldiers. They shut up the 
doors of his palace, and harassed him at every step for tho 
allowance which was due to them for serving abroad. Tho 
king was very rich and gave them more than was their 
duo, but could not please them, as they were only bent 
on insulting him. As a sickman, when ho goes to a 
shrine to die, is troubled by tho beggars there, so the king 
was confincd*by theso shameless soldiers who thus extorted 
their due. The tumultuous local officers used violenco 
towards the king, attacked hiin, smashed his golden 

70 KINGS OF kAsHmIrX. 

vessels and robbed him of his wealth. TLe king could not 
keop down the tumults that arose every moment in the 
city, as in a sea, in which there were young and old. 
One morning his doors were closed by the soldiers, he 
saw the town in complete agitation, and directed Janaka, 
the superintendent of the city ( to go round and quell 
the tumult. But Janaka went a short distance only and 

The king gave monoy and bestowed 1 titles on the 
soldiers and with difficulty got rid of them, and clad in 
mail and accompanied by his ladies, he set out of the 
capital. But beforo he got out of the court-yard, thieves 
began their plunder. "When the king left his domestics 
and kingdom and had gone, some cried, some yelled, some 
committed plunder. The king was filled with shame, 
anger and fear, and was followed on the way by five or 
six thousand soldiers. In the year 96, on the sixth dark 
lunar dayof Agvahayana, when there was yet one prahara 
of the day left, the king set out with his servants. At 
every stop, his own men deserted him and stole his horses. 
Thus with a few soldiers, at night, he arrived at Pra- 
tapapura. AVhcn he came to Tilaka, he confided in 
him and shed tears in sorrow, as before a friend. 
Believing that Tilaka would not rebel against him, the 
king went to his"houso at Hushkapura the next day, and 
honored Tilaka by performing his bath &c, in his house. 
The king wished to collect an army, and with a view of 
again obtaining the kingdom he entered Kramarajya. 


There Tilaka b»ught Kalyanavadya and other 'wavlike 

Damaras before the king and the king became impatient 

and went away from the house. On the road he found 

robbers obstructing the passage ; he gave them money 

and went his way. Tilaka left him there, but Ananda, 

Tilaka's brother, went with him one stage further, out of 

politeness. The king, although deserted by his servants, 

satisfied the robbers in the road by his gift and by his 

valor. He was saved from them only because he was 

not yet destined to die. The claws of the lion with 

which he defends himsejf in impenetrable forests full of 

trees and rocks, come in time to adorn the necks of 

boys ; and tho tusks of elephants which they UBe as 

weapons in battle arc in time easily handled by men in 

the game of dice, Valor, charity, fame, wisdom &c., of 

living beings; — all perish in this wonderful world. 

Even the sun has different aspects, it is sometimes 

bright and sometimes dull. "What stability is thore then 

in the power of living beings ? Unable to bear the 

sight of tho houses burnt by the enemies, tho king 

and his soldiers moved silently and in anger, and 

ascended tho hills of Lahara. There through shame, 

he was unable to look on his qucui and lay day and 

night on his bod and lamented, Even in tho day time, 

light burned in hik iunor room from which he did not 

issue, only 'he showed himself to his servants at the 

time of his meal, at. a favor. He did not touch perfumes, 

did not ride horses, nor vJl he relish songs or dancing, 


nor enjoyed the company of his friends^ He recollected 
in grief and narrated to his queen, one by one, the 
indifference, the anger, insolence and the rebellion of his 
men ; and he bestowed riches on his attendants, because 
tiiey had left their homes and followed him. 

When the king had departed, all the ministers in 
Kashmlra, with their armies, met before the capital ; 
and by the consent of the ministers, the horsemen, the 
petty chieftains, the Tantris, the citizens and others, 
Janakasimha became their head and superintendent of 
the city. Mallakoshta and others who were in the con- 
fidence of Bhikshu, and wero in frequent personal com- 
munication with him, caused Janakasimha to give his son 
and his brother's son as hostages, in order to inspire 
confidence. To the terror of all, night closed on the 
capital which was without a king and which was full of 
timid women and children. In the capital without a king, 
some weak persons were killed, some feeble persons were 
robbed and tho houses of some powerless men were 
burnt by the enemies. 

On the next day, Bhikshu entered the capital, his 
soldiers shouted and filled the roads on all sides. He 
•was in the midst of his horsemen, whose horses were 
painted with vermilion and were hid by innumerable 
swords drawn cut of their scabbards. He excited the 
curiosity and fear of men, like a lion. His youthful hair 
flowed loosely out of his -warrior's dress and adorned his 
back, as if to bind tho goddess of victory. His earings 


adorned his face 4 . His calm, spacious, white eyes, his 
beard, the marks of sandel that adorned him, his copper 
colored lips and his face beaming with additional grace 
on account of victory, — turned even the hearts of 
enemies towards him. The drawn sword cast its reflection, 
on the horse and the horse's hair fanned him. His horse 
stopped at every step and he accepted the offers of minor 
chiefs. Mallokoshta sat behind the hoy (Bhikshu) and 
advised him in every thing, like a nurse, and pointed out 
persons to Bhikshu saying, "this person was dear to your 
father," "on this man's lap you were nursed," "this 
person is the main support of the kingdom." Bhikshu 
had first entered the house of Janakasimha for marriage, 
and he now entered the capital in order to assume the 
royal state. For, a long time his family was nearly ex- 
tinct and when it lingered in him, it was an object 
of derision, like the hopes of a woman who places reliance 
on the child in her womb. But after seeing Bhikshu's 
career, men began to fear even the portraits of their 
enemies. Surely those who aspire to conquests should 
not be derided. 

The wealth which was left out of king Sussala's 
treasures afforded means for luxuries to the now king. 
The king, the Damai-as and the ministers who had 
plundered the treasures were now free ■• from all diffi- 
culties and divided among themselves many horses, coats 
of mail, swords &c. The robbers who lived on poor 
food and walked about like evil spirits, now began to 

'74 kings op kIshmira. 

enjoy in towns, the pleasures of heaven." The king sat 
in his court with villagers clad in flowing blankets. The 
Damaras witnessed the uncommon prosperity of Bhi- 
kshachara and spread a rumour that he was an incarna- 
tion of a god. Bhikshachara had never known the duties 
of a king and at every step was at a loss what to do, 
like a physician with medicines whose effects he has 
not tested. Janakasimha -willingly gave his brother's 
daughter in marriage to the king, and the lord of 
Kainpana also married his daughter to him and placed 
himself under his protection. Jariga, a leader of the army 
of the king to Bajapurl, accepted service under king 
Bhikshu, but ho was more mindful of his own interests 
than of his master's. Vimba, the chief minister, was 
the king defacto while Bhikshachara was so in name. 
Vimba, although he enriched the prostitutes and behaved 
like a vulgar man, was yet liked both by the good and 
the wicked. Jyeshtapala who possessed great heroism, 
and \\as the step brother of Daryyaka became a great 
favourite of the king. Bhutavishva and other ministers 
of the king's grand-father also obtained much wealth. 

The king was at a loss as to what to do, the ministers 
wero sunk in luxury, the robbers became powerful, and 
the government, though new, collapsed as soon as it was 
formed. The Mng did not look to his own duties, but 
only sought enjoyment in the company of °new women 
and in many sorts of dainties. He was blinded by his 
pleasures,, and was only sent to attend his court by his 

kings of KisHMiiiA. 

own men for his<good. There, in the court, he\ 
sleep under the influence of wino. When the minister 
spoke to him haughtily and expressed his pity, the king 
instead of being angry loved him as his father. Served 
as a vulgar man by shameless and lewed flatterers, he was 
induced to do the work of menials. His patience was 
as unsteady as a line drawn on water. He spoke false- 
hood, and his friends deserted his service. Whatever 
his ministers told him was communicated by him to 
other kings ; he was like a vessel with a hole that 
dropped anything that, was poured in it. The ministers 
took him to their houses and feasted him ; and they 
robbed him, as a richman is robbed on the occasion of 
his -father's death. In the house of Vimha, Vimba's wife, 
for whom he felt a passion, removed the dishes from 
before the king, and concealing herself from the eyes of 
her husband, she smiled, looked on the king and exposed 
to his sight, hffle breast aad ■waist, and the kiv,g became 
impatient. Prithvlhara and Mallakoshta became jealous 
of, and angry with, each other and now and then dis- 
turbed the oapital. The king himself went to their 
houses and married the daughter of the one to the son 
of the other, but still these powerful men did not forget 
their anger. The king himself married in the house of 
Prithvihara at which Mallakoshta became angry and 
openly deserted the king. Janaka became powerful on 
account of his connection with the king; he rebelled 
and also caused disaffection in Ujananda and other 


Brahmana ministers. The king who was indifferent to 
those, acted according to the advice of his servants who 
were rebels at heart. His actions were without any 
plan, and he was blamed. What strange things will not 
occur where the Damaras are masters and Brahmana 
women are insulted by dog-eaters. In that kingdom 
without a king, or rather with many kings, all rules of 
custom were upset. In the reign of Bhikshachara, old 
Dinnaras became uncurrent and one hundred of the old 
could be bought for eighty of the new. 

In order to attack Sussala, the 8 mad king sent Vimba 
with an army to Lohara by the Bajapurl road. After 
Vismaya of Sallara had become his friend, the king, 
accompanied with Somapala, brought an army of Turu- 
shka to aid Vimba ; and to every individual Turushka 
he showed a cord and said that he would bind and drag 
Sassala with it. The Kashmlrian, the Kha'sha, the 
Mlechchlyi soldiers could upset the world. What was 
impossible for them ? When Vimba had departed, 
Bhikshachara was deprived of his guide, and what wrong 
act did he not do 1 The unchaste wife of Vimba invited 
the king to her house and satisfied him with a feast and 
with her embraces. No pressure of work would prevent 
the king's visit to the wife of his minister. He, whose fall 
was nigh, feared, not ill fame. There he took his meals 
and played "'on the musical instruments Lmmbha and 
kamsya, and exhibited his shamelessness. He was not 
ashamed to do these things, like vulgar men. Slowly 


the king lost his support and his wealth was gone, be 
could not even gH his food in timo. 

Sussals who was avaricious and cruel and whom the 
people had abused before, became dear to them ; the 
subjects who had been vexed with him, and had ruined 
his wealth and fame, now became eager for his return. 
We who have seen these events still wonder why those 
subjects had been angry with him, and then loved him. 
The common people become enemies or friends in a 
moment, they are like brutes and have no regard for 
reason. The king (Sussala) came out of his kingdom'' 
(Lohara); and Mallakojhta, Janaka and others made him 
prepare himself for conquest. When the people plundered 
Akshasuva, a village belonging to Tikka and inhabited 
by Brahmanas, the Brahmanas there commenced mystic 
rites. The Brahmanas who dwelt in other Brahmana 
villages came to Yijayeshvara and to the neighbourhood 
of the Eajana garden in the capital. Instigated by 
Ojananda and other chief Brahmanas, the TJiShmanas 
who were in the temple, even at Gokula, commenced to 
perform rites. Many images of gods were placed on 
vehicles and adorned with white umbrellas and clothes 
and chamaras from all sides covered the yard ; and the 
sounds of kahala, kamsya and tala resounded on all 
sides. Thus there was seen an as&embly of Bru.hiaan.os 
the like of which was never seen before. When the 
king's messengers went to silence them, they proudly 
said that they had no help except in the Long Beard. 


They indicated king Sussala by speaking of the Long 
Beard, and they regarded him as a "^plaything. The 
Brahmanas concerted various plans with the citizens who 
came day by day to see the magic performed. The 
Brahmanas and the citizens who feared an attack from 
the king every moment -were prepared for fight. Janaka- 
sifpha advised that the king should be brought into the 
city. To prevent the Brahmanas from performing the 
magic, the king went to Vijayakshetra, but he failed in 
his object. In the meantime Tilaka advised him to kill 
J sll the Diimaras, but the king did not accept his 
advice. When the Lavanyas ( Damaras ) heard that 
the king had declined the proposal, they were pleased, 
but Prithvihara and others became afraid of Tilaka. 
The king wished to imprison the haughty Lakshaka the 
charioteer, son of Prayaga's sister, but he escaped and 
went to Sussala, Then after killing many men, the king 
entered the capital and gave audienoe to the citizens 
who became vexed with him without cause. Even when 
the king spoke reasonably, the evil-minded citizens 
silenced him. There is no medicine for those who are 
bent on rebellion. 

In the meantime Somapala, Vimba and others who 
were at Lohara came to Parnotsa to fight with king 
Sussala. Padmaratha, king of Kaliujara, remembered 
his friendship with Sussala, as he was bom of the same 
family, and came with Kahla and others. f .?he proud 
Sussala with his strong men came on the thirteenth 

kikgs as KlsnsiiEA. 7^9 

bright lunar clay of Vaishakha and fought with the 
enemy. Those %vho have seen this great battle near 
Pamotsa describe it to this day. Sussala first wiped 
hia disgrace in this engagement. From that day 
Sussala's natural vigour returned to him, as the lion 
returns to the forest. The Turushka soldiers drop- 
ped their ropes in fear and were destroyed by Sus- 
sala within a short time. Sussala also killed the 
maternal uncle of Somapala in the battle on the banks 
of the river Vitola. Though Sussala's army was smaller, 
yet he defeated tho enemies, killed them and made them" 
flee, and they impeded one another in flight. How 
commendable the actions of the Kashmlrians ! They 
fought against one of their masters, aud spread evil 
reports of another ! When Somapala with the Turushkas 
had gone, the shamolcss Kashmlrians left Vimba and 
went over to Sussala. - They were not ashamed on 
t&sfc day to bead th/iiy toads, to lum. wgussL v?Ivot&. the^ 
had openly bent their bows on the preceding day. 
Accompanied by tho Damaras and citizens who came 
to him, Sussala, in two or three days, marched towards 

The Rajpoot Kahlana, son of Sahafleva, collected 
the Damaras who were at Krauiariijya and advanced 
towards the king. Tho same Vimba who w.w the 
first to leave Sussala's army to g«> over to tthiksltii, 
now left $5hikshu and joined Sussala. Other ministers 
and Tantris of Janakasimha's army returned to Sussttla 


■without a scruple. One warrior born in the village 
of Kandiletra had begun fasting (magic) at Bhangila, 
a lonoly place ; and Bhikshu, whose men had now 
come over to Sussala, came with Prithvlhara to over- 
come this man. He succeeded in his effort and then 
wished to destroy Janakasimha who was going over 
to Sussala. But Janakasimha heard of Bhikshachara's 
intention, and being then in the capital he collect- 
ed and incited many citizens, horsemen and Tantris 
against Bhikshu. Bhikshu knew that the tumult was 
raised by Janakasimha, and he with Prithvihora sud- 
denly intered the capital. Though Janakasimha was 
advised not to fight, still he fought with the army of 
Bhikshachara on the bridge before Sadashiva. There the 
proud soldiers of Janakasimha were unexpectedly defeated. 
Prithvlhara accompanied by Alaka, his, brother's son, 
crossed over by another bridge and destroyed the ene- 
my's army. When the citizens, the horsemen and the 
Tantris fled, Janakasimha with his friends fled at night 
and went to Lahara. Bikshu and Prithvlhara pursued 
him in the morning and at their request, the horsemen 
and others joined them in the pursuit. Tho Brahmanas 
who were fasting (performing magio) hastily threw away 
the images of gods and fled leaving their work behind. 
Bhikshu did not molest those who guarded the empty 
temples as ■ they -told him that thfy had ceased from 
performing magic. We meet with surprise^ even to 
this day, many horsemen who served Janakasimha one 
day and Bhikshachara on the next day. 


The transoiom* glory of BhikshSchara shed a lustre 
on the "fame of his wife's brother ; for to him he gave 
' the wealth ■ which bolonged to his father Tilakasimha. 
When Janakasimha had flecl, Bhikshu broke down the 
houses of those who had set themselves against him. 
When Sulhana, Vimba and others had with their large 
armies defeated Tilaka at Hushkapura, Sussala was seen 
by the enemies approaching by the Lahara road after 
two or three days, with Mallakoshta, Janaka &c., and 
their army in front, and with many petty chieftains in 
his rear. The horseman who had rebelled against 
Sussala issued out by the way that runs along the shops 
of the capital. On some of them he frowned, his eyes 
quivering with rage and his nose extended, some he , 
pierced and some he killed. On the citizens who had 
opposed him before, and now blessed him and threw 
flowers at him, he looked with indifference. His coat 
of mail was listlessly thrown over his shoulder, his 
turban covered his hair full of dust, his sword rested in 
the scabbard, and he rode among the horsemen with their 
drawn sword. A garland of flowers hung round his neck ; 
and amidst loud shouts and sounds of bherl which 
filled all sides, Sussala entered the capital. Ho returned 
after six months and twelve days, on the third bright 
lunar day of Jyaishtha in the yeaV 9jf. Before 
entering th* kingdom, Sussala with the Lavanyas 
searched for and found Bhikshachara who had fled to 
the banks of the Kshiptika and with Prithvihara had 

82 Kings of TclsflnrfiiA. 

gone over to the other side of the Stream. Sussaia 
met other Lavanyas on the way and returned. He 
entered the capital after driving out Bhikshilchara 
and capturing the wounded Simha, a relative of Prithvi- 
hjjLi'a. The oapital, like a harlot, still bore marks of the 
enemy's possession and was therefore painful to the eyes 
of the proud Sussaia. 

Leaving Kashinira, Bhikshu with Prithvlhara and 
others went to the village of Pushpanada which was in 
the possession of Somapala. The king went and subdued 
all the Damaras and placed Malta, son of Vatta, at Kheri 
and Harshamitra at Kampana. Those who had heed- 
lessly acted against him did not receive his mercy now. 
The king was extremely jealous of Bhikshu and could not 
brook any trace of him, and bestowed th^e country in small 
portions on his own servants. The Damaras who had 
gained prosperity by wrong means would not yield their 
possessions and did not give up their plans of rebellion, 
even through fear of the angry king. Bhikshu, deprived 
of his kingdom, lived in the possession, of his friend 
Somapala and was encouraged by the gifts and the honor 
bestowed on him by his host. Vimba, with a view to 
obtain help, went to Vismaya, and was there surrounded 
by his enemies and fell fighting. On the death of Vimba, 
Bhikshachsyra adopted the policy of taking Vimba's wife 
into his family and felt no shame. J 

The hero Prithvlhara fell on Purapura, and though he 
bad a small army, he defeated the son of Vatta and made 


him flee from battle. When he had fled, Prithvi brought 
out- Bhikshu again, and, at the desire of his -wild followers, 
entered Madava. Joined by Marikha, Yajya and other 
D&maras who dwelt there, he marched to Vijayakshetra 
in order to overcome the lord of Kampana. Harsha/ 
mitra's army was destroyed, and he left Vijayakshetra 
and fled to Avantipura, The inhabitants of Vijaya- 
kshetra, and of the towns and villages went in fear to 
Chakradhara, and that place was fillcjj with women, 
children, cattle, corn, and wealth, as also with the king's 
soldiers with arms and horse- The mounted soldiers of 
Bhikshu thirsting for plunder surrounded the place on all 
aides. Protected as they -were by the wooden walls 
around- the temple and by gates, they remained in the 
court-yard of the ^emple and could neither be captured 
nor killed. There was a wicked and senseless Dainura 
named Janakaraja, an inhabitant of Katisthali, and this 
man had an enemy named Karpura within the eflclosuro; 
and in order to burn him Janaka set fire to the enclosuro 
without feeling any scruple at the destruction of so 
many lives. At the sight of the fire ablaze on all sides, 
there arose a great cry of many beings. The horses 
broke away from their traces and ran about in the midst 
of the crowd of men, and killed many of them. The 
sky was overcast with the rising smoke* whjich looked 
like a hairy and bearded Riikshasa. When the smoke had 
abated, the flames which spread on all sides seemed as if 
the clouds had melted and rolled in golden waves. The 


fragments of fire looked like the falling red turbans of those 
who were walking in the sky and running away on account 
of heat. The crackling noise of the bursting of large 
joints of wood made it seem as if tho Ganges in the sky 
was boiling in the heat. The particles of fire rose into 
the sky, as if the lives of animals, in fear of being burnt, 
fled into the deep firmament. The heaven was filled 
with the shrieks of birds whose young ones were burnt, 
and the earth wjjh the cry of burning men. The women 
shut their eyes in fear and clasped their brothers, hus- 
bands, fathers, sons and were burnt by the fire. Those 
brave people among them who ran out were destroyed 
outside by the cruel Danraros. Those who were not 
burnt by the fire were thus killed there. When all within 
the enclosure had died, the murderers out of it were 
silent, and the neighbourhood in a short time became still. 
The fire slowly subsided and hissed on the moisture 
which issued -from the dead bodies. The blood and 
fat of the dead flowed on many sides, and the smell went 
many Yojanas. Chakradhara was twice burnt, on tho 
first occasion, it was through the anger of Sushrava, and 
on this second occasion it was by robbers. This des- 
truction of life and villages, &o. by fire was like the 
burning of Tripura, or the burning of the Khaniava 
forest. Onjfchelioly twelfth bright lunar day, in the 
month of Bhadra, Bhikshu committed this groat crime, 
and he was deserted by the goddess of Royalty and 
by Fortune. Many men were burnt there with their 

KINGS OF KismdRA. 85 

families, and thousands of houses in towns and villages 
beoame depopulated. Mankha, a Damara, bora at Nan- 
nagara searched the dead bodies, and like the Kap&likas, 
was gratified with the wealth found on them. 

After having besieged Vijayakshetra, Bbikshachara got 
possession of the person of the wicked Nageshvara whom 
he killed with tortures. What hateful actions did he 
not commit in the kingdom of his grandfather ! The 
death of him who* rebelled against his father, pleased all. 
Harshamitra's wife, when her husband had left her and 
fled, was found by Prifhvihara in the court-yard of 
Vijayesha. King Sussala accused himself as the cause 
of this destruction and slaughter of his subjects, and 
set out to fight. JanakarSja died near Avantipura, in 
order to suffer for his sins in hell. Irrational men do 
not remember that they sacrifice their happiness in 
the future' world by trying to serve their ends in 
this fleeting life. The king made Simba, lsad of 
Kampana, and drove the Damaras from Vijayakshetra 
and other places. Prithvlhara was defeated by Mal- 
lakoshta and driven out of his country. He then went 
from Madava to Shamala. Some of the dead bodies 
in the court-yard of Chakradhara were thrown into the' 
Vitasta, some which could not be dragged were burnt. 

At Kramar&jya Rilhana subdued Kaljfinavara and 
others; and Luanda, son of Ananta, became lord of 
Dvara. The powerful Prithvlhara having impaled Shnha 
fought with Janakasimha and others on the banks of- 

8 6 KINGS OP ElsHUfsA. 

the Kshiptika. One day in the month*>of Bhadra, when 
the bones of the dead are sent to a holy shrine, the 
women fill all sides with their cries. But similar cries 
of the widows of warriors who were slain in the war with 
Prithvlhara were heard every day within the city. 
Shrlvaka, a gallant brother of Yashoraja's wife, returned 
from foreign countries and the king placed him at 
the head of affairs at Kheri. Shrlvaka did nothing 
that was obnoxious to the Lavanyas, neither did they 
do him any harm, and the time flowed in deep mutu- 
al friendship. In the month of ^Ashvina, the king again 
marched out from Shamala but he was defeated by the 
enemies at the village of Manimusha. Here Bhikshu 
who was superior to all other warriors and had gained 
much experience by oonstant wars showed uncom- 
mon valor, Tukkadvija and other principal men in 
the king's army were surrounded by Bhikshu, Prithr 
vlhara jnd others, and killed. There were many war- 
riors in both armies, but there was none who could go 
before Bhikshu in the battle. 

In the war waged by Bhikshu and Prithvihara, which 
continued for many years, there were two curious mares 
named Kad amvarl and Pataka ; the latter was pale, the 
former yellow in color. Though many horses died, these 
animals were neither killed nor were ever wearied by 
their work. There was no warrior but *Bhikshachara 
who could protect the soldiers in times of danger. He 
was never tired, he bore every hardship, and was without 

KINGS 0$ EiSBHfBA, 87 

pride. In the army of Sussala there was no protector in 
times of danger, and for this reason many of his . men 
were killed. When some of the Daniaras sustainod a 
fresh defeat, BhikshSchara protected them, as an elephant 
proteots his calves. None hut Frithvihara had risen so 
high, but he was in a miserable state, for he himself used 
to keep up every night at the door of Bhikshu. As 
Vishvedevas protect a Shraddha, so the great warrior 
Bhikshu from that time protected the soldiers in battle 
both in the front and in the rear. In battle he showed 
bis courage, and calmly ajnd without impropriety he thus 
addressed his own men ; — 

" I do not care for the kingdom, but there are deep 
stains on my reputation and I am exerting to remove 
them. When men are destroyed in battle, their helpless 
leaders feel as if their own kith and kin were destroyed, 
and long for aid. When I think of this, I feel aggrieved, 
but I am resolved to achieve my end although »I there- 
by cause danger to my kith and kin day by day. He 
whose time of death has not arrived will not die, — and 
who that aspires after fame will, after thinking of this, 
turn away from acts of courage 1 There is no need of 
adopting crooked modes of action. When I have myself 
promised to follow the right path why should I not speak of 
these ? " These noble and spirited words of Bhikshu fright- 
ened the Damiras and therefore they never tried to foment 
quarrels among his soldiers. Those who are born hi 
royal families slowly receive their education before they 

88 KiyOS OP KlSHHfRA.- 

become king by pondering on the conduct of previous 
kings. But Bhikghu'saw nothing of his father or grand- 
father, so when he had got the kingdom he had become 
vain. But if he had succeeded in becoming a king once 
more, even fickle Fortune would not have been fickle 
towards him again. He mistook in believing that the 
wicked deceit of the Lavanyas would be of advantage to 
him. He passed his days in hope of obtaining the 
kingdom. J; 

King Sussala thought that the advice given by the 
robbers would be useful to him. * Those who have a mind 
for conquest never give out their plans nor make a show 
6f their valor. Sussala remembered the enmity formerly 
shown by the men of his party and did not protect them in - 
battle, so they had no faith on him, and for this reason he 
could not win. Thus looked upon with indifference by 
friends and by foes, the state of the kingdom became in 
every wdy pitiable. The wild hunters, eager for revenge, 
set fire to trees, but they suffer thereby because the trees 
are reduced in number, so even he was ruined by 
the stupidity of his men. Benefit is derived from Fate, 
not from men, either friends or foes. When the kingdom 
was thus divided, an untimely fall of snow overwhelmed 
Bhikshu's army, and it was overcome by Sussala. 
Bhikshu and Trithvlhara again went to Pushpananada, 
and the Lavanyas paid tribute to the king^and submit- 
ted to him. The hero Simba, lord of Kampana, subdued 
the Damaras and quelled all rebellion in Madavarajya. 


Now when the enemies had been so much reduced, the 
king's zeal begin to cool, and he manifested his former 
enmity towards the men of his own party. When the 
king's evil designs were rumoured, Uhlana fled. The 
king in his anger exiled Mallakoshta. Ananda, lord of 
Dvara, son of Ananta, was imprisoned and Prajji, an in- 
habitant of Sindhu and born in a royal family, was 
made lord of Dvara by the king. The king then went 
to Yijayakshetra and with Simba entered the city, 
and bound and cast this faithful person into prison. 
The flames of his anger were fanned by his recollec- 
tion of past events, and raged, unabated by the water 
of forgiveness, to consume his servants. The king 
lost his intellect in his anger and impaled Simba and 
Simba's younger brothers Simha and Thakkanasimha. 
He made Shri^aka, lord of Kampana, and having 
confined Janakasimha, he appointed Sujji, brother of Prajji, 
in the KajosthSna (palace.) Thus all the foreigners became 
his trusty ministers, but he who followed him tft Lohara 
was his native faithful ministor. People then became 
afraid of him, left him, and took shelter with his ene- 
mies. In the capital thore was scarcely one in a hundred 
who was of his party. When the rebellion had ceased, 
the king by his actions fomented such a tumult as could 
not be remedied, and which never was put down. In an 
offence in which if one be reviled, other servants aro 
likely to be frightened, there the forbearance of a prudent 
king is praiseworthy. 

90 kings o; kIshmIea. 

In the month of Magha, Bhikshu, Pyifchvlhara, and 
other warriors were invited by Mallakoshta and others, and 
they again marched towards the city. The king believed 
that the spot surrounded by the Vitasta was impregnable 
by the enemies, and he left the palace and went to Nava- 
matha. In the year 98, in the month of Chaitra, when 
the Damaras were eager for fight, Mallakoshta came first 
and commenced the war. Ho fought with the cavalry 
within the city, and the ladies of the king's household 
looked with fear on the battle from the top of the palace. 
Bhikshu pitched his camp on the banks of the Kshiptika, 
as Bama had assembled his monkeys on the shores of the 
sea. The Damaras brought trees from the king's garden 
for fuel for cooking, and grass from his stable for their 
horses' food. When Prithvihara, after having assembled 
the lawless inhabitants of Madavarajya, began to col- 
lect an army at Vijayakshetra, the king took oourage, and 
in the month of VaishSkha ordered Prajji an9 others to 
attack Mallakoshta. Prajji fell on him with valor. In this 
sudden attack many were wounded, made insensible and 
killed and some with difficulty fled crossing over the bridge. 
When Prajji was engaged in the battle with Mallakoshta, 
Manujcshvara, the younger brother of Prithvihara, drovo 
out Sujji from the city and entered it. But not being 
able to cross over to the other side of the Vitasta, as tho 
bridge was braken, he burnt the houses on his side, and 
reached Kshiptika. ■■ «*' 

Sussala thought that the Lavanyas had taken poBses- 

sion of the capital and hecame distracted, mu\ etwn<> with 

hia army from VQaynkidwtrd. Mis swldlers, in theiv mv 

xiety to precede tho enemy, ovowdod en the hridjj^ vm ih<* 

deep Suidhu and broke it. On tho sixth dark lunar day 

of Jai^h^a, tho innumerable smuy perished in the wsttor, 

as the people had perished l>y tlio lire at ChaKradlu^ii, 

As the king raised both hands to stop tho hurry of his 

soldiers, some frightened men fell on him front hehind t 

and ho too foil in the river. Some men who ouuld ijofc 

swim clung to him and »o ho was pulled under water 

several times, and ns his Hmlxi woro fatigued, he eseajw 

,ed only with the giyutesfc dllhoulty on account of 

hia great strength. The king left on the other side 

of the river those of bin Holdieiti and loaders who 

could not oroKH over, and mavohod witli the funttH 

portion of his nrniy that had eroded, Though he leffe 

much of his army hohiud, ho eutorod tho capital and 

fought with Mullivkojhtu and ot.liom. Mitlft, mother of 

Vijuya, brought tho army whiuh her liiiNlmud* had got 

ready, from VijayeHhvara to Poviwuru. Hut I'rJthvIhwa 

camo up and killed her, and hIho destroyed flkkft 

and routed tho king'H urmy. Whou tho whole, nrniy hfld fled, 

ono Kalyananlja, u ltrAlitiuu>n, well vonied in wrestling, fall 

fighting in battle. There wore many minister*, painarM 

and loadorH in the army of Hwwdn, many of whom Pfl- 

thvlhaiu captured. Ho punmed to tlft ^Itftstfi these 

who fled ilhrt captured tho lirAliiwinn (Jjammdft and 

others uud imputed them. Mittiflto'ri juimfcu, Khtlvoka and 


others and the king's sons crossed the mountain and took 
shelter with the Khashas at Yishalata. ^Thus Prithvlhara 
who was ambitious of victories gained one. He collected 
the Damaras and with Bhikshu arrived near the capital. 

The war recommenced and men and horses were killed 
on both sides. Prithvlhara informed the soldiers of 
Ma3 ava that a certain road to the king's palace was entire- 
ly blocked up and he himself became their leader. Warriors 
born of the families of celebrated chieftains, as well as 
Eashmirian warriors joined the Damaras and ' became in 
every way invincible. Shobhaka and other Eashmlrians 
of the celebrated family of Kaka, and Batna and others 
were on Bhikshu's side. Under the pretenoe of hearing 
the sounds which arose from the army, Prithvlhara, ex- 
cited by curiosity, counted the musical instruments ; and 
excluding the numerous turls and other instruments, he 
counted twelve hundred Dundabhl of the Chandalas.* 

Although the king's army was destroyed as "narrated, 
yet witB twenty or thirty men of the royal blood 
and of his own country, Sussala faced the enemies. 
Udaya and Dhanyaka, Kshatriyas, born of Ichchhita 
family, and ( Udayabrahma and Jajjala, lords of Champa 
and Vallapura; Tejahsalhana, the chief of the Hamsa 
family, who lived at Harihada, and Savyaraja and others of 
Kshatrikabhifijika ; Nlla and others, sons of Vidala, born 
of the family of Bhavuka ; Ramapala of Sahaja and his 
young son ; — these and other warriors " of renowned 

* Lit, men who cook dogs. 


families were eager for the well contested battle, and 
opposed on all sides the enemies who besieged the city. 
' Bilhana who was, as if he was the king's son, first ad- 
vanced in battle accompanied by Yijaya and other horse* 
men. As an iron mail defended his arm, so the energe* 
tio king protected Sujji and Prajji who were well verseS 
in battle. The king who had shared his kingdom with 
them was now, in this time of peril, able by their help, to 
'sustain the weig'nt of his misfortunes. Bhagika, Sharad- 
bhasi, Mummuni, Mungata, Kalasha ancf other men of 
the king's party harassed the enemies. Kamalaya, son of 
Lavaraja king of Takka, took the king's side in this 
war. He was adorned with chamara and banner ; and 
his blows, like those of a spirited elephant, oould not be 
brooked by the horsemen. His younger brother Sangika 
and his brother's son Prithvlpala defended him on two 
. sides, as the two princes of Faflchala defended Arjjuna. 
Though the whole country was against the kinglet with 
these valuable allies and with the horses bought at great 
price, he was able to gain a victory. As the master of a 
house visits every room at a feast, so the king went 
calmly through the scenes of battles. This danger had at 
first frightened him, but as the danger increased, he be- 
came cool. He entered into the midst of the danger which 
had at first made him uneasy, and he removed it, as a 
man who is tftaid of chill water at first, plunges into it 
and pushes it away by the hand. Where the enemy's 
army was like darkness there the royalists came like 

94 EiNds o# kIsHmira. 

light, and where they were like moon"beams there thd 
latter came like darkness. 

Once led by some signal, all the Damaras attacked the 
city together, after crossing the great river (MahSsarit). 
The king's forces were dividod all over the large city, bnt 
the king with a few horsemen drove them out as they en- 
tered. Thus driven, the Damaras could not gain a firm 
hold of the royal troops, as one is unable to catch leaves 
scattered by the winter breeze. Ananda'of the family of 
Kaka, Loshtasha, Nala and other renowned warriors in 
the Damara army were killed „ by the king's soldiers. 
Lamna was not brought before the eyes of the severe 
king, but the king's servants, like Ghandalas, killed many 
people. The remnant of Bhikshu's army ascended the 
hill of Gopadri in fear, but the king's soldiers surround- 
ed them on all sides and their destruction became immi- 
nent. In order to save his horses, the proud Bhikshu sent 
them to a place beyond the reach of arrows. Prithvi- 
hara's neck was piorced by an arrow, and he with diffi- 
culty stood by the side of Bhikshu. There also stood 
two or three great warriors similarly distressed. Besieged, 
as a sea side ' rock by the waves, the army of Bhikshu 
left Gopachala and ascended other hills. The king's 
army was led up the hill by Sussa. At this time Malla- 
koshta's infantry which had harassed many places arrived 
at the spot. The royal soldiers in their^eagerness to 
follow up the enemy, left the king behind and never 
thought of him. The king -was attacked by Mallakoshfca, 


but at the very momont -when he was unable to save 
himself any longer, Prajji and his younger brother enter- 
ed the field of battle. On the eighth dark lunar day of 
Ashada, many horsemen arrived and the sound of their 
weapons told their worth. Mallakoshtaka, aided by his 
son, was checked by them, as the forest fire, aided by 
wind, is quenched by the rains of Shravana and Bhadra. 
Many fights were then fought, and there never was 
heroism and valor tested as on this day. The enemies 
thought that the army of JiOhara had come, and there- 
fore could fight no mqre. On that day of trouble, the 
king and Bhikshu felt each other's strength. 

Prithvihara ordered the Madava soldiers tq keep on 
fighting there, while he himself marched along the banks 
of the Kshiptika and attacked Yashoraja who had como 
from a foreign country, and whom the king had made 
lord of Mstndala that he might overcome the enemies. 
The Lavanyas had witnessed his valor in battle before in, 
the engagement of Kherl, and they now saw his face and 
trembled. The king anointed him with saffron, gave 
him umbrella, horse &c, and raisod him as high in the 
estimation of all as himself. As a long suffering patient 
trusts for his recovery to a new physician, so the king, 
long troubled, placed his faith on him. Against Malla- 
koshta the king employed Pafichachandrft, the eldest of 
the surviving* eons of Garga. This person was brought 
up by his mother named Chhudda, and his father's depen- 
dants having gradually joined him, he gained some 


celebrity. The king followed by YaShorSja gained a 
victory over the Damaras, some of whom came over to 
him and some were dispersed. Prithvihara with Bhikshu 
retired to his own place, and the king in pursuit of 
l&allakoshta went to Amareshvara. In the meantime 
Mallakoshta sent robbers,* by night who burnt the un- 
inhabited capital near Sadashiva. Again Prithvihara 
came out several times to fight, and he was met by Prajji, 


Sujji and otheja on the banks of the Kshiptika. He 
repeatedly burnt the houses in the capital and turned 
the beautiful bank of the VitasU to a desert. 

After fighting several battles in which many were 
killed, the king attacked Lahara with a large army. At 
the time of crossing the Sindhu, there being no bridge 
over it, and the leathern bags having burst, Kandaraja 
and others fell into the water and went to the house of 
Yama, Driven by the king, Mallakoshta went 'to Darat 
and Chh&lla with her son ascended Lahara. Jayyaka, 
the Lavanya, brought Janaka, Shrivaka and others from 
VishalstS to the king. The king spent the summer in 
Lahara and on the approach of autumn went with Yasho- 
raja to Shamala. Dambha of royal blood, son of Sajja, 
was defending Munlmusha, when his soldiers fled in fear 
of Prithvihara, and he fell fighting. In many battles 
which wer$ Might in the village of Suvamasanu, at 
Shurapura and in other places, the king "was victorious 
and successively beat the enemy. Shrivaka was defeated 

* Tfee Dsmaraa axe generally meant by the term robbers. 


by Prithvihara * and others at Shrtkalyaiiapura and 
Nagavatta and others fell in the battle. 

With a view to kill the wife of Garga who was with 
her mother, Prithvihara, in the month of Pausha, sent 
Tikka from the village of Suvamasanu to Devasarasa. She 
felt herself secure with her own and with the king's army, 
but Tikka came there suddenly and killed her in a fight. 
This shameless man thus killed a woman for the second 
time. Where is the difference between him and a Tiry- 
yaoha, a Mlechchha, a robber or a Kakshasa ? The men ' 
of Lahara, when they beheld their helpless mistress kill- 
ed, fled like beasts. Strange that they held arms again ! 
When the king learnt that Madava which had been 
to some extent pacified, had once more become disaffect- 
ed, he again went to Vijayeshvara. The sons of MallarSja 
(Sussala's father) created dangers for thomselves by their 
evil tongue. It has been found that servants forget 
real benefits done to them and remember aud resent 
insults, just as a sieve retain the husks and allow 
the grains to pass through. Yashoraja who was from 
his boyhood used to flattering language became off- 
ended with the king for his harsh and insulting words. 
The vile Yashoraja was at Avantipura with a large 
army, and he thence marched and joined the enemy's 
party. On his going over to the enemies "with the best 
part of the ariiy, the king fled in distraction from Vijaya- 
kshetra. How worthless is a kingdom if its owner has 
to put up with insults and robbery from thieves when 

98 KINGS 07 siSHMfRA. 

running away to save his life. He fleck in the month of 
Magha and entered the city (capital) ; and when his ser- 
vant named Vatha rose against him, he suspected even his 
own sons. He was disappointed in every Kashmman on 
whom he relied, and he therefore placed his trust on the 
party of Prajji who in his valor, his charity, his sound 
policy and his faithfulness resembled the princes of 
olden times, Rudrapala and others. Pure in his actions, 
he exalted in the country, the fame of alms and learning 
which were almftst destroyed in the troubles of the time. 
Yashoraja said to Bhikshu : " The Damaras doubt 
your valor and do not aspire to obtain the kingdom, 
We have a large army and by creating a fresh disturb- 
ance may either conquer the kingdom or should retire 
to some other country." While they counselled thus, 
Mallakoshta heard that Chhudda was dead, and returned 
borne from Daratpura. The new year npw commenced, 
it was a t very cruel year 01 IprouiAes m which many 
perished, and in which one in a hundred got his meal, 
In the spring, the Damaras, as before, came by different 
ways and besieged the king in his capital j and the firm 
Sussala was' again immersed in an endless sea of battles 
day and night. The Damaras well skilled in burning, 
plundering and fighting caused more serious disturbances 
and troubles thpn before. Yashoraja, Bhikshu, Prithvl- 
hara and others intended to enter the capit$f and remain- 
ed by the Mahasarit (great river) where none troubled 
them, After some days of fighting Yashoraja was killed by 

KINGS 0? KiSHMiRA. 99 

his own men who mistook him for a foe. When he was 
displaying his valor in fighting with Vijaya, son of Kayya, 
a horseman of the party of Sussala, he was struck by the 
lance of one of his irresistible lancers, who mistook him 
for a foe at seeing the golden mail of his horse, and^he 
died. It is also rumoured that he was killed by the 
Damaras who feared that he might give the kingdom to 
Bhikshu and then kill them. As he hod by his rebellion 
deceived his master (Sussala)- who trusted him, so was 
he soon killed in battle by those whom he trusted. 
Prithvihara who had led the Damaras in battle in differ- 
ent places now reached the banks of the Kshiptika and en- 
gaged himself in battle. The followers of Bhikshu who 
were there behaved very gallantly, and did not allow the 
enemy to make, head. Each day was marked by fire, 
by battle, and by massacre. The sun became fierce, 
there were earthquakes several times, and terrible storms 
blew breaking down many trees. The dust raised by the 
storms seemed like pillars raised to support the sky 
which was rent by blows. 

When the great war had begun in the month of 
Jaiyashta, on the eleventh bright lunar day, the Damaras 
set fire to a wooden house, and the fire being either car- 
ried by the wind or lightning, the whole city was burnt 
unopposed. The smoke was seen to rise* from the great 
bridge of SaStshikasvami, like an array of elephants ; 
and then the house and Vih&ra of IndradevI caught fire, 
and the whole city was seen in flames. Neither the 

100 " KINGS OF siSHldRA. 

ground nor the space around, nor the sky was visible, — 
all being darkened by the smoke. The son was some- 
times seen and was sometimes invisible, and it wore a 
face like that of a drunken man. The houses which 
were enveloped in the darkness of the smoke were sud- 
denly lit up in a flame, they were thus visible for one 
moment and were seen no more. The houses on both 
sides of the'Vitasta caught fire, and the river looked like 
the sword of Yama streaming blood front both its sides. 
'The numerous ahd increasing tongues of flame 6hot up 
to the sky and fell again, and looked like golden um- 
brellas. The flames rising to various heights, and 
sending forth smoke from their tops looked like the 
peaks of the Sumeru with the clouds resting on them. 
Houses were seen now and then in the midst of the 
flames and their foolish owners believed that they had 
escaped the fire. The burning houses fell on the Vitasta 
and heated its water, as the water of the sea is heated 
by the eruption of submarine volcanoes. The burning 
leaves of the garden trees flew .into the sky with the 
birds whose wings had caught fire. The flames caught 
the white-wa&hed temples of gods and looked like the 
evening resting on a Himalayan peak. Boats, floating 
houses and bridges of boats were removed to a distance 
from the town through fear of the fire, and the river 
was without' a boat. Even mathas, templgs', houses and 
palaces were all destroyed, and within a short time, the 
city looked like a burnt forest. When the city was oon- 


sunied, a huge figure of Buddha was seen without a 
shelter and blackened by the smoke, it stood high like a 
burnt tree. 

The soldiers had gone to save the burning houses, and 
the king was left with one hundred warriors only. The 
bridge lay broken and the king was unable to cross the 
Vitasta. The enemies who were in large numbers saw 
their opportunity and tried to surround the king. The 
king meditated* on the burning of his city and the 
destruction of his subjects, and being much depressed, 
he longed for the approach of death. And as the king 
turned backward intending to go, Kamalaya was informed, 
of the fact by another person, and fearing that he was flee- 
ing said " Where do you flee 1" The firm king turned his 
face which was marked with sandel, and which beamed in 
a smile of anger ; fie stopped his horse and said. " For my 
kingdom I-will act in a manner different from that in which 
the experienced, -the premd king, out grtaadfelher did m 
the battle with Hammlra. Wherever Harshadcva may be, 
he is our relative, he has fled without seeing the end of 
our work. Who among the proud abandons his country 
on getting into mire (difficulties) without sacrificing his 
person and his blood, even as a snake abandons his skin 
after getting into the mud ? He thus said and pulled the 
reins, and the horse reared his head. He intended to touch 
the animal wit'j both hands and raised his sword. The son 
of Lavaraja stopped the horse by holding the reins, though 
there were other attendants ; he hod not spoken a word 


before he came to the presence of the fcing. The king 
was over-powered -with blows, and Prithvipala alone came 
out of the room before the king in his danger. The 
king out of affection for him praised his courage and 
acknowledged that by his service he hod paid off all the 
benefits which the king had done to him before. 

The enemies who were in three companies, discharged 
their arrows in order to kill the king, the haughty horse- 
men were on the left. So situated, the king all of a 
'sudden urged ms horse and came in the midst of his 
numerous foes. Though attended by only a small force, 
it seemed as if the king multiplied himself by being 
reflected on the swords of the enemy, and seemed to be 
present everywhere. As the hawk defeats the sparrow, 
the lion, the deer, so ho alone defeated many warriors. 
The passage of tho cavalry being obstructed by the array 
of the infantry, the former fell on the latter and wound- 
ed them, both by arms &nd by horses' hoofs. Great war- 
riors looked red in the reflection of the flame, as if they 
were smeared with blood, and fell by mutual blows. 

After the king had annoyed the onemy, he .returned 
in the evening to his burnt city, his eyes filled with 
tears and his hopes fled. When the enemy found that 
the king, though reduced, could not be overcome, he des- 
paired of success. The king too, on account of the 
destruction of valuable objects, held his^Kfe in small 
regard. At all times waking or sleeping, walking or sit- 
ting, bathing or eating, he used to issue out whenever 


required by his enemies, and his enemies looked on him 
with tears. As all the articles of food were consumed 
by the firej there occurred a severe famine in the king- 
dom. The stores were reduced, the produce was trifl- 
ing, and the trade stopped during the long rebellion 
of the Damaras. The king was very much afflicted ; and 
even the chiefs who could not obtain money from the 
royal treasury died of famine. The horses which escaped 
the fire were burnt by the hungry men who were in 
search of food, and were consumed every day. Men 
stopped their noses when they crossed the bridges over 
the river which emitted stench of dead bodies swollen 
by the water. The earth was whitened by the disjoint- 
ed and scattered fleshless skeletons and fractured skulls, 
and looked as if she had taken the kapalika* vow. The 
people walked \ftth difficulty, their complection was 
turned brown by the sun, and loan and Buffering from 
hunger, they looked like the burnt stumps of tre/?s. 

After a few days had passed, there arose a false ru- 
mour that Prithvlhara, pierced by an nrrow, had died hi 
a long contested battle. When Prithvlhara was over- 
powered with wounds, the men took him to* a sheltered 
place. But the king heard of his death and fought 
severely. Victory entices men with false hopes, even 
like a prostitute, but avoids them when tljey follow her. 
Unpropitiout* ,Pate lures with false hopes and then adds 
to the misery of the victim, even as the clouds, in ordei 

* This tow enjoins the carrying of a skull. 


to destroy luminous mountain plants, display their light- 
nings, and then leave the mountains in dense darkness. 

After suffering affliction for a long time, the king 
awaited with anxiety the arrival of the queen. Her 
affection was great, her words were kind and respectful, 
anil her frankness was becoming; these qualifications 
were to her as her children. But this beloved queen 
Meghamafijarl who was the witness of his deeds 
and the ornament of the house died at that time. 
"The king then "felt that there was no happiness in 
the world; he became dejected in spirit and found 
no occupation in life or in the kingdom. The queen 
had been reduced in health when she heard of the 
danger of her husband. She was anxious about him, 
and had set out from her home, and was coming towards 
Kashmlra, when on the way near Phal&pura she died of 
exhaustion. At first the king had hoped to see -her, but 
then when he learnt of the catastrophe, he became very 
much afflicted with grief. Four great ladies of the 
family followed the queen to the other world in order 
to show their devotion. They were never harshly treat- 
ed. Not bemg able to bear her death, a cook named 
Teja shewed his devotion to her by suicide and he was 
honored among the servants. He was also marching 
with her, and op the day following her death, he plunged 
into the river, out of devotion to her, unattended and 
unobserved, tying about him a stone which was near her 
funeral pyre. The enemies did some good to the king, 


as by calling himtait to battle, they made him forget his 
grief in bis anger. 

The king, who was indifferent in mind and wished to 
resign his kingdom brought from Lohara, his son wno 
had just then passed his boyhood. He had made Bhagi- 
ka, Prajji's brother's son, lord of Mandala and employ- 
ed him at Lohara, and thus guarded the country and 
its treasury. When his beloved son arrived at Yaraha- 
mula, he advanced and embraced him with joy as 
well as with grief. The prince was grieved, when 
after three years he .returned to his country and 
found his father in that condition. With his face humbled 
with sorrow, he entered the ruined city (capital), as the 
cloud charged with water enters the burnt forest. His 
father crowned him on the first of Ashada, and with tears 
in his eyes he taught him in the ways and policies of kings. 
" Bear thou the weight which ia now placed on you, and 
which your father and your uncle could not bear ; they sank 
under it." Over-powered by fate, the king made his son 
bear the royal insignia and bestowed on him his posses- 
sions. No sooner was the prince installed than the siege 
of towns, drought, diseases, and annoyances by robbers 
abated, and the earth became so full of com that the 
famine was over in the month of Shravana. 

In the meantime Simhadcva, (the prince just crowned,) 
had been destroying the enemies in battle. But the king 
was told by informers that he intended to rise against 
Ms father. When the prince heard this, he, in bis anges 


and without judging rightly at first sent away from 
him the son Kayya, with his friends. He had antici- 
pated this, and he now determined to remain unshaken 
before his father, terrible in his frowns, and he obeyed the 
oilers of the king. On the next day Simhadeva, without 
taking food on account of grief, and much afflicted, was 
coming to his father inorder to gain his confidence. He 
was afraid that since his father's suspicion was roused, 
the ministers would not be able to assuage him. But 
his father caused him to return form the way, by false 
assurances. The king after much deliberation decided 
that he would confine Simhadeva in prison. Fie to 
the kingdom for which father and son suspect each 
other and cannot live at ease, even at night. Who can 
know whom the king will trust, whfn he distrusts his 
son, wife, friend and servant 1 

In a village known by the name of SShya, near Kug- 
rama, there lived the son of one Sthanaka, a keeper of 
asses. In his younger years he was brought up in tending 
animals and was taught in arms with the Damara boys, 
and he gradually became a constant attendant of Tikka. 
From the year 1, Utpala, — such was his name, was em- 
ployed as messenger, and became the confidant of the 
king who was then trying to create a division among 
his enemies. The king told him to murder Tikka and 
Bhikshachara, and promised to give him "wealth and the 
house belonging to Tikka. Utpala too promised to 
commit the crime, and the kins bestowed on him 

SINGS OF sisHMfRA. 107 

large gifts and ^he title of Gafijapati. He for some 
time wavered between the hope of enjoyment and wealth 
and the fear of committing the murder of his master ; 
and he could not decide whether to do or to decline the 
act.' In the meantime his wife gave birth to a son, and 
the king sent her presents suited to the occasion, as if he 
were her father. Alarmed at this, she anxiously enquir- 
ed of her husband, the reason of those gifts, and he 
told her every thing. '' Do not rise against your master, 
for if you do, even this Sussala will kill you, as 
being the murderer of , your master. On the contrary, 
jf you 'can, gain the confidence of Sussala and kill 
him. Your master, his son, relatives and others will 
give you wealth." On receiving these instructions 
from his wife, which were contrary to his own ideas, 
lie stopped executing his plans, and divulged everything 
toTikka. "The king was overcome by fate, and trusted 
tJtpaU wbo "was «yostaatly ^iaitiag \»i», as vf WVaa tin 
son. What disasters do not overtake him whose good 
fortune has waned ? He mistrusted his son, and trusted 
a creature of the enemy ! Or is it that fools and those 
blinded by selfishness do not think of danger, as those 
who are greedy after honey do not think of the sting of 

Utpala caused Tikka to be harassed "by J?rajji and 
humbled by theaking, and made Tikka give up his son 
' as hostage. The king left Devasarasa which he had 
- conquered in the month of Karttika and. went to {to. 


village of Vashtuka in the province of Kherl. In the 
great battles which took place near Kalyanapura, he put 
to shame the great warriors Bhikshu, Koahteshvara &c 
and in the midst of the battle, he captured alive, from 
asaongst Bhikshachara and others, the great, the resplen- 
dant hero Sujji of the family of Kaka. The king first 
defeated the prosperous Vijaya and then burnt his house 
at Kalyanapura ; and when Yadausaka was burnt, 
Bhikshachara jiras left without shelter, and he left that 
place and stopped at the village of Kakaruha in Shama- 
la. The younger brother of the prosperous Vijaya took 
shelter with the king in fear, but the king imprisoned him 
in anger. Having placed Rilhana with a large army nt 
Shurapura, he threatened an attack even on Eajapuri. 
By these energetic actions he dispersed the powerful 
Damaras, and there was very little left towards the 
subjugation of the enemies. Bhikshachara and the 
Lavanya*s found their power weakened, and their enemies 
gaining strength, and they thought of going to some 
foreign countries through fear. Some unknown misfor- 
tune fell pn the party of Bhikshu, since though they 
lived in sadness, they appeared dead. 

The king did not forget the dishonesty of Somapala 
who had now returned [from his intended attack on 
Bajapurl] end 'determined to turn RajapuM to a field of 
the dead, after the expiration of tbfe cold season. 
When the rebellion was well nigh over, it was thought 
that the king was powerful enough to carry his arms to 

KINGS OF KlSHufllA. 109 

the sen. One in a hundred of those who had rebelled 
now survived, and to such men a year seemed as long as 
a yuga. The reign of this king was grievous to all on 
account of the distress, fear, poverty and death of be- 
loved friends. Success rests with Fate, and what vut 
valor, severity and the wiles of man effect ? Some people 
deserted him in his presence, like men shunning dark- 
ness. Some went to a distance and turned round like a 

lion to look at him in defiance. Some who wero near 
slighted him, as if they were frogs who would overleap 
him. Irregularities were thus clearly visible. The king 
had depricated Uchchala &c. for having trusted others ; 
and he lived constantly with drawn sword, even when 
listening to the narrations of the historians ; and even 
when he was dallying with his wives, and he told them 
the tales of Viduratha &c, he did not look on them with 

Who but Fate deceived him into the confidence which 
he reposed on Utpala as on a relative ? Tikka and others 
told Utpala that if the king or Sujji happened to die, 
they would consider him as the murderer. Sujji never 
trusted Utpala, and Utpala was ready to murder the 
king, but found no opportunity. Now the accomplish- 
ment of his promise to the king f to murder Tikka, J 
was being delayed, and the king became juigry witlt* 
him. Utpala,'* in order to gain the king's confidence^ 
brought his son from Devasarasa, and placed bin;., 
as hostage, and told the king that he would accom^j 

110 KINGS OS sAsHltlRA. 

plish his purpose through his fierce friends VySghra, 
Prashastaraja, &c, who were the king's enemies. One 
day he selected from among the infantry, one hundred 
bravo men, and set out from his house. The mur- 
derer then sought an opportunity and frequently 
came near the king, but his purpose was several times 
defeated by the gift of food &c, which the king made 
to him. Now, there was in the capital a horse named 
Mandurachakravarti which was ill. The king who 
loved horses sent Lakshmaka, son of Kayyaka, and others 
who were near him, to cure it. A,* ^hia time the king 
was accompanied by a few attendants. Shringara, son 
of Lakshmaka, heard, from his trustworthy men, of 
Utpala's purpose, and informed the king of it. A man 
whose end is nigh, regards his enemy as his friend, 
even when the fatal work has commenced, just as 
animals look complacently on the place of slaughter. 
The enraged Bishi had with his terrible look and fierce 
expression foretold the speedy extinction of Krishna's 
line, and the fulfilment of the curse could not be 
avoided. Who can escape what is ordained, oven if 
he knows it 1 beforehand 1 The king rebuked Shrin- 
gara and told him that it was false. He pointed out 
Shringara to the men who were present there, and told 
them that Shringara was the son of a rebel, and that 
either on his own account or oh the instigfe&n of other 
evil men, he had called Utpala, a wicked man, as soon as 
he had found a suitable opportunity, in order to disturb 


his (king's) peW. They smiled and hid their faces 
in their stupidity and said, " You have stated ! king ! 
what we should have said." When they were gone, the 
king, as if slightly afraid, ordered through his door- 
keeper, two or three chief warriors to remain with him. 
He was unsettled in mind, and so he sighed and thought 
of something and wept and did not care to attend 
dancing or singing. Laboring under a misapprehen- 
sion, the king suspected his trusty men, as if they were 
foreigners, like one who is about to be expelled from* 
heaven on the expiration of the period of enjoyment 
earned by his virtue. The friends of the king apprehend- 
ed that their master was possessed by the devil. Some 
of them wished that he might be exorcised, and others, 
foolish as they were, sought other masters. Such is the 
fatal influence of time, that beings possessed of full 
knowledge of duty, forget to perform it. Utpala and 
others spent two days in fear, looking after opportunities. 
On the third day, they who were watching for an op- 
portunity when the king would be alone were invited 
by the king to dine in his house after he had performed 
his bath early in the morning. Having finished his daily 
prayer and worship and being alone, the king sent mes- 
sengers at noon, to call Utpala. As the king was alone, 
Utpala thought that his object would now be accomplished. 
■He came to t^e king, his followers being detained at the 
door. The king allowed Utpala's younger brother Vyaghra, 
who was detained at the door, to come in, while the other 


attendants were told to wait outside. Sume of the king's 
faithful men loitered there, whereupon the king said in 
anger that " he who remains here is a traitor." Only two 
remained there, the betel-bearer, an old man, and the 
learned JRahila, the minister for peace and war. At this 
time Aghadeva and Nishtavaisbya, two spies of Tikka, 
came from him not knowing what Utpala was about. 
' Utpala said to the king that " Sukharaja, a Damara, in- 
habitant of Vai^autsa and a partisan of "Bhikshu, will go 
' about his own work after bowing at your feet." Thus for 
his own safety, Utpala secured the presence of the Damara 
along with his soldiers who were not far. Thus when the 
king was seated, Utpala soon caused Prashastaraja to en- 
ter, telling the king that he had some business with him. 
Prashastaraja on entering the room saw that there was 
none [capable of defending the king] cither within ths 
room or outside, and he shut the door unpercoived. The 
Vmg ha&Jiateiy batfned ana Us hair was yet wet, ana as it 
was cold, he had wrapped a sheet all round his body and 
was sitting with his weapon resting on the seat of kusha 
grass. When Vyaghra saw the king in this state, he told 
Utpala that *■ such an opportunity will never occur again, 
so submit your prayers to the king now." After he had 
thus given the hint, Vyaghra, on the pretence of bowing at 
Ijhe feet of the king, came before him and removed the 
weapon from the king's scat, and drew it ontfof the scab- 
bard. At the sight of this, king was amazed and cried 
out, " ! fie treason ! " But no sooner had he said so than 

KINGS OF KisHSlfltA. 113 

he was struck on the right side and then Prashastaraja, 
struck him on his head. Vyaghra then wounded him on 
his breast, and then both of them struck him several 
times. Utpala however did not strike twico ; he thought 
that the first blow which had broken the king's ribs, had 
torn his entrails and that he was dead. • liahila attempted 
|, to kill the enemies, but was in the meantime struck 
twice or thrice by Vyaghra on the back, with an instru-' 
ment used for pigrcing elephants' ear, and he dfcd within 
two or three dandas. The poor betel Jbcarcr left the, 
place and fled, and ho was saved by Utpala from his men 
out of pity. • 

When this disturbance was raised in the inner appart- 
ments, tho rebellion's and armed Tikkaka and others 
who were in the outer appartinents commenced plunder- 
ing. The king's* soldiers believed that the king had 
killed Utpala and so they attacked the soldiers of, 
Utpala's men who were outside. In order to give thetn. 
hope, Utpala came out and showed himself fcesmcwl 
with blood and told them that he had killed tho king 
with his iron club, and that they should not spare tho 
king's soldiers. When tho servants of the. king heard 
this bad news, they fled in fear, and the rebels being 
emboldened remained in the courtyard. When the 
rebels went out of tho house, they killed the powerful 
Nagaka, a servant of the king, "who with dr*wn sword 
was entering tile door. A servant of the king, Trailokya,. 
of the dynasty of Shakyapiila, who remonstrated agaiiibt 


this treason, was killed by Tikkaka and pthera who were 

at the door. Sahajapala, the ornament of the line of 

Bh&vuka, of superior prowess among the spiritless 

servants of the 'king, ran with sword and shield ; and 

when the rebels saw him, they went out by a side way. 

Bufr this powerful man was wounded by their servants, 

and he fell on the ground. The shame of the Rajpoots 

'was washed by his blood. The learned Nona went before 

them, and though a native of the country, resembled the 

> Rajpoots in person, and so they mistook him for aEajpoot 

and killed him. When the soldiers saw the rebels go 

towards the village un wounded, they did not pursue them 

in anger, but remained stationary like painted figures, 

The fat bodied Eajpoots, beloved of the king, kept 

themselves quiet, and crowded in the courtyard which 

was a while ago deserted. It has been u burden to us to 

speak of these cowardly men from the time of king 

Efarsha. We dare not pronounce the names of these 

sinful men through fear of contamination with their sins, 

and out of grief. Thinking it an act of great manliness 

to walk from the courtyard to the house, some of the 

principal ma.i among these sinful people went to sec 

their murdered master. They saw the king, his teeth 

pressed on his lower lip over which the blood was issuing 

and which seemed to be quivering, as if the king was 

giving utterance to his grief at his being deceived. He 

was motionless and dead, but his eyes looted as when he 

was alive. His face was darkened by tears, as if caused 

KINGS OF KisHMiEA., 115 

by the smoke of Jthe fire of his anger at the time of ita 
extinction. There were the clear marks of sandel and 
saffron on his face, as if he was marked with blood from 
the wounds. His hair was clotted with thick blood, 
and ho lay naked on the ground. His hands and 
'feet were stretched out, his neck was hanging on^iis 
shoulders. They did not do anything befitting the occa- 
sion; they only said " enjoy the fruit of being alone ;" and • 
thus reproached T»im. They did not take him on horse or 
on carriage, nor could they burn him, for ihey fled to save. 
their own lives. Nor was the body placed by any one after- 
wards oil wood and bunft ; each took one of king's horses 
and fled ; and the soldiers, as they wont into villages, were 
plundered by the Damaras. On the way which was covered 
with snow, neither sons protected their fathers, nor fathers 
saved their sons, "whether they died or were killed or plun- 
'dered. There was no warrior who thought of his dignity 
when menaced by his enemies on the road, and did not 
oast away his clothes and arms. But three died bravely. 
They were Lavaraja and Yashoraja, two Bruhmanas who 
were well up in gymnastics, and Kundaraja. Utpala and 
others saw from the neighbourhood, the soldiers thus flee- 
ing and they entered the house, cut off the head of the 
king and took it away. When they had gone to Deva- 
sarasa, the headless king, like a murdered thief, became aa 
object of siyiit to the villagers. Thus in tbe year 3, in 
the month of rhalguna, on the day of the new moon, was 
the king killed by treason, at the age of 55 years. 


It was when Simhadcva was lying at £ase, that the sou 
of his mirse told him this evil news. Unarmed as he was, 
he felt all the anger of an armed man. Recovering from 
a long swoon, he regained his recollection, and impatient 
with grief, he lamented half aloud and half in whisper. 
" "Sou, ! great king ! who governed the country for me, 
and cleared it of all enemies, for what an insignificant 
cause have you died? Did the foes approach you, 
destroyer of enemies ! when you were Rooking on them 
unarmed? You skilled your enemies and thereby pleased 
your father and your brother in heaven ; but alas ! your 
son cannot please you in the saihe manner. Think not 
for a moment that the world i8 like a wilderness and that 
there lives none in it like Kripa, Droiia and Jfimadagnya 
who extirpated the dynasties of their foes [to revenge the 
insult offered to their parents.] It is nad that grief has 
settled on you ; king ! But I will be revenged for it. 
I am not sorry that the three worlds are the objects of my 
assault. "'When you beheld mo, your countenance became 
affectionate, smiling and sweet with kind worda, — that 
face is still before me." When he had lamented thus and 
more, he kept his deportment unchanged, owing to his 
gravity, and saw beforo him his father's faithful men, 
dumb through shame, grief and fear. His usual cour- 
tesy checked what anger suggested to him, yet he address- 
ed them thvvs in har-jh and reproachful wordg. " Perform 
the funeral rites, and spend riches as befits his dignity. 
Fie to you ! Fie to arms ! that all this has come upon my 

KINGS OT KlsintlRA. 117 

father. You, honorable men, have not now boon able to 
do what the vulgar people diil when my uncle dieil !" 
When he was thus rebuking, two or three ministers came 
to him, and ho listened what they said for his benefit. 
Some advised him to leave the country and to g^to 
Lohara without delay, as thoy apprehended mischief in 
the country from Bhikshu, at the d.iwn of d.iy. Others 
calmly advised him to take over to his side, G.irga's son, 
Paflchachandra who was at Lohara, andjio continue the 
civil war. 

Now that Sussala was dead and Bhikshu purposed to 
enter the capital, none thought it advisable to remain 
in his own house. The ministers had no confidence in 
Simhadeva who told them that they would witness on the 
following day what would happen. As time wont on, 
the king's grief for his father's death became manifest. 
He now ordered trusty guards to watch the treasuries &c. 
'JOk&'ata} kntiSUBB, <sJajHflW5HS., + Jj& 'hmk, •auvsamdaAf'L'ViL ill. 
sides, and the people went hither and thither and talked 
to one another. All the peoplo feared the night, as thoy 
feared demons, or, as if it was the last night of the 
kalpa. Surrounded by the lamps that did not flicker, 
there being no breeze, 'and by ministers who did not 
move, the king thus thought within himself. "My father, 
like a helpless man, has been murdered in* a # dark room 
without doors, vbile the wind was blowing hard, and 1 
am yet alive. His death is intolerable. Uow shall I meat 
the proud in an assembly as long as this diBgracc iB not 

118 KIKG9 07 XASHM1RA. 

wiped off? And how will the leaders o( my armies come 
through hostile countries and roads covered with impass- 
able snow V Thus he meditated and gave vent to his 
excessive grief and fear, and the terrible night dawned 
a£#r much trouble, 

On the morning he went to the courtyard to assuage 
the citizens, and thence he despatched horsemen in sertrch 
of the soldiers who had fled. The clouds touched the 
ground and thp hollows of the road were entirely covered 
with snow. Those who had been sent returned, but the 
king could not get even the names of the soldiers who 
had fled. After a moment's deliberation, he published in 
the town, by the beat of drum, that he did not ■« ish to get 
back the things which had been taken away, and that he 
pardoned those who Were guilty, and bad gone over tc 
the enemy. When he had done this, the citizens flocked 
into the town from all sides and blessed the king. The 
proclamation which was in favor of those who had acted 
against the king bore its fruit on that very day. Sbsha- 
deva had about him leas than one hundred follower^ 
only ; but men from all sides now flocked round him out 
of love. Lakashmaka obtained the post of prime minister 
for his kind and gentle words in presence of the king. 

When the wise king had consolidated his government, 
by thispoljcy, Bhikshu arrived with the intention of enter- 
ing the capital just after midday. His aiany composed of 
Damaras, citizens, horsemen and plunderers appeared as 
usual. He had come to the capital, aspiring after the 


kingdom, when he heard of the death of bis euemy. To 
him Tilaka, son of Kaka, spoke thus. — "' Sussala was dis- 
liked, by all, but now it so happens that he is dead, why 
should his subjects desert his worthy son I Therefore O • 
king ! instead of entering the capital, come let us make 
haste and enter Padmapura within one day, in order to 
obstruct the way of the enemies. The armies of Sujji 
and of other great warriors have fled, and they them- 
selves are now coming. If we can kill thfm or capture 
them with their arms and conveyances, then surely 
within two or three days we shall be able to enter the 
capital. The inhabitants will themselves welcome your 
entry, and lay down their arms." Bhikshu, Koshteshvara 
and others said that these infirm councils were useless, 
and smiled and treated Tilaka with disrespect The 
followers of Bhikshachara believed that they had already 
got the kingdom, and clamoured for obtaining posts and 
hated delay. 

Much snow had fallen by this time, which benumbed 
Bhikshu's large army when he arrive! on the skirts of 
the city ( eapital.) Taking advantage of ihis oppor- 
tunity, Pafichachandra, son of Garga, with a large army, 
came to the king who was then without soldiers. 
Panchachandra had set out with the Rajpoots to fight in 
order to expiate his sin for deserting his deeeas*d master. 
No sooner the battle commenced than . the soldiers of 
Bhikshu, thus unexpectedly engaged in fight, saw their 
'own men falling on every side, and soon gave way, nor 


could those who were fleeing be restrained. Bhikshu, 
Prithvlhara and other great leaders were also, like 
common soldiers, struck with unusual panic. Had they 
been pursued by the king's followers, when they fled, 
Buqjly none of them had been left alive, after a short 

When they were routed through the prowess of the 
new king, Fate favored the distressed capital after a 
long while. The result of the contest between the two 
kings was different from what the people had expected. 
Fate hurls down some men in a moment, tying *hcm by 
the leg, and lifts up others who were falling, even as a 
stream washes away a bank and raises another. The de- 
signs of Fate are curious ! 

Sujji quietly issued from the field of battle at the 
close of the day, like a serpent issuing from a hill, covered 
with forest-fire. He was in the village of Meghachakra- 
pura, when ho heard of the fate king's death ; and after 
consultation, he stopped there for the night. He waited 
for Bihlana and other leaders of armies at Shurapura &c, 
and entered the town with them without opposition. 
They lighted lamps over their dwellings in the darkness, 
in order to convey information to the infantry as to their 
position. But there was difference of opinion among 
the infantry, they were, tired and they got separated 
during the night, and could not reach the place. 
On the morning Sujji marched out, but the Diimaras 
never left him, they hung on his rear and attacked 

KINGS OT 1 KisHMIItA. 121 

him here and thfcre. But, as a cowherd protects his ani- 
mals, so Sujji went on protecting his army, keeping 
in the front those who were with him, and there wore 
"many old persons, women and hoys in his train. With 
fifty .horsemen, he turned round and stood, and was for a 
* short while able to protect his charge. The passage was 
obstructed by heaps of vino creepers and many trees, 
and infosted by his fearless enemies. Ho lost his men at 
every step. But with a wish to pay off the debt which 
'he owed to his late master, and to his master's son who" 
was in danger, ho saved his own life. Of what use arc 
those men who live like ravenous beasts, and who die 
without waiting for a fitting time. Sujji's soldiers were 
killed and the cruel Damaras of Khanluvl obstructed 
his way near Padmapura and waited there in order to kill 
him, as ho was 'marching by that road. At this time 
Shrlvaka left the village of Kherltalalasa with a large 
army and came marching this way. The Dampxas mis- 
took Shrlvaka, coming with his followers, for Sujji, and 
fell on him and killed and plundered his soldiers. In 
this scuffle Meru and Sajjana, two horsemen, perished, and 
Malla, son of Vafcta, was vounded and dfod in a few 
days. The place Udlpapiirnvala had become dangerous, 
as the chasm there was filled with much water. Shrlvaka 
marohed out of Padmapura, fighting a* he went, his 
army was surrounded, and some arrows entered his 
throat. When he was overcome with wounds, the 
Damaras found out that he was not Sujji, and they 


lesisted from plundering him for the sake of their old 
nendship with Shrivaka. The Damaras were grieved 
for having robbed Shrivaka and at the death of Mb soldiers, 
md went away. Sujji's passage thus became safe, as a 
lion fc is accidentally killed by a trap, and a traveller's 
passage is cleared. 

Sujji silently marched with his army towards Padma- 
pura, .uid wLjn he had arrived near the chasm of 
Udipi yura, t\ .. Damaras beccii e aware of him. Sujji 
disregard od lIic Damaras who ^hindered his infantry, 
treasures, arms, &c, and with this cavalry crossed the 
chasm and reached the place where the horses could 
re > e. Now, his fear of his enemies was gone, and he 
thrcjfcaie-1 thon: by contracting his brows, shaking his 
forefinger and by ha,rsh -.,orus. He took t his umbrella only 
and with his frightened men, he hastily entered the 
capital, and with tears in his eyes came to the king. 
On the approach of Sujji who was like the kmgk cftier 
brother, the king shed tears in grief, he cast off his 
dread of the arrival of his foes, with the tears that he 

On that day Ananta's son, Ananda tho great, was 
killed by the Damaras at Lochanoddaraka while on his 
march. He did many good acts and could undergo hard 
labor. Whp was not grieved at his mishap 1 Bhasa, a 
servant of Sujji, had escaped his enemies through the 
virtue of the people and being weary, entered the court- 
yard of god Avasvami at'Avantipura. He and Kshema- 

KINGS OF EiSBMfltA. 123 

jianda who had quelled the rebellion at Kampana wcro 
surrounded by the angry Damaras of Holada. lnduraja, 
a commander in the army, bora of the line of Kularaja 
was also surrounded by the same Damaras ; but by soma 
pretext lnduraja obtained the protection of Tikka at 
Dhya.nod.dara. Piflohadeva and many other leaders of 
the army were besieged by the Damaras and they left 
JLramarajyai As when a large tree falls, the young onea 
of birds are thrown out of nests and are wounded and 
• perish, so fared the followers of the king iu those places* 
Many died in the way, having no protection for their 
feet which were benumbed by cold, their bodies were 
naked and they were oppressed with hunger. At that 
tame none wcro seen on the roads leading to the capital 
but men covering their bodies with straw. Even 
Chitraratha and others who wore destined within short 
time to become groat ministers, carried grass to. make 
comfortable beds. On the second day, the clouds poured 
snow, and the thick shower, through which arrows could 
not penetrate, continued without ceasing for a moment. 

Bhikshu was at Vanagrama, and at that place Dhanya 
left his army and went to seek protection of Simhadeva. 
When the soldiers of Bhikshu heard that the king had 
treated Dhanya well, they were eager to come to the 
capital. Four queens took ihis opportunity of the 
enemy's weakness and sot out to follow the late king to 
the next world. Fearing interruption, however, from an 
attack of the enemy, and deterred also by the exhaustion 

124 KINGS OF kAshmira. 

of their servants, they could not go to the distant Pitri* 
kanana, but were quickly consumed near the temple of 
Skanda, not far from the palace. Queens Devalekha 
born at Champa and her mother-in-law Taralalekha, 
Bupollekha, and the accomplished Jajvala born at 
Vallapura, and Bajalakshml daughter of Garga; — all 
perished in the fire. The Damaras belioved that the 

snow fell on account of the accession of the new king to 


the throne, and therefore named him Himaraja. 

Bhikshu, to whom the head of Sussala was brought, 
viewed it with angry looks, as i£ho would bum it with 
the fire of his eyes. Koshteshvara, Jycshtapala and 
others tried to perform the last rites to the remains of 
the late king, but Bhikshu, out of enmity to the dead, 
could not bear it, and prevented them from this act. 
When the snow had ceased to fall, he intended to march 
to the capital, to fight. He knew that his' servants 
sought too do him harm on account of his. inaction, and. 
he addressed them thus : — " So long as Pi'ithvihara lives, 
we shall be able to get the kingdom by force. Wo had 
thought that on tho death of our enemy, Sussala, his 
successor would be in peril, but it has been otherwise 
decreed by Fate. Our enemy is dead, but we have not 
even a hope of obtaining the kingdom. I am aspiring to 
conquer the kingdom merely for tho sake of enjoyment, 
for what duty could I perform, either towards myself or 
towards others, by obtaining the realm 1 He who had cast 
the heads of my ancestors to the ground is dead, and 

KINGS 07 KlSUmRi.. 125 

his head is now" rolling at my lion-gate. He had for ten 
months destroyed the peace of my ancestors, and I have 
given him similar trouble for ten years. Thus my duty 
has been partly fulfilled, and the grief of my mind has 
abated ; now I 'wish to devote in peace, the latter end 
of my life to some purpose." When he had said Siese 
words and more, he went to Tikka who bowed to him. 
Bhikshu was pleased with him and gave him a golden 
vessel, a white ifmbrella, &c. He had confidence in Tikka, 
and his ambition for the kingdom revived ; ho thought? 
on the subject, but as he had an attack of cold, -he 
spoke nothing. 

The corpse of the late king was impiously guarded 
[against cremation] by the Lavanya guards attached to 
Bhikshu. Sajjaka, a warrior, who lived in the city, 
thought of the corpse of his late master which had 
fallen into- the hands of the enemy, and moved by grati- 
tude, bfcsasflft to Yash&v&s., «&. t,h« $irct«wi.«£ sesiag 
the body. He defeated the guards and burnt the corpse. 
Sussala had destroyed many of his subjects f ronjL fc ho 
year 94, under the mandates of the gods, as wo* 
learnt from those who had communion with spirits. 
And this was confirmed by the event? which followed 
bis death. The man who lwd struck off his head, and had 
flourished it was found dead while sloping. Bhikshu 
lost his ' serise of right and wrong, on account of his in- 
humanity. He sent the head of the late king to Raja- 
purl. Uchchala's daughter, SaubhagyakkhB, caused those 

126 SXSaS 02 KiSHMiBA. 

who had brought the head of her uncle to be killed by 
her followers ; and when Rajapuri became unruly, she 
went to her husband, Somapala, who was at a distance. 
The powerful lord of Khasha had, through indulgence in 
wine and in gross vices, become an object of pity, like a 
vulgar beast, and lost his senses. His courtiers acted 
properly or improperly without any restriction. Nagapala 
who lived in friendship with his brother could not brook 
the insult offered to the bead of his benefactor ; and far- 
' sighted men apprehended defeat from the Kashmiriana 
and advised NSgapgla to perform the last rites to hia 
master's head. Even he who has a strong party is made 
helpless by Death ; when a lion is dead, the jackals 
laugh at him. At Gopalapura the head was burnt by 
the enemies with kala, aloes, sandal and pine wood. 
Many a time had Sussala got and lost the kingdom, 
many a battle had he lost and won, and many a danger 
had he encountered ; and his death was similarly strange. 
Whose remains havo ever received the last rites by fire 
like his? The body at one place and tho head at 
another ! 

Tikka an61 others loitered on their way to the capital 
via Avantipura, inorder to destory Bhasa and others who 
had been besieged before. But they could not overcome 
the besiegod by fight or. by throwing stones or by fire or 
eword. Protected by the thick stone wall^oY the temple, 
the besieged killed the besiegers who could neither stay 
there nor flee from that place. In this opportunity 


caused by tho enemy's delay, the wise king brought over 
the Damaras of Khaii<j,uvl to his side by riches. He 
then sent without delay Sujji with Paflchachandra and 
others who took money from him, for tho relief of 
Bhasa and his paity. But before Sujji arrived at 
Avantipura, Tikka and others had raised the siege, as soon 
as they saw the son of KayyS and others in the vanguard. 
Bhasa and his party issued out of the temple, pursued 
•the flying enemies and killed them, and came back to 

When the powerful lord of Kampana entered tho 
capital, Induraja with his followers left Tikka and came 
thither. The king made Chitraratha, Slirlva, Bhasa and 
others lords of Podagra, Dvara and Khert ; even Sujji 
who had not given up tho duty entrusted to him had to 
wait on the pleasure of the Pratlhara, what shall I say 
of other ministers ! The Pratlhara who was in the 
confidence of the Damaras created dissensions qmong the 
parties, and was an object of regard of the king. There 
was not one among the enemies who at the bidding of 
the Pratlhara did not come or wish to come under the 
protection of the king. The wily king who was ill at 
ease did not even take his meals but at the desire of the 
Pratlhara. Thus the Pratihsra became powerful in the 
capital ; but his policy which had wellnigh succeeded was 

Bhikshu had collected all the Damaras at Vijayeshvara 
with the intention of taking the capital at the end of 


the winter. The Darnaras saw the unfcn of their army 
such as was never seen before, and they feared that the 
kingdom would come to the possession of Bhikshu. They 
began to deliberate whether Somapala would not rise in 
rebellion after seeing the strength, valor, friends and 
foes of each party, and whether he would not create a 
division in his own party at the time of the attack with 
the prospect of getting tho kingdom. Thus meditating, 
they privately sent messengers to Soirtapala, with the 
"view of giving tne kingdom to him, and he also sent 
messengers to them. The Darnaras looked on Somapala 
as a beast on account of his defective person and his 
behaviour ; and they believed that by his possessing the 
kingdom they would become masters. In this most 
sinful country, the object of the plunderers who were 
excited by the greed of enjoyment was frustrated 
through a mere chance. Is he who is unfit e¥en to be a 
servant, who is ashamed of good habits, at all able to 
govern the country 1 .Can he who frightens the sparrows 
by burning grass in order to protect the shali crop, and 
in doing so," burns his own face, protect the forest trees 
which are broken by wild elephants ? Somapala's messen- 
ger who would not do any harm to Bhikshu, raised 
money from the Darnaras on false pretences, 
i In the month of Vaishakha, Sujji commenced his 
operations. He hastily issued out of the" capital and 
came to the banks of the Gambhira. His encounter with 
the enemies was glorious, for he routed all the warriors 

KING3 op kIshm/ra. 129 

engaged in battle. It is so ruled by destiny, that in 
battles where courage is displayed, sometimes one man 
conquers a hundred thousand, and sometimes a hundred 
thousand conquer one. There was no bridge over the 
river, and Sujji could not cross it, but saw the oneiaio^ 
on the other side discharge their arrows. For two or 
three days, both he and the enemies remained unmoved 
on the banks of tjiat river ; those who were clad in mail 
looked for weak points in other men. Tlhe bridge was 
then made with the boats brought from Avantipura. 
Sujji crossed the river wfth his horse on a boat. When tho 
soldiers of the enemies saw Sujji reach the other side, they 
moved, as the trees do in a wind. In order to see their 
movement, Sujji ascended the bank. In tho meantime the 
bridge was complited, his soldiers crossed over to the other 
side and the enemies fled. Of the fleeing army not ono 
swordsman or horseman or spearman or bowman coxdd 
look behind. The strap of Kxwhf eshvara's horse got loosen- 
ed and his saddle became loose, so that the horsemen waited 
for a short time. When the saddle was tightouod, and 
Sujji pursued them hotly, they soon disappeared, like dust 
driven by the wind. The enemies whoso soldiers wore 
killed, robbed and overturned, collected their shattored 
forces at Dhyanoddara and other villages. Bhasa who 
was in the van crossed tho bridge over tho> Vitasta at 
Vijayesha and ftiused the robbers to flee. 

Tho enemies stopped that day at Vijayakshetra and 
' then on the day following, they went to the lord of 


Kampana leaving Dhyanoddara behind. At this placo 
Sujji stopped for a few days, and was going towards 
Devasarasa, when the relatives of Tikka, on account of 
some difference with Tikka, came out and joined Sujji. 
Sujjj entered Devasarasa and set up Jayaraja and Yasho- 
raja, principal men among the sons ( clan ) of Bhojaka, 
in place of Tikka. Owing to the sharp pursuit made by 
Sujji, Bhikshu and others were dispersed, and they went 
to Shuropuro.^ Koshteshvara and others went to their 
respective countries. The messenger of Somapala fled 
in great terror and spoke ill of Comapala saying " where 
on earth did this son of a servant-woman send me " ) 
The messenger thought that Somapala's aspiration which 
could be attained after great effort, was like the wish 
of a jackal to do as a lion docs. Within a few months 
Sujji pacified the kingdom which had for a long time 
been distracted owing to the carelessness oF the king, 
and bestowed it on the king's son. The king tried by 
gifts to bring over to his side Shamala and other great 
Damaras and the citizens who wore in favor of Bhikshu. 
But they by^common consent decided first to test the 
power of the king and thon to decide what they should 
do, and so they fought against the king. As the dance of 
dancers can be seen through a screen, so the movements 
of the soldiers was visible through the dust. Many 
warriors perished in the battle which*' took place at 
Damoilara. Sahajapala set at liberty his father who was 
captured by Koshteshvara and obtained great glory " 


along with, his men. In this battle loth the fetus an»i 
Bhikshachara labored very hard, but the Litter aa.v 
that his defeat was clear. From that day the sn(d;er 
who was found on the morniug in Bhikahu's army wad 
not found there ( i e deserted ) in the evening ; and. hi- 
who was seen there to-day was not found tfcw next day. 

When the Damarus and the citizens diverted the, 
enemy and went over to the king and teceiYsd beiirtintr 
rewards, Mannjoshvara and, jjuth of whom 
aspired after reward from the king and ^iabiid for Uia 
friendship, quarreled bcfcvwu themselves, each wishing t-> 
go over first to the king. Itftikshu heard of this from 
the sooth-sayers, collected his attendants, wid set out 
in the month of Ashada intending to go to aomo otlmr 
country. Tho Ej^niaras who followed hiia could not 
assuage his anger with pleasant words, uorrmdee him turn 
back. The'vicious Kosh^eslivara, — himself a ymnldtais i 
sou, — longed for the vory beautiful wite of ttuikghui 
But who could touch his wife, or hold tow mmin of -tiv 
angry lion, or tlie jewel in tho hood of ■* sei/pL-nt, or 
the flame of the Arc? When Uhikshu »&ed &iiuapriJ;i- for 
shelter, he did not givo it, bucauso ho h t «i made hits pi'iuv 
with the son of SusnuIii. Tho victor had awry whose 
made attempt* to kill llhilcshii, c<di^t|ueutly Bhikahtt 
went to Sulhari, arousing over an mmppivaoluMe tract oj' 
that country. • "There U kindness in Trigartta, goc4 
behaviour at Champa, /iirs sib Madi'Uiuuudala tmd frioudt- 
ship at Dirvvabbwara. Whcm you stay away, tltt) king, 


relieved of fear, -will oppress the Damaras. They will then 
gradually welcome you and make you king." Though 
the ministers told him that it would be well for him to 
ask the help of the people for the conquest of the 
dominion of Naravarmniii, Bhikshu did not accept their 
counsel ; he adopted the advice of his father-in-law, and 
his servants left him on the plea that their families at 
home were anxious for them. 

The Damaras, in the splendour of theft wealth, entered 
* the capital, like the procession of a bridegroom, in an 
auspicious moment. When the people saw that each of 
them had a horse and an umbrella and was more than a 
king, they regarded the forbearance of the sou of Sussala 
as cruelty. Koshteshvara in whom centered greatness, 
form, youth, dress and beauty was the special object of 
sight of the women. The country in which the civil war 
ceased, became now the scene of festivity and rang with 
the sound of music of the many Lavanyas ( Damaras ) 
who came in there. Lakshmaka too brought to the king 
Kshira and others with a largo army from Maiavarajya. 
The king loved the Pratlhara, and the king's parasites 
therefore th'ought it a groat favor if they could gain 
entrance within the Pratlhara's door. The Lavanyas 
plundered the villages and a great famine ensued in con- 
sequence and which caused a great expenditure to the king. 
While the people suffered out side the cap*ita>, the king 
took into his pay some of the Damaras who lived within 
the capital and increased his own staff. The king gave 

kings ov kAshuira. 1$3 

befitting punishment to Tippa, Vaishyardhadeva and. 
others, his kindreds ; who had rebelled against his 
father. Within four months from his father's death, the 
present king reigned supremo in tho realm. Tho citizens 
were powerless in the capital, but many king-like 
Damaras spread themselves over the country. 

Not far, the powerful enemy remained firm, and both 
in and out of tho court, the nobles from ministers to 
feudatory chiefs leagued with him. At that timo there 
was none in tho palace who could give good counsel j all 
the servants were rebels^md addicted to vice. Those who 
know traditions ought to remember now tho events 
which took place in tho beginning of tho reign of the 
king in order to understand what happened afterwards. 
While we are treating on the subject of this meritorious 
king, we will, by way of example, briefly say something 
about him though it has been told several timos. The 
kings whose histories were told before from traditionary 
accounts, wero not well understood ; but wc shall bo able 
to judge rightly tho qualifications of this kmg whom we 
have seon. A man is not able to judge another, Imhj 
then can one judge a king who is more than a maaJjj 
an affectionate wife, the poot shares tho 1 
adversity of the kiug. Suoh a poet who lo 
and whoso name is mentioned with that ol£l 
cannot judge <*f the extraordinary character of i 
as he is blinded by his misguided intellect Wh 
he has assumed what is right and what is 


how can he afterwards arrive at a correct judgment t 
There are traits in the character of this king also which 
are not intelligible, and I reckon them as faults because 
1 cannot comprehend their purport and aim. The light- 
ning which dazzles the eye, expands some objects ; the loud 
and long peal of thunder gives birth to certain herbs ; 
thus no action of the cloud is without some benefit to some 
object or other ; but ignorant men see no other quality in 
the cloud save that it rains. After hearing of the more 
than human qualifications of this king whom vre have 
teen, we will believo.the deeds of # the kings who were. He 
made the kings tremble without moving from his place, 
as elephants which support the earth shake the mountains 
by moving their hair. The army of his enemy aud the 
other kings were in secret afraid of him, even as sea- 
bears are secretly afraid of the submarine fire. He is 
the sun among kings, and by his light the moon like 
fame of former kings became hid in the earth. They 
who see him think that they behold before them the 
reflection of a god. He never takes back whatever he 
gives save that he withdraws from his enemies, after their 
submission, the fear which he had imparted to them 
before. When he holds up his sword there stands nothing 
before him but his own reflection ; and when he raises 

aloud his voice no other sound is echoed. His words 

* • a 

arc sharp in time of anger and mild when he bestows 

a favor, as the two edges of a sword are respectively 

. sharp and blunt. As the leaves of the kalpa tree retain 


their beauty for ever, so the dependants of the king 
shine in lasting fortune. 

The people knew that the king's ministers were wise awl 
possessed unlimited nobility of soul and power, and they 
served them in every way. But the Pratlhara could not 
brook the advancement of other ministers, as the esha herb 
cannot bear the growth of trees by its side ; and he rooted 
out all the ministers except Janakasimha, like grass. 
Janakasimha hadscrved the king from childhood and knew 

abits and he could not therefore be ruined. Janai ' 
kasimha wished to establish peace with the king by 6 
marriage alliance, but his son Chtuidda was disgraced 
on account of his pride and insolence. The king watch- 
ed for alight faults, and he hated both the father and the 
son for the behaviour of the son, and became angry with 
both of them. Both Janakasimha and the Pratlbiira 
became very haughty in the reign of this king, as thoy 
were both of the same age with the king and vreve well 
known to the queen-mother. They knew not to ;ii>t 
according to the time. In the capital they used carriage 
and pair, and in bath and food and furniture they behaved 
like the king. lb is ridiculous to live in the same style 
with one's own master, because thoy all attained pros- 
perity through him. It is like tho attempt of the frogs 
to overleap the tall lotus stock.* The euemieg of Janaka- 
simha and of ihe Pratlhara biased the king against them 
and against all their party ; and made them appear in the 
eyes of the king, as a portrait of envy drawn on the wall. 

136 kings op kAshmIka. 

At this time, in the mouth of Shravana, the grateful 
king went to Vijayeshvara to welcome the victorious 
lord of Kampana. In the meantime Utpala who was 
coming from Pifichadeva at Shurapura was murdered 
by the lord of Dranga in a mountain cavern. He was 
returning from Pushpananada in order to serve Pifichadeva, 
when he was found out by the lord of Dranga who was 
secretly looking out for him. But the lord of Dranga was 
thrown on the ground and was on the point of death. 
'His knee was pierced with arrow. He killed a soldier of 
the enemy's party whom he found by him. 

The king, after he had bestowed favors on the lord 
of Kampaua, was on his return. He stopped at the gate 
of Avantipura when Sura of Dranga bowed to him. 
He was" the scourge of his enemy, — he assuaged the 
anger and the grief of the king. In his first expedition 
he destroyed his enemies, and the people thought that 
he had ^exterminated his foes. When he entered the 
city, some of the guilty men fled, and Janakasiroha and 
some others were thrown into prison. Koshteshvara 
and others became his [Sura's] enemies, through fear of 
the king. In the month of Karttika, the accomplished 
king went to Shamala, and there by fierce fighting, he 
harassed the unfriendly villages. The village of Hadi, 
where the powSr of king Sussala and others had been 
broken, was burnt by the powerful Sujji. • 

Oppressed by the king, Ko?htaka and others invited 
Bhikshachara who was ambitious of obtaining the kingdom 

KIXGS OF KisiiMXRA. 137 

and he came again. In one day he traversed fifteen 
yojanos and reached the village of Shilikakoshta situa- 
ted on the hills. Eager after conquest, Bhikshu did not 
mind the trouble which arose from hunger, thirst, 
fatigue, fear of enemies and travelling, but remained, 
silent. He who is opposed by Fate in his desire to»con- 
quer sees his endeavours boar contrary results, even as 
a banner is borne backward by the wind, although tha* 
car runs forward. Some succeed in their work as soon 
as they commence it ; while others fail though they "be* 
assiduous. The Amrita was brought up from the sea in 
a moment by the hill llanthnra, although the Himalaya, 
though long used for the purpose, failed in the attempt. 
The river runuing from its source falls into the sea, al- 
though flood-tides aeom to roll tho water backwards ; 
even so the maff whose Fate is adverse, struggles in vain 
against his, fall. Even at the time of Bhikshu's pros- 
■jfcxvfej , 'akpasii V'^a ^wjEkM. <t^asah bit wwis/sas,. 4A, +Av/s, 
time the younger brother of Prithvlhara was defeated, 
his finger was cut, and not knowing the approach uf 
Bhikshu he took shelter with the king. Korihteshvam 
and Prithvlhara wont to Bhikshu and there remained like 
two serpents mado inert by charm. They led Bhikshu 
to another place and assuaajed the fatigue of travelling. 
He then went to Sulharl by the way leading to Kar- 
kotadraiiga. • Arrived there, Bhikshachara, iif the excess 
of his pride, Tcopt himself warm witk the thought of 
attacking Kas>hmlra. As the water which has increased 


in bulk seeks to enter some cleft, even so did Bhikshu 
for an opportunity. But tho king on the other hand 
entered the capital and devised means to oppose 
Bhikshu's plan. 

The first minister, thePratlhara, unable to bear the pride 
of ISujji, began to find some pretext against him. Now 
at this time, the elder brother of Dhanya had purified 

""himself by bathing in the Ganges, and returned to this 
country, and came to the king when*he was walking 

• alone. He and his party were welcomed by the king 
who talked long with them. But they had no appoint- 
ments and were oppressed with anxiety. In time of 
work, the king depended on his father's ministers, but 
they too had their hidden purpose, and they waited for 
opportunity. Tho Pratlhara who was bent on ruining the 
great Sujji persuaded them that violent 'acts were com- 
mendable. When a few months had thus passed away, 
it so hs^ppened that the king was suddenly attacked 
with an inflammation caused by the urine of spider. The 
life of the king being endangered by boil, intumescence, 
diarrhoea and indigestion, the country was thrown into 
anxiety. In* this state lay the sole king of the realm ; 
and there the powerful enemy and the Damaras on the 
side of the enemy believed that the kingdom had be- 
come weakened. Now Sujji with the view of preserving 
the [reigning] dynasty, and after delibetatifcg what 
should be done, thought of crowning Parmadi, son of 
queen Shrlgunalekha, who was then a little under five 


years old. He consulted with Garga's son, the maternal 
uncle of the boy. The Pratihara got hold of this pre- 
text against Sujji and thus told the king : — " Now that 
you ate in this condition, Sujji with his son, is today 
constantly holding council with Paflchachandra and 
others with the purpose of rising against you." 
Dhanya and others also spoke to the king to the same 
effect, and the king too believed it. Clever men try to^ 
excite the curiosity by describing strange things, and kings 
are mostly like children of little sense, anTl arc easily led. * 
Their understanding is not guided by rules. The born 
slaves who are like evil spirits, who live in dirty places 
and who are adept in deceiving, enter into the minds 
of senseless men and possess them. How can good 
proceed from a king thus possessed t The rogue comes 
to the king with'smiles which have no meaning, and the 
king with smiling eyes asks him his purpose. His 
purpose is deck, ami at times he esys eamethiag which is 
injurious to all honorable men, and which falls like 
thunderbolt on the honor, the life and tho merits of the 
proud. Such a favourite who comes and leaves accord- 
ing to the gestures of the king, who spea&s at random 
to his master, looks on the world with supercilious eyes 
of contempt and understands favors and frowns by the 
movement of the muscles of the king's fate, is deserving 
of contempt. • Will there ever be a king whoso* intellect is 
well balanced, and is not moved by the cunning people, 
like a puppet on a machine ? Ignorance of the minds of 

140 KINGS OF KAsHJlffiA. 

servants has ruined all. ! Fie ! that owing to the sins 
of subjects such a source of evil is not removed. 

Sujji, as before, came to enquire whether the king was 
recovering But when he saw the guards stationed, he 
thought that he was suspected and was sad. Ho saw hi 
the^ring, as if reflected in a mirror, that the royal favor 
was against him, and he went back. In his disappoint- 
'ment he came less and less frequently to the palace, and 
the king's favor which was on him was»removed. Even 
Sujji's servant^ the wily Chitraratha, son of a court 
Brahmana, did Sujji harm, and accompanied his act 
with, words of an injurious character. When the king 
recovered, Sujji out of etiquette came to the palace, 
and was seen to distribute wealth to the people, and 
afterwards to go towards the houses of the beggars. But 
the king did not favor him but deviseti plans to attack 
him. Sujji had a largo body of retainers.. The king 
then judged that if he deposed Sujji from his posts, his 
followers would become broken-hearted and would desert 
him, and he bestowed Sujji's posts on others without 
delay. Ho gave the government of Eajasth^na ( palace ) 
to Dhanya, Kampana to Udaya and the office at Kheri to 

The king by taking away from Sujji his possessions 
plainly showed that he no longer felt for Sujji as he 
used to fefcl before. Sujji's followers becatae few and he 
himself apprehended evil. This proud man, thus insult- 
ed, went out of the capital with the bones of king 

K1NG9 of xAsHidnA. 141 

Sussala- in order to proceed to the river Ganges. Out of 
love for the king, Sujji asked his permission for under- 
taking this journey : and when he set out, neither the 
king nor his officers prevented his going. With a view 
to parade his pride, the Pratihara, when sending Sujji to 
exile, sent his own son to protect Sujji's wealth. It 
grieved Lakshmaka to find that the Pratihara thought 
that it rested with him to punish or to fayor, so that 
the Pratihara sent his son as a protector. L^kshmak/t 
returned from Dvara and went to Parnotsa without 
rising against the king ; and then drove Bhagika from 
the hills of Lohara. The Pratihara sent Prema, son of 
the (king's) nurse, to the king, and the king bestowed 
the possession of Kotta on him. Lakshmaka left Lohara 
and thereby removed the fear of the king, and spent the 
fierce summer season at Bajapuri. The king who had 
under him the Damaras, and could raise or put down the 
ministers like balls, appointed Lakshmaka at ©vara, m 
order to set up a rival to Sujji and also for the bafety and 
dignity of his dynasty. Thus the king enviously believ- 
ed that the valorous Sujji, born in this country and fed 
from his treasury, would deprive him of his glory. By 
this appointment at Dvara, Lakshmaka was mode uneasy 
and became an object of ridicule, as he wandered about 
in the road with men armed with sword. *No, unworthy 
person can walk in the footBteps of the worthy, nor can 
the unworthy be invested with*the merits of the worthy. 
Mahadeva besmears his feet with the ashes of the burn 

1+2 KINGS 0? KASHJlfRA. 

ing dead, where he should have applied sandal, and 
though he can create and uncreate the three worlds, yet' 
ho cannot make the ashes smell like sandal. Lakshmaka 
was unable to bear Sujji's rivalry, and the king sent 
messengers to bring Safijapala from the foreign country. 
As there was no warrior in the country, even Koshtesh- 
vara, who ought to have been hated, became, on account 
of pressure of work, the favourite of the' king. The 
king was pleased with him and gratified him with gifts, 
* and ho now became the trusty servant of his sovereign. 
But Koshteshvara was attacked with luta* and remained 
in the city. 

Thus when the king was bringing together thoso whom 
he should have punished, Somapala and others induced 
Sujji to change his mind. The insulted Sujji determined 
to conquer KashmTra, which was as easy of performance 
as to uproot a creeper ; and he promised -to give the 
kingdom»to Somapala. Somapala promised to marry Iris 
daughter and his sister's daughter to Sujji. In the mean 
time the king tried to overcome the difficulty with 
sweet words and gifts. Babhasa and another, both 
foolish meu, prevented the marriage of king Somapala's 
daughter with Sujji, and thus their enemy gained an 
advantage. Influenced by the artifices of Jayasimha 
and frightened by some omens, Somapala became in- 
different towards Sujji. The Pratlhara t hinfflelf came 
and brought the daughter [ of the king of Kashmlra ] 

* An inflammatory disease. 


to the frontier provinco for marriage with the king <»f 
AajapurT (Somapala). Soinapala married the king* 
daughter named Ambaputrika, born of the great queen 
Kolpanikfi- When this marriage was over, the wise 
Fratthara married Somapala's sister's daughter named 
Nfigalekha to the king. Thus when the two kingdoms 
were united in peace, Sujji found no other opportawky,» 
and in the beginning of winter -went towards the 
Ganges. At Jalandhara, Sujji, spoilt ofc his-gloritS'tfy , 
the deep insult he had received, met Jycshthapala who 
induced him to come ov»r to the side of Bhikshu. " When 
you and Bhikshachara," said Jyeskthapala, " become 
leaders of the same army, neither VUhnu nor Indra 
would be able to stand before you. You bestowed the 
kingdom on thejeing who has iusultod you; on him and 
on the man who now occupies your post we will have 
our revenge." Thus induced, Sujji was inclined to go to 
Bhikshu who was with Dengiipala, but was prc\t>nUd by 
Bhagika who was somewhat agitated and advised htm 
not to take that step so long ho had not consigned Uw> 
bones of his master in the waters of tho Gauges. " Aftet 
bathing in the Ganges I shall como to you," Thus }>m 
mised Sujji and took monoy with him and w«n>t aflo* 
his present task. 

The king hnd placed all cnros'of gownuiwm m t>tf 

hands of the Sratlhara and did not utioml tu tin* dithfi 

of his post. He felt, however, Mint tho Ktupdvutt was 

' going wrong. The Pratiharu had cubiblutlitHl jkmui? yc(Ui 


those who had rebelled against the king and was always 
near his sovereign, and looked down on him, as if he 
favored the king. He who ia audacious ought to be 
punished, so thought the lord of Kampana; and he 
killed the proud and haughty son of Kaliya through 
some artifice. Lakshmaka kept in check all the L&vanyas 
..( Dampras ) who were unfaithful, restless- and going 
astray, and also the lord of Kampana. On the other 
tsAid, Bb-i^shacjiara deliberated how he should proceed 
against Iiashmlra as long as Sujji did not return after 
performing his bath in the Ganges. But soon learning 
that the Damaras had fallen out with the king, he 
entered Vishalata on the approach of 'winter. At the 
time he entered Mandala, the Pratlhara and Mantu 
secured the Damaras and thus obstructed his entrance. 
But Tikka who was the object of great enmity of the 
king, owing to his treason against the king's father, 
trougW m Eb&Bh~n, and aft the Damaras met together 
and expressed their joy. Bhikshu awaited the arrival 
of Sujji in order to snatch the kingdom, and stationed 
himself, feawnp; nothing, in the fort named Vanashala 
which was small height and belonged to BhSgika, lord 
of Khasha, and son-in-law of Tikka ; and he caused all 
the Damaras to rebel against the king by means of spies. 
Now Sujji, after he had 'bathed in tho Ganges, returned 
to the joy of 'his friends and the terror '-of his enemies. 
"If these two persons, — Bhikshu who was formerly 
wronged, and Sujji, — join together, the king will have as 


much cause for apprehension as we." Thus thought 
Somapala, and he was struck with fear, and wheu asked by 
Simhadeva, he shewed some indications of performing 
■what he promised to Sujji. When Sujji reached Jfiland- 
hara, on the evening previous to the morning on wirioh 
ho was to go to Bhikshachara, a messenger came to him 
from Somapala. Advised by Jyashthapala, but prohibited* 
by Bliiigika, Sujji^clied on the words of the messenger and 
did not join the enemy. " The king ( of Ka'iunifWjwilf^Kry i 
the debts you have incurred in the foreign countries, and 
if I ask, he will restore to you your possessions." In this 
way Somapala daily urged Sujji through his messenger, 
and Sujji abandoned his intention to join the enemy 
and went towards the country of Somapala. 

Udaya, lord oi*Kampana, crossed ovor the Sankata in 
the month of Vaishakha and fought a battle with 
Bhikshu who was attended by the Khashas. At first 
Udaya had few soldiers with him, but when las army 
increased, Bhikshu entered the fort which was besieged. 
Now the king went to Vijayakshetra and swelled the 
army of the lord of Kainpana by sending soma squadrons. 
The king's soldiers discharged stones by moans of engines, 
showered arrows and hurled various weapons. Those 
within the fort fought by throwing stones.. On account 
of the stones «which fell on the" infantry, — alid which 
were marked with the name of Bhikshu, — the king's 
army could not take the fort. When a month and a few 
days had passed away, the besiegers took possession of 


the base of tho fort and the moat on which a rice crop 
stood. When those who were in the fort, — and there 
were females with them, — saw that the king was trying 
to take the fort, they intimated to him their desire to 
turn against his enemy and asked for wealth. The king 
with a view to capture the fort sent the Pratlhara with 
■tiie feudatory chiefs, the Damaras, the ministers and the 
Rajpoots. Koshteshvara, Trillaka and others determin- 
/joVrtf rcil'tve Hhikshn who was in peril, and went after 
the party of tho Pratlhara. The Pratlhara viewed from 
the top of the Sankata hill, the small height of the fort 
(Kotta) and also the innumerable army on his own 
Bide, and he felt confident of capturing the fort. The 
followers of the Pratlhara who had been near the fort 
before him wished to storm Kotta with^he whole force, 
and on the next day the fight commenced. But the 
beseiged began to shower stones in such a way that the 
beaiegers'bcciiEQe convinced ihal the fort could sot be taken 
by force. Struck by the stones, the heads of the soldiers 
were severed from tho bodies and fell with streaming 
blood, even ojs black bees fall, with dripping honey, from 
trees. The foolishness of Jtoshteshvara now became 
manifest and was the cause of the destruction of himself, 
of Bhikshu and of the Lavanyas. He fought with 
tho utmost rashness in; order to show ,j;hat he had 
no equal among warriors, and his rashneus cost Bhikshu 
his life. At this moment of danger, the Khashas intend- 
ed to rise against Bhikshu, but Bhikshu told them.that 

KINGS 07 K AS Hit fit A. 147 

he and KosVeshvara were inseparable, and that the 
Damaras under Koshteshvara -were obedient to him ; 
and if the largo army went to battle without him and 

' Koshteshvara, it would bo overcome. He thus addressed 
them and appcaseil them, but the result was different 
from what he had expected. The Khashas concluded 
that when Koahteshvarn, the object of Tihikshu's trust 
turn round to be his enemy, what reliance or faith could 
Bhikshu repose on others ? *&• — i_i 

The wise Lakshmaka was induced by the stato of 
affairs to promise employment in his own house to Tikka 
■who had risen against the king's father. Ho also 
promised large villages and gold &c. to the chief of the 
Khashas and induced him to come over to the Bide of 
Bhikshu's eneniy. Ananda, brother of the wife of the 
Khasha chief, once more brought Tikka before the 
Pratihara after a personal communication. When the 
Damaras saw Tikka leagued with the Pratilaiira, thoy 
thought that Bhikshu had been deserted by Koshteshvara 
and others; they then assembled together and sent 
messengers with much wealth and with promise of gold 
to the Khashas for, the delivery of Bhikshu to them. 
They thought that the Khashas would act-opt the bribe 
and deliver over Bhikshu to them. They would then 
set him free, and Bhikshu aud«othorn would, be assured 
of their safety* 

Now, Dengapala said to Bhikshu that Jayasimha who 

•was then at a distance had obtained possession of the 


kingdom, and as he was angry ■with him Ee would kill 
him. Bhikshu thought that Dengapala should attach 
himself to some party and ho replied accordingly. 
The Damaras advised Bhikshu to flee to Phalapura, 
breaking open the privy. But Bhikshu who possess- 
ed a noble heart refused the advice because he thought 
that the people would speak ill of him, and say that he 
had fled like a dog, through, the privy hole, with all his 
limb s co vered with unclean things. Koshteshvara, whoso 
dealings were always open, used harsh words towards tho 
soldiers in order to raise a commotjon among them ; but 
the Pratihara who understood his motive pacified them. 
When the Khashas gave hostages, the Pratihara and 
others attempted to kill Bhikshu from the morning. The 
king who was at Vijayakshetra learnt how the matter 
stood from the messengers who were constantly going to 
and coming from him, and became anxious. "The people 
said amoag themselves. — " The old king who fought 
great battles could not kill Bhikshu in ten years, but these 
warriors think, now that tho king is young, they can 
destroy Bhikshu ! It is impossible. The Khashas surely 
will, within a short time and with case, snatch the wealth 
from the king's party, and the king's party will surely be 
broken and robbed by others and shall have to go away ; 
Koshtaka, who "is the friend of Trillaka, will part from 
the king's side, and there are many in th# kind's party 
■who have been brought up in the charity of Bhiksha- 
chara. What new man has come who will do the king 

KINGS OF KiSHltfRA. 149 

this benefit? The circumstances, as before, favor Bhikshu's 
success." While the people were talking thus in the 
camp, the ministerial army with drawn weapons 
surrounded the fort. The people remarked that it was a 
shame that in order to kill this Bhikshu who was alone 
and suffering so long, so many shameless soldiers nave 
got themselves ready. The sea-like army, with weapons 
moving as waves, and the eyes of the soldiers glancing 
like fishes, becilmc still. And in tlio lastextrcmity 
when Bhikshu of wonderful valor took up arms, the * 
people wondered whether he would fly into the sky, or 
like a doer leap clean over the soldiers or scatter tho 
army, like drops of rain. 

Thus far the ministers succeeded, when matters were 
about to take an unfavorable turn. Through the power 
of the king, however, the disadvantage was removed and 
the object accomplished. When the soldiers wore looking 
tsx EtviksbaalYiva, to «veo» owfc, a, hmyr vfit\\ dvawwcopoiv. 
issued from the fort. He was surrounded by women 
who were weeping, and on his back some people threw 
garments dyed with safflower, which fluttered over thoir 
persons. One said that it was Bhikshu who was arrested 
in his attempt to escape, but he heard that the person 
who was going out was Tikka. As Tikka had instigated! 
the great war between the king jind Bhiki/hu, he feared! 
death eithfer rr<jm Bhikshu or from the followers of the 
king, and so he was making his escape. In order to 
' make the people believe that he was not against the king, 


he drew his sword with, his own hand with the intention 
of thrusting it into his own stomach, but his followers 
prevented him from doing so. Turning aside from the 
road, he passed the king's army with his followers and 
sat by a fountain on a hill not far off. Urged by the 
Dam&ra soldiers who joined him after a long time, — and 
for which he was very glad, — he now came out of the 
fbrt and began to employ his wiles. " It is evening, 
g ive r espite to Bhikshu for a short time, and at night 
the Damaras will complete the work. " When he had 
said these severe words, the Khashas who had given 
hostages left the side of the ministers and opposed the 
enemies who were then scaling the fort. The ministers 
were astonished to find themselves suddenly attacked 
by the soldiers clapping their hands and making noise. 
The ministers released the rebels who were imprisoned 
and gave them wealth for the advantage of the king- 
dom; bjit none of them accomplished the object. 
Seeing the day about to expire and the king's purpose* 
not yet attained, Lakshmaka made enquiries of the 
hostage [luanda] the brother of the Khasha chiefs 
wife. He replied that even the lewd woman can 
oontrol her desire, but who can, when [ Tikka ] is near, 
control the Khashas 1 Lakshmaka then told Ananda to 
go and prevent the Khashas from acting in a hostile 

way, and sent him out while the other* ministers 



* The apprehension of Bhikahu, 

SINGS OF KismtfRA. 151 

Tie experienced king, who remained in tno nouse of 
DengapBla, near the waterfall of Yishalata, had guessed 
that it- would come to this. He was himself devising an 
elaborate plan for this purpose. He now took with 
him the brother-in-law of the chief of Kotta. When 
this confusion took place, the soldiers became - bold 
and [alluding to the release of Ananda] said that 
the bird when let loose escapes to its nest. The king* 
directed that so long as his work was not ac complis hed, 
his followers should not indulge in fnefnment Dut• 
should take courage. " Should ruin come,"* said he, 
" what will be the good of killing the brother-in-law of 
the Khasha chief 1" 5nanda, the brother-in-law of the 
K.hasha chief, with unabated good fortune, had driven 
all away from the top of the fort and called on the 
Tlkshnas and others. When the Tlkshuas climbed the 
hill side, the lives of the enemies were near their end, 

and the gladness of the wives of their party rose to its 
climax. Clad in a small piece of leather, Anandft 
discharged the arrows marked with the name of his 
master's son, and thereby spread his name abroad. 
And as he chewed the betels, the only strength the 
followers of Bhikshuraja had in their dying condition was 
to tie their beards and hair together [ a» sign of humi- 
liation 1 ] • 'When Ananda found his men were all safe, 
he pursued the enemies who were anxious to take refuge 

* t. e. If Bliikshu escapes. 

152 KINGS 0* KAsHMfllA. 

in the tent of Koshteshvara. Tikka saw himself over 
matched by the horsemen who were sent one by one 
by Lakshmaka and cut off one of his fingers in fear. 
At this opportunity the Khashas who feared lest Tikka 
would run away, kept him under guard and this grieved 
him very much. 

Bhikshu was anxious to fight and became uneaBy at the 
delay made by the Tlkshnas and diverted his mind by 
pla ying _ at dice. When the Tikshnas'" arrived in the 
court yard of tae house in order to fight, Bhikshu rose 
and acted what little it was left to him to act in this 
life. He rose from his play [ with the utmost coolness J, 
ss one who was playing with his wife rises at the approach 
of a friend. " What is the use of killing many people 
today " thought he to himself and leaving his bow and 
arrow, he set out with his sword. Bhikfhu's long black 
hair had become white owing to his great anxiety, and 
his torn clothes .fluttered like colored tanners. The 
marks of sandal were on his cheeks, and the reflection of 
the ear-pendant danced on them, as if it were the smile 
of pride. As the end of his checkered career drew 
nigh, his footsteps became unsteady and the veils of 
his wife which lay torn marked his footsteps. The white 
cloth over the safllowcr-colorcd garment on his shoulder 
made him appear like a jion with its mano erected. He 
walked round quickly yet solemnly and gracefully. His 
•yes, mind, hands and feet were all directed at one 
object, — vu. to secure captives. He was like justice 

KINGS OP KiCsHMillA. 158 

among just men, the ornament of pride, ho was liko the 
undying prosperity of honorablo things. Tho eager peoplo 
looked on Bhikshu but lie came so fast that his approach 
could not bo marked, and he walked before the enemies. 
Kumariyaof royal blood, grandson of Madlni, and Jink- 
tika, elder brother of Jyoshthapala, followed him, Tho 
enemies were entering tho fort through buildings high 
and low, and in oi-dcr to oppose them, (Jargika, a follower 
of Bhikshu, discharged a shower of iirro^',s <a jguiitftapfiid 
them. They who were running forward felt the arrows 
from Gargika's bow, as elephants feel the hail stone* cast 
by the wind ahead. But tho wicked KlmsliuA threw 
stones on him who opposed the^oldiors of the enemies, 
and thereby his body was cut, his bow was broken, and 
after a long time ho was forced to retire. When he had 
retired the soldiers came in by roads high and low and 
arrived in sight of Bhik&hachara. One powerful warrior 
ran wifcn a \ance towards the man who \uht\ a wwrpuu toy 
the side of Bhikshu. This attendant had for a moment 
been careless, and the warrior struck him with tko luucc. 
Bhikshu who loved his dependants went ^immediately 
towards the assailant in anger, held him by (.he hair and 
struck him with a dagger, and BUikhhu'o followers. 
Kumariya and Rnktika struck him even when lie had fallen 

When hi had. been thus struck dead, tho three fought 
with, the enemy's soldiers bearing vnrimw tiriiw. The 
'place became deserted on account of tliu oomluil, cut a 

154< KINGS o? kIshmira. 

tree is deserted by bees when a snake enters its hollow. 
The king's soldiers, unable to destroy them by sword, or 
spear, went a little way off and began to shower arrows. 
The lion Bhikshaohara warded off the arrows, but the 
Kh^shas from the houses began to hurl large stones. All 
the ways were obstructed by the heavy shower of stones 
.and while Bhikshaohara was in the act of running, an ar- 
row entered his side penetrating his liver. He went three 
iihwpi imiii "._ 1 1 Qn the ground, and the fear which had 
frightened the enemy for a long time perished with him. 
Kumariya too, pierced by an arrow at the groin, fell 
down near the feet of his master. Baktika also, pierced 
by an arrow in a mortal .part, sat on the ground, like one 
dead, though his life was not yet extinct. Bhikshu fell 
with many noble persons, as the crest of^a hill, felled by 
lightning, falls with the flower trees growing upon it. 
Among the royal family, Bhikshu, son of king Harsha, 
became "the object of glory not of shame. He accepted 
his own defeat without a complaint and with fortitude 
and resignation, so as to grieve even the Creator. Who 
among the past great kings was superior to him ? None 
of them was in any way comparable to him in greatness. 
Elated with vanity, the soldiers of the enemy who were 
ascending the fort fought with their weapons against 
Kumariya ;vho was in a miserable plight. The enemies 
apprehended that Kumariya who was stuimed with blows 
would fight as soon as he would regain his senses : and 
they accordingly came to him and killed him. When the 


enemies of Bhikshu knew the condition in which Bhikshu 
was, they surrounded him and struck him in various ways. 
But the Khashas reviled them saying " It is useless ! 
fools ! to strike him when he is dead. " But still the soldiers 
struck Bhikshu in various ways. Eaktika was killed by 
some of the unruly soldiers. It was wrong to use arms 
against him, as he was almost dead -with the pain from his 

* severe wound. At the age of thirty years and nine months, " 
on the tenth lunar day of the dark moon, in the mont h, 
of Jaishtha, in the year 6, Bhikshu died. He was the 
source of long tumult : but even they to whom he was 
the cause of ruin wondered .at his conduct and approved 
of it. When dead, as when living, his eyes quivered 
in his head, his brows moved, and there was smile on his 
lips and his pulse beat for some time. His soul ascended 
the sun, there to live with the Apsaras, and his body 
remained on earth to be washed with cold water. 

Eert. Aa-y the ministera brought the three \ieai> before 
the king' who was at Vijayakshetra. The king's charac- 
ter is as strange as the sea which has produced Lakshmi, 

'Amrita, jewels, elephant, horse, and the moon. The 
king shewed a strange demenour, and no one could guess 
his feelings. He felt no pride at the death of one who 
was a thorn to his father, and whom his father could not 
subdue, neither was he glad. He Whs .not angry 
though Bfiikfbju had carried about his father's head, 
but he looked on Bhikshu's head and mused on the 

'mutability of things " The make of Bhikshu's body 

156 kings of kIshmi'ra.. 

showed valor undisfigured by malice, be was pure as crys- 
tal, not heated by the rays of the sun. Alas ! it is well 
known that all the kings from Utkarsha should be over- 
taken by death before their natural time. Those who 
participated iu Bhikshu's favor and enjoyed his fertile 
lands now sec with indifference, that Bhikshu's head is all 
that is now left. " Thus thought the king who possessed 
much generosity in him, and speedily ordered the funeral 
C ov/"«™in,j of such an enemy to be performed. Even at 
night when his sleep was broken, he thought of the 
rise and destruction of, and thought of the 
mutability of the world. 

The people believed that there would not be any more 
civil war in the country even for a thousand years to 
come. Fate bums grass large and small ju order to grow 
the grain. It increases heat in the day and so causes 
rain to fall. What reliance can bo placed on the uniformi- 
tf of the/ action of Fate whose nays are various. After 
the king had finished the work, he expected rest, but Fate 
imposed on him a heavy task. The king had hardly freed 
his feet from the shackles of government in order to 
enjoy the company of women, and while he hoped for free- 
dom from the cares of the kingdom, an additional load 
was imposed on him. Only one night had passed after 
the country^ had been freed from the enemy, when a 
messenger, dumb with, grief, entered th?. presence of 
the king. AY hen questioned by the noble courtiers, the 
letter carrier replied that of the half brothers Lothana 

3EIHG8 OP KiSHllfllA. 157 

and Salhana who had been confined by king Sussala 
in the hill of Lohara, the elder Salhaaa being dead, the 
officers of the fort had ooroneted the younger Lothana 
on the night succeeding the day on which the king's 
enemy, the disturber of the realm, Bhikshachara had 
died. That Lothana had been asked to come out of the 
prison and take possession of the treasury with his sons 
and nephews, five in all, proud and worthy of the 
kingdom. a ,- s& - ^J-"-jg^ » 

The governors of provinces looked at the king, 
believing that the king} whose mind had been relieved 
at the cessation of long tumults in the kingdom, would 
be grieved and stunned at this bad news which came 
like a thund erbolt ; and that he would cry akrad and 
lie stretched on the ground and remain motionless, be 
numbed and stupified with excess of grief. But the 
king remained as before in conduct and expression. 
No other king had ever been beset with so man j» unbear- 
able and irremediable calamities. He now lost the fort 
and the treasury [of Lohara] by mcaus of which 
his father had regained the kingdom which hjid once been 
lost, and by means of which the present sovereign had 
freed the ancestral kingdom of enemies, and where also 
the last claimant to the throne had been confined, 
friendless, and in obscuri.ty. For many yea* disorder* 
'destroying *weajth and honor and sufferings caused 
by rebellions had prevailed in the kingdom. Now there 
'rose six enemies, strong in wealth, and having forts in 


;he possession of their friends ; and in the kingdom the 
people were divided and the treasuries empty. Tested 
by the touch-stone of these calamities, the nobleness of 
Jie king's mind excelled even the nobleness of Rama. 
Rama was as happy when the kingdom was first offered to 
him, as -when he was afterwards sent into exile ; and his 
father saw the equanimity of his temper on both these 
Occasions and knew that he possessed the equanimity 
3t»£i^«££i!«JPld ( was struck with surprise. He did not 
remark signs of depression in Rama when he ordered him 
bo go to the forest, any more than when he called him 
to succeed to the kingdom. It was on the skirts of a 
beautiful forest, that his father promised to give Kama 
the kingdom, when the time fixed for his exile had 
elapsed ; .iud he b.ide Kama ' w ith his wife und younger 
brother to abide there. Pleasure and pain coming at the 
same time make their difference keenly felt. In this 
world Bidh&ta produces a result where there ia no causr, 
and cm prevent the result where there are many causes 
to produce it. I will speak of the very wonderful acts 
of the king, and who that has not been bereft of pros- 
perity can overrate them ? 

The king who was a sea of patience wished to know of 

the particulars of the affairs of state and made enquiries 

j i 

frum the bcjLrer of the letter who narrated to him the 

accounts of Kotta. "When Bhagika had leffcKofta, Prema, 

lord of Mji i ■ a, careless on account of affluence, paid little 

stttution tothc defence of the country. He gave himself 


up to dress, to excessive eating find to indulgence in wo- 
men. He was fierce and was hated by his servants, and 
his wealthy foster-mother looked after his affairs. He was 
forewarned by Fate which was friendly to the family, by 
such signs as the twiching of the eye, not to proceed 
further. Ho took no steps for the protection of the 
captives. Miyabhyudayana, an .aspiring Kaynstha, Majika 
the Pratihjra, and Indrakara, son of the minister 
Bhlmakara, who had firmly established himself , jjpjgajr^d 
to' destroy Prcma at a certain place. But they found no 
opportunity to kill him, as he came down from Kotta to 
his house on some business. 

" About this time the Kashmirians sent instructions to 
the peoplo of Kotta in order to inspire confidence in 
them. The king was then in reduced circumstances ; 
and according to these instructions, the numerous inhabi- 
tants of Ko« r a wrote secret letters and came into an 
understanding with the wife of ^Lo^onasraiVia} wTtioni 
they had decided to anoint. And after the fort had been 
examined and the men [ who wore in confinement ] had 
been set froe at night, Lo' hanasimha was released from 
confinement and was anointed king before the temple of 
Vishnu, named Iiajasvami. The wicked woman, Sharat, 
widow of kins; Suss.ila, directed these men. She gave an 
iron instrument with which the, bolts of f?he.doors of the 
treasury ^rcrij broken and much valuable jewels were 
robbed. These seven persons, with their servants, though 
attacked by the Chaulalas ( Damaras?) spent the night 

160 KINGS 07 KlSHMiaA. 

performing acta of great valor and in distributing gifts. 
The inhabitants of Kotta passed the night without sleep 
on account of the sounds of drum and trumpet, and 
Lothana appeared almost as a king. He was never seen 
before in such noble dress and the people beheld him 
with surprise. He was also honored with illuminations 
caused by the king's ministers. 

* " Dvar.ika who was with Prema invited from his ow-n 
cpwfrvjtwp Thakkuras, Cliarmma and Pashika with 
their soldiers. They deliberately and completely broke 
down a tower at the time when the night, pale with the 
touch of moonbeams, waned. When Prema learnt this 
bad news in the morning, he was very angry and much 
grieved, and he came out after sunrise to stop their work. 
But when he reached the principal street in the town, 
the soldiers repulsed him. I have seen so far of the 
( enemy's work and have come to you, my lord." 

When, the king had heard this, he did not delay to 
send Lalla, minister of Loharo, and Anandabarddhana, 
the powerful lord of Dvara. The king knew them to be 
of those who knew the country about Kotta and who 
wero born in that place and who knew the ups and 
downs of the land, by local indications. 

When the king entered the palace, he saw the soldiers 
who wore juspu-ing for , reward swinging the head of 
Bhikshu. He snatched it from them and,cauSed it to be 
burnt. Tho crowd who were unchecked and consisted 
mostly of women were grieved to see the grandson burnt 


in the kingdom where his grand-father [ Harsha ] had 
reigned, by the orders of the present king. Tu summer 
when the sun became powerful, the king, confident of a 
successful issue, sent Rilhana to his (king's) native 
country [Lohara. ] Rilhana was distinguished by .his 
mighty valor, his devotion to his master and his being 
devoid of avarice. The king who wished for a prosper- 
ous termination believed that Rilhana would begin a% 
sure career of success. But- either owing to predesti- 
nation or owing to his false ministers, tStTpians 6t" flic- 
king were destroyed before they were matured, and the 
king became uneasy. ' He was not strong in wealth, 
forts or in his ministers, and he believed that the servants 
of his considerate enemy had commenced their work in 
this sultry season. 

Udaya, lord «f Kampana, waited before the king, and 
then went after the prime minister, the Pratihara. The 
army consisted of the Rajputs, and the Damara horsemen 
and was led by ministers, and accompanied by troops who 
looked terrible in their arms. A part of the force which 
was within the palace [at Lohara] surrounded a largo 
tract of country and tried to seize the e«cmy. Lalla 
, and others remained at Phullapura adjoiniug Kotta, and 
made the enemy's soldiers trcmblo by sproading alarm 
and dissension among them, and also b,y skirmishes. 
Sussala had # received many services from L Jthana ; but 
Shura, the kiflg of many lands, to whom Sussala had 
given his daughter Padmalekha in .marriage, came to 

16& KINGS OF KisffufttA. 

the help of the king (of Kashmlra,] and Shura's soldiers 
consequently attacked the soldiers of the enemy. When 
they had besieged the country, Lothtuiu's heart wavered 
through fear, and he thought of submitting to the king, 
and to the punishment ho would award. " Our fruitless 
endeavour has come to a suitable end, in these desperate 
times, we should retreat, and in such retreat there is no 

humiliation." [Thus thought Lothana to himself.] 
Lakshmaka urged on him every day that they would 

"'gradually "cottSft forceB and make a good beginning on 
the approach of the favorable season of autumn. But 
neither the king [of , Lohara] nor the other ministers 
present there accepted the advice, for the latter were 

Udayana, the king's principal manager, promised 
much wealth to Somapala and brought Kim to the help 
of his master. Somapala was avaricious of wealth and 
though he wad refated to the king [ of Eashmfra J, was 
not worthy of taking his meals with the king. He had 
taken side against the king who was then in a very 
dangerous situation. " If Lothana • gives me much 
wealth whatHlo I care of my relationship with the king, 
if he does not, I will promise falsely to Lothana to be ou 
his side." Thus treacherously thought Somapala within 
himself as he went. Sujji also had some reason for be- 
having dcceitfulty. When Bhikfchachara hul asked and 
insisted that the king of Kashmira should pay the 
money promised to him before, Sujji had been sent to 

KINGS 07 KAPriJtfltA. 163 

Bhikshaohara as an envoy. But the king recalled 
him soon after through Somapala. Sujji then heard 
that Bhikshachara was on the brink of destruction, 
and he refrained from joining him, believing that 
Bhikshachara would not be able to tide over the 
difficulties. Filled with pride, the king did not pa/ any 
thing to Bhikshachara. When Sujji heard that Bhiksha- 
chara was killed, he thought it inexpedient to joii£ 
Bhikshac tiara's }>arty, as he knew that every one was 
sympathising with the king. «"*— » 

Frightened by the troubles which raged at Lohara, 
Sujji bejame anxious and very much grieved. He said 
to the rebels one day that he would cause peace to be 
established between them and the king and Lothana 
through the king's envoy, and that he would induce 
Lothana to pay st>me gold to them by speaking to Somapala. 
He sought by such promises to strengthen or to weaken 
the different parties as suited the furtherance of his own 
interest. Followed by a handful of servants who appear- 
ed to go in quest of some other object, Sujji joined the 
• powerful army of Somapala. Thus Sujji scattered ashes 
on all sides* and soiled his good name, and^io destroyed 
the nobility of his soul through the lust of enjoyment. 
He could not forego the luxurious food of Kashmlra, 
digested by water white as snow or sugar. Unable to 
eat dry oa£m*al mixed "with husk which he got out of 
Kashmira, he was anxious to enter it by any means. 

». bvliaved in an unworthy manner. 

164 kings ov KlsmifnA. 

The Kashmirians saw that the dissensions did not 

terminate at the end of summer, and became anxious 
when they heard of Sujji's approach. They lived on 
fried meat, drank the charming, light and cool juice of 
grapes smelling of flowers, and they came to the Pratl- 
harw and said that they would soon bring Sujji dragging 
him by the beard. Thus the people began to talk of their 
^manliness. But when Sujji arrived with a few Kashmi- 
rians, with the Kliashas and the meiM>f Sindhu, they 
^riecRn*viiflMW confront him. Somapala who had asked 
for a large sum of money was told by Lothana that he 
•would rather pay tribute to Jayasimha, the principal 
enemy, and the proudest of the proud. Thus rebuked, 
Somapala rendered some service to the king. Somapala 
then thus addressed Sujji : — " O ! Sujji ! thou art on the 
side of my father-in-law's ( Jayasimha's ^ army eager to 
fight against the enemy, wherefore wilt thou then seek 
to descry my weakness V Thus rebuked, Sujji left all 
aside inliis pride, and went over to the king's army. 

Attacked with cold and fever and struok with excessive 
fright, Lakshmaka broke up his encampment during 
night and find at tho end of the fever-giving month of 
Ashada. Some of the soldiers of Jayasimha sent 
messengers to their sovereign to inform him of the flight, 
and pursued Sujji with the intention of destroying those 
who fled. -The army of the king marched on one side 
of the road leading to the fort of Shvabhia, while on the 
other side of it, marched the enemy. But the enemy 

kings of kAshmira. 165 

finding the road named Shiiramvara occupied by the 
army of Jayasimha, avoided it, and went by the pass of 
Kalenana, and marched towards their own ground. 
Before the day closed, they were seen by many persons in 
the village of Vanikavama. They were pursued by their 
pursuers to the neighbouring villages. The latter passed 
-the time without any fear, in eating and drinking, till mid- 
night. Sujji who was afflicted with sorrow hastily approach^ 
ed the enemy and caused his trumpet to b e Boun ded 
in OTder to let the enemy know that he was nigh. As 
the night waned, the ^oldiers, left without any leader, 
fled through the mountain roads. When in the morning, 
the ministers who were with the army were robbed of 
their various colored dresses, they appeared like hillocks 
variagated with melted metals after an earthquake. 
The soldiers who plundered carried no weapon for the 
defence of the army, as if the wind which they Raised by 
their movement defended them. Some, who* nether- 
garments were of red color, appeared, as they jumped 
over the rocks, like- monkeys with red buttocks in their 
march. Some left off their clothes exposing to sight 
their fair bodies and seemed like pieces of rocks of yellow 
arsenic moved by the wind. Some of thoni who were 
corpulent, as they passed over the hills covered with 
forests of pike-like bamboos, bueathed heaviij 7 with their 
heads uprlfteo^ like elephants raising their trunks. It 
is needless to mention names. There was none among 
the ministers whose firmness was not shaken, and who 

166 KINGS OP kashmi'ba. 

did not run away through fear of the beasts and birds 
in the forest. The Pratlhara was seen by some of the 
enemy's soldiers riding on the shoulder of his servant 
who was unable to run fast. The soldiers determined 
to seize him, and pursued him with all their might. He 
was 'without clothes and his gold ear-rings and arm-rings 
glittered in the sun. The servant wounded by a stone 
"let fall his master from his shoulder and he was out by 
a rock. Ho lay without moving or speaking and was 
'taken up by tlie soldiers who soon came up to him. He 
became, like a sharika ( a bird ) that fe.els miserable and 
languishes when newly caught and while the moisture is 
yet in her throat. He could hardly cast his eye on the 
enemies. He thought that after he fell into the hands 
of the enemy, Sujji would subject him to still greater 
indignities. Shorn of wealth and fame and having only 
his upper garment on him and without even the power 
, to movCj he was borne on the shoulders by the troopers 
who shouted and laughed in derision. Thus he was 
conveyed' to Sujji. Tliat kind hearted man covered his 
face and enquired why he was not honored like a great " 
king, and gave him his own clothes to dress. Sujji con- 
soled him with mild words, clothed him and placed him 
on a horse and thus comforted him. Surrounded by the 
• Khasha soldiers who wore plundering horses, swords and 
treasures, Sujji went to Somapala taking -Sakshmaka 
with him. With whom does prosperity remain perma- 
nently ? It follows the cloud of fortune, like the unsteady ■ 


lightning which plays with the -nymphs of the sky. He 
( the Pratlhara ) whom Somapiila and others had served 
like servants and whose body they had smeared with 
perfumes, was now, within five mouths, seen by men 
Beated before Somapala in that plight. Lalla was^also 
captured by the enemy. "With his black face surrounded 
with white hair, he looked like a monkey in a strange, 
forest, dumb wijb. sorrow. Somapala took with him 
Lakshmaka, made over to him by Sujji, fjsni.oonsitte'rfiig*'* 
that Kashmira had already been subdued, returned to 
his own kingdom. Tfcie powerful and wise Majika and 
others came from Lothana, and having obtained from 
Somapala a promise to give them what they would ask, 
begged him for the delivery of the Pratlhara for a large 
amount of gold.. But Somapala, desirious of obtaining 
the lands possessed by the Pratlhara and also expecting 
much wealth' from the king, did not give him up though 
he had promised to do so. * 

When the disgraced ministers returned to the capital, 
and when the Pratlhara was taken, the king did not 
lose self-possession. Ten thousand troops of the 
army, — the same army by which Bhikshachara had 
before caused a division in the country, and by which 
Sussala had gained power in the disturbed kingdom, — 
now perished of cold and fev6r. Funeral* music and 
the lamentatioji of friends continued day and night 
in the land, and did not cease even for a moment. 
In the powerful sun of the summer season, the life of 


the survivors became inert ; and the time seemed like 
that for the destruction of the kingdom owing to the 
depression of men's minds. At Lohara, people from 
various countries, and even from Kashmlra went to 
the palace-gate, so that it became crowded. Thus it 
was by a happy chance that Lothana obtained the 
Meeting Royal Fortune, and became as full of splendour 
as the god of wealth. The sons of Lothana's brother 
i^d» tfc*- son^^gf his servants did not share Lothana's 
physical and mental infirmities, and were not deprived 
of enjoyments. The actions of £ne rich king Lothana 
who did not bestow charity on the undeserving and 
was not niggardly to the deserving, lacked energy owing 
to his old age. As when the course of a shadow is 
obstructed, the light naturally gets intermingled with . 
darkness ; so though happiness is quite the opposite of 
misery, yet the course of uniform pleasure is 'interrupted 
'by great afflictions. 

Within about a month, after he had obtained great- 
ness, Lothana's only son named Dilha died; and Lotha- 
na's beloved wife, Miilla died sorrowing for her only son, 
pierced with grief and despair. On the death of his most 
beloved wife and of his worthy son, Lothana did not 
pay attention to the affairs of the kingdom. But owing 
either to hisjiatural want of affection or to the genial 
influence of Kingly Fortune, he indulge^ liiPpleasures 
again. The king [of Kashmlra] knew how to take 
advantage of an opportunity; and although poor, he 


ransomed the old Lakshmaka for thirty-six lakhs [ of the 
current coin.] When Lakshmaka arrived, the road was 
strewn with flowers and the people saw the growing 
prosperity of the king ; and who did not then believe 
that the king had got back the Royal Fortune ? The 
greatness of fortune soon removed the stain of the 
defeat which the powerful king had sustained, and he 
was again able to favor and punish men. Sujji whose 
avarice had destroyed his dexterity in all .business, jaor.v 
threw off his disguise and became the minister of 
king Lothana. He bestowed on king Lothana, the daughter 
of Bhagika and removed the mistrust which existed 
between him and Lothana, and also soothed the grief 
caused by the death of his beloved ones. The able Sujji 
requested king Padmaratha, and brought Padmaratha's 
daughter named Somaladevi for marriage with Lothana. 
Having thus by high, connections established the stability 
of king Lothana, Sujji paid off the debt; o£ leoeiving* 
the post of the minister which he had sought. The new 
king, at the repeated request of the Damaras and 
' others, sent Sujji to Koshmira, and Sujji riropared his 
plan for entering that country. 

The son of Sussala (king Jayasimha) devised means to ' 
deceive the enemy who was now in a prosperous condition 
as stated above, and had allied himself with£he kings of 
the adjoinMg* countries. Udaya, lord of Dvara, deep in 
wisdom and of unabated zeal, was admired for his services 
* to the king by the unthinking people. He lost all his 


wealth, in bestowing gifts and conferring honors on men, 
and lie was always zealous in the service of his master. 
He remained at Vanaprastha, not far from Lohara, and 
during the never-ending war, he unweariedly spread dis- 
cord among the forces of the enemy. Daraka and others 
frightened Majika with rumours which might have been 
true or false, of some harm from king Lothana. They 
apprehended that as they had been conspirators and 
E^te fit to be executed, the king who had confided his 
purposes to Sujji would think it proper to take their 
lives, and would send Sujji for that purpose. On the 
other hand, the wise king Jayasimha, within a short time, 
deceived Lothana, as he had deceived Frema. He said 
to the people : — " We will make Mallarjjuna, son of king 
SuBsala by queen Sahaja, king of this Lohara for your 
benefit." When the king had said these deceitful words, 
the people did not believe him, yet they consented to his 
-proposaLwith the object of possessing Kotta. Lothana 
knew his brother's son Mallarjjuna to be first among the 
conspirators, and imprisoned him as also the other 
conspirators of whom Mallarjjuna was the chief. Afraid 
of the son of Sussala (Mallarjjuna) who was imprisoned, 
Lothana made Vigraharaja accept the office of the 
Pratihara. The king who was fertile in expedients, con- 
cluded peacp with the brother of his father by stratagem 
and by various other means, and hastened" -^ bring the 
lost kingdom (Lohara) under his control. Through the 
labors of Sujji, the kingdom became stable, and for a few 


months Lothana could discard Shura, and was able, 
without fear, to engage himself in his own work. AVhen 
Sujji heard that the mother of the unmarried daughter of 
Padmaratha, whom he had invited for marriage of her 
daughter with Lothana, had arrived with great pomp, he 
went to Darpitapura to receive her men. At this unguarded 
time Mallarjjuna was released from prison by Majika and 
others, and was unanimously anointed king of the king- 
dom of Kotta by them and by theThakkuras who had bepii 
brought to the place before. They opposed the entrance 
into the fort, of the, servants of Jayasimba who had 
approached the castle gate and were wishing to get into it. 
In the year 6, on the thirteenth day of the bright moon, 
■ in the month of Phalguna, Lothana was deprived of his 
kingdom, as speedily as he had obtained it. The foolish 
and unfortunate Lothana lamented that the unmarried girl 
and his unspent wealth should go for the enjoyment of 
another. "His power was now broken, he passed'through* 
Attalika and other places, and obtained what little 
remained in the treasury, through Sujji's influence. 

When the dependants of king Jayasimha, who had 
been invited before, arrived, Majika reproached them 
and made king Mallarjjuna supreme in the country. 
This prodigal and youthful king, on one occasion, distri- 
buted betelsprepared wjth pearls, for want (f botel-nuts. 
In the indmgpjaee of his passions, he showered gold on 
the procurers. Such gift was pronounced criminal by the 
wise men. Thus the prodigal Mallarjjuna squandered 


the contents of the treasury which king Sussala had 
filled by oppressing the subjects, and the money 
so obtained was thus suitably spent. Mallarjjuna dis- 
carded the good, and filled the coffers of the astrologers, 
the evil-doers, the licentious, tho servants and others, 
for ho was vicious and evil-minded. The wealth of 
kings obtained by extorting the people will either be 
taken away by enemies or spent on evil purposes or will 
he .burnt. The wealth of king Jayaplda obtained by 
oppressing the subjects was squandered by Utpala and 
others, — the sons of a servant-woman and the destroyers 
of his grandson. Shankaravarmma's wealth obtained 
in various ways by oppressing tho people was used by 
his wife's paramours, — Prabhakara and others. The 
sensual wives of "the Lame " who did not like the em- 
braces of their husband gave his ill-gotten wealth to 
Sugandhaditya, their paramour. King Yashaskara's 

•hoarded J^ealth was spent by the woman, — a Chandall, 
in her lust. The bountiful son of Parwagupta died after 
obtaining the treasures earned by the previous kings, 
and Tunga and others got them as paramours of the 
wife of Parvvagupta's son. The rich Sangramaraja, who 
was anxious to get a large income, was robbed by 
Vyaddasuha and others who like bees extracted honey 
from the Ictus-like face „of his wife Shrilekha. The 

• riches of king Ananta, who did not alSfcSHl to his 
duties and did much harm to his subjects, were burnt 
to ashes after his death. The ill-gotten treasures of 

KINGS ov kIshmiua. 173 

king Kalaaha, obtained from Koshala, were, on his death, 
soon given by his son to the undeserving and by his 
■widow to her paramour. The wealth of king Harsha- 
deva, whose thirst for gain was never satisfied, was burnt 
by fire along with his home, wives and sons. The well- 
earned riches of the strictly rightoous kings Chandra- 
plda, Uchchala, Avantivarmma and others wero rightly 
disposed of. * 

Thieves, conspirators, petty neighbouring kings, prosti- 
tutes and dissolute men robbed Mallarjjuwtf on his new ' 
ascendancy to a great extent. Even after deceiving his 
enemy, the purpose of the king [Jayasimha] was frus- 
trated. Jayasimha was grieved, and sent Chitraratha 
to attack [Mallarjjuna.] The king honored him by 
giving him possession of estate equal to Dvara and 
Padagra ; and 4ie stationed himself at Phullapura with 
innumerable petty chiefs. But though his followers were 
many* they could not overcome the enemies, as they,, 
were sheltered within a fort. In order *to gain an en- 
trance, one named Sambarddhana, a servant of Chitra- 
ratha, and a confidential man of the king, scaled the 
fort at night, but was killed by the followeTs of Mallar- 
jjuna. Though the enemies could not be overcome in 
fight, yet when Koshteshvara arrived in the rear [of 
Chitraratha,] they were struck with panic. 'Koshteshvara 
came to terrog, and peace was established with Mallar- 
jjuna. Mallarjjuna then sent his mother to visit the 
.other party out of civility. But she excited the passion 

174 KINGS 07 KisHMfRA. 

of the unsteady Koshteshvara and others by her rich 
and faultless dress of widowhood. When their confi- 
dence was established she returned from them, and Mal- 
larjjuna gave the promised tribute to the lord of Dvara. 
Attracted by the beauty of the eyes of the king's 
motheV, Koshteshvara on the pretence of seeing Kotta 
began to ascend the ground with a limited number of 
" followers. But when he had gone up half the way, 
Chitraratha with adequato presents accompanied him, 
and both went" to the king together. The king then 
consulted Udaya, lord of Dvara, who had acquired 
much wisdom, and again planned for the subjection of 
his enemies. At the time when Lotliana went to Padma- 
ratha, the new king, now free from fear of an attack, had 
leisure to stretch his legs; and accordingly availed 
himself of the opportunity and married Somala, daughter 
of Padmaratha. He married also the daughter of 
J$agap&l§. Somapals aod other kings screened their 
deceitfulness from Mallarjjuna, foolish in his pride, and 
took pay as servants. Many deceitful persons cheated 
the king by their poetry, song, gossip, fighting and 
flattery, and robbed him of every thing, and so did his 
dependants. Owing to his boyish years, Mallarjjuna had 
an undeveloped intellect, and he was known to be a fool, 
owing to hjs garrulity ; t and he was bent on mischief. 
There was nothing beautiful about hirtrswscept hia 
bright face, like the beautiful formed comet, which is 
the cause of evil. 


At this opportunity the king [Jayasimha] bro. 
over the fiery-tempered Sujji to his side, with the view 
that MallSrjjuna might not get his assistance The king 
displayed a groat power for seasonable artifice, both at 
the time of exiling Sujji from his service and at the 
time of bringing him over to his side. Jayasimha' gave 
Sujji the garland indicative of the possession of Kam- 
pana except the Eajsthana ( palace ), and in order particu- 
larly to gratify SVjji, he, at the request of Somapala and 
others who had come to his house at the time of bestow- 
ing the garland, was pleased to pull away the garland 
which he had worn on his own head, with the left hand, 
and to give Sujji the fruit of Fortune, thus honoring him 
the more. Sujji looked on it with delight, and was glad 
to accept it as a valuable gift. At the time when Sujji 
came before th'o king, Bilhana discarded the friendship 
of TJdaya and Dhanya for the benefit of his master and 
behaved as their enemy. The king honorcrl # Sujji by* 
going forward to receive him and caused him to be 
brought in, and in compliance with his request, the king 

1 expelled Dhanya and others, Snjji's enemies, from the 
country, though not from his mind. The king intended 
to kill Koshteshvara with a weapon, and that guilty 
man who was present, knew of it, and fled from him. 
And when the king took with p him Maim jesh vara and 
attacked £jflif-eshvara,' and the latter being weakened 
by the discord among his own men fled from the country. 

■ Lothana having obtained help from some Thakkuraa 

176 KINGS. OF kashmi'ba. 

remained at a place named Vapyanlla, and defeated 
Mallarjjuna by his prowess. Lothana displayed unexpect- 
ed courage on this occasion. Deprived of his throne, 
he overcame Mallarjjuna after having tied Tip his legs 
[ t. e. not allowing him to escape. ] He seized the horses 
and plundered the market of Attalika and everywhere 
destroyed roads and towns. Lothana entered Krama- 
r&jya at the request of the Damara named Rajaraja, and 
in order to obtain the kingdom of Eashmlra. But when 
Ce arrived tEere, the Lavanya who was near him 
was killed by Chitraratha; whereupon he returned 
to Bapyanlla. Lothana repeatedly attacked Mallarjjuna, 
so that the latter was unable to lay seige to Attalika 
and he resided at Kotta. Koshteshvara caused much 
wealth to be given by the nephew [Mallarjjuna-] to the 
uncle [ Lothana ] and established peace*between them. 
When peace was established at Lohara, Koshteshvara, 
jjrith a view to fight with the king [ Jajasimha, J took 
Lothana with him and fell on Eashmlra. When he had 
scaled the hills and had set his foot on Karkotadranga, 
the other Damaras who had arrived by the level road, 
could not yet w join him. The active king came out, and 
by every means in his power, crushed him at the time of 
his ascendency. 

Meanwhile tie Pratlhara died without illness. The 
riches of peflple possessing small virtue arj^rjpt safe to 
their lives. Fie to those men who find "a pleasure in 
driving away people from them, and who live by shutting 


the doors of their room, and without being importuned 
by men, and whose prosperity makes their intellect light. 
They cannot anticipate the sudden fall of their auspicious 
fortune. The female servant of the Pratlhara who had 
always been driving away men from the house, and slept 
at ease did not know that the Death was • at his back. 
He was sleeping after tho fever had left him, and so, 
thought Bhe, but she did not know that he died even 
when Bleeping. _ ^ 

When Koshtaka with Lothana had departed from 
[ Lohara, ] neither Mallarjjuna nor Koshtaka nor Lothana 
remained the sovereign of the country. Mallarjjuna 
killed Udayana who was on his side through treachery. 
On this Koshtaka who had been appointed umpire between 
them became very angry with Mallarjjuna. Koshtaka 
then collected a force, and ho did not show himself inferior 
to Mallarjjuna, and accompanied by Lothana, he marched 
rapidly in wage* to tooftcffA MallaYJj\m&. He jt>iii*d a. few" 
horsemen headed by Mallakoshta, crossed the river 
Paroshm and crushed a weak army [ of the enemy. ] 
In this battle when the Khashas and the inen of Sindhu 
perished, though the king [ Mallarjjuna ] could have been 
destroyed, yet, out of jealousy towards Jayasimha, he 
was spared. He [" Mallarjjuna ] ascended, the crest of 
Kotta, but was fallen from tho> crest of prijjlc, and his 
power was^jrokpn ; and he again concluded peace with 
Koshfaka. Leaving Lothana [ Koshtaka ] remained 
with the Damaras without committing any hostility, 

178 KINGS 07 KAsHMfRA. 

but in a doubtful state towards Mallarjjuna who did not 
give him what he had stipulated to give. "Koshtaka 
imprisoned the chiefs of the several departments of 
government, and, like a king,- collected rent from the 
subjects in Dranga, in his own name, and left no money 
in Sindhu. * As two fragments of a glass jar joined 
•together by lac get separated, so from time to time, the 
peace was broken between them. Th^e lord of Lohara 
[ Mallarjjuna^- estranged himself from the Damaras by 
his harsh words, and they too alienated his heart from 
them by their ungovernable defiance. The Damaras 
attacked the centre of the camp, possessed themselves 
of the superior weapons, horses and beasts of burden, 
and made the camp lifeless. The foolish Koshtaka 
with his powerful army frightened [.Mallarjjuna] as 
regards the future, and reduced him to a state of 
weakness in which he could be easily destroyed by 

At this opportunity the king [ Jayasimha ] thought 
of destroying Majika his principal minister and father- 
in-law. Majika had bestowed his daughter on the king. 
Majika was young and lustful, and the' king believed 
that it was well known that he was the paramour of 
the king's m„other. At the time when Majika was 
taking his weals, he wrts, at the instigation of the king, 
killed by the Tikshnas who were providodwith arms. 
The king' brandished his sword, tied about him the 
shield of a warrior, plundered Majika's soldiers and, by 


the volubility of his speech, behaved as in a theatre. 
It is strange that in the midst of this rebellion even Didda- 
kara was not left alive ; the king made an end of him 
by administering poison. It was by chance that the 
enemies of the king were dispersed. He sent Sum to 
subdue Koshtaka. In one prahara Sujji Beached the 
end of the road he had to traverse, but he was harassed, 
owing to his horses being robbed by Koshtaka. Dis- 
tressed by internal quarrel and unable to remain there, > 
Mallarjjuna left Kotta after taking with him his wealth. 
Expelled from his territory, he was plundered by the 
robbers and was nearly surrounded by them ; and it was 
with difficulty that he secured the remainder of his 
treasure. On the second day of Vaishakha, in the year 
8, Mallarjjuna, aged eighteen years, lost the kingdom. 

Udaya, lord of Kampana, reduced Kapila, Harshata 
and Kotta under the province of Mandala. He collected 
the treses of Kotta and, -w ita a tto-w to consolidate ™ 
Mandala, waited there for a few days. At this time the 
mind of the king who was about to reward the lord of 
Kampana, was abused by tho treason of.wicked and 
profligate men who wore jealous of one another. "What 
king except yourself is resolute in doing justice 1" said 
the wily men to the king, and made the f sovereign act 
like a child. The king, yhen a ohild, was in <2e company 
of ignorant 'meja, and was dull ; and when he attained 
his youth, his dullness did not altogether leave him, 
just as the flaw in a precious stone is not effaced by time. 

1 80 XtXGS OF KiSHK/BA. 

Alas ! The selection of the king's officers is the cause of 
the sufferings of the innocent kingdom, like the sudden 
fall of a thunderbolt. In the hope should Sujji be un- 
successful in attaining the desired end, he would, like 
Lak^hmaka and others, be an object of laughter, the 
confidential servants of the king had employed Sujji in 
subduing Lohara. Wicked men brought against 3ujji, 
■who had performed many wonderful deeds, the charge 
K>f treachery which was as unfailing as Brahmastra. On. 
account of the gravity of the king, the change of his 
mind was not apparent ; and the lord of Kampana (Sujji) 
who had returned to the king did not know of the turbid 
state of his mind in the expression of friendly feelings 
which the king used towards him. How could he who 
was naturally loyal and who had done .such services to 
the king entertain fear or distrust 1 The king was not 
pleased with the just acts done by him, 'as he who is 
'bereft of the sense of pleasure is not pleased by the 
words of affection of the woman he does not love. Sujji 
behaved with ease, feeling proud at the thought that he 
had, for the king, conquered the two kingdoms which had 
been lost before. Sujji having plundered the town, the 
citizens became unruly, and his friends opposed him. 
Koshtcshvara,rcmombered his own transgression and did 
not trust tftc king nor even his uncle [ Lothana ] who 
expressed his displeasure towards the king."***'" 

Chitraratha, who with Sujji was accumulating wealth 
by oppressing the subjects and was related to the king 


was disliked by his angry master. As the king favored 
Sujji, Dhanyodaya showed no friendship towards 
the king, but lived in tho capital and secretly robbed 
him of his wealth. Sujji and Chitraratha had now 
grown old and had lost their retainers through cold and 
fever, and they secretly robbed Mallarjjuna who, tHough 
deprived of his kingdom, was very rich, Lakshmaka 
invited Safijapala through his messengers, on account of 
his enmity with Sujji, and Safijapala came to the capital. 
The king [ Jayasimha ] whose efforts had been checked 
by Sujji and Chitraratha did not give orders to Safija- 
pala to enter the city ; but Mallarjjuna sent messengers 
to him. On this account Safijapala got himself into a 
quarrel on the way with some leaders of tho army, his 
body was marked with wounds, and he was deprived of his 
glory. Even, in this plight, Mallarjjuna could not bring 
him over to him, though he promised much wealth. Wise 
men therefore praised SanjapaUv A. certain ib.uda.tgry chic£ 
privately invited him through messengers) out of courtesy, 
and Kilhana and he came there without delay. "If I am not 
killed yet, I shall bo killed afterwards," thought tho brave 
Safijapala, as he entered the city by a road difficult of 
access, on account of enemies. He was respected by tho 
kings of Kanyakubja and Gauda for his prowess, but he 
was grieved at not receiving good treatment in his own 
country. »-3ut the citizens near the capital looked 
towards his feet. The king appeared before Safijapala, 
■after he had deliberated with the ministers, and honored 

182 kings op kAshmika. 

him by giving him betel with his own hand. Though 
an insignificant man, he was followed by men as he 
had obtained renown, and he made his enemies tremble 
by frequenting the palace of the king. Sujji who could 
sec into the minds of men observed the uncommon 
appearance of, Safijapala, his conversation and his con- 
duct, and trembled. He thought within himself .that 
this wonderful behaviour of Safijapala, which was quite 
unprecedented and excelled all excellent actions, would 
serve to restore peace in the kingdom. Sujji had seen 
haughty warriors in various countries, but when he saw 
Safijapala he thought little of those whom he had seen 
before, for they [ unlike Safijapala ] had wished to live 
in peace. 

Either on account of destiny or on account of his 
haughtiness, Sujji became ungovernable and committed 
many censurable acts according to his pleasure. While lie 
"was in tkc Malava kingdom, a Brahmana, who had been 
plundered by his followers, spoke harsh words in anger. 
Sujji killed him by a dart, as one kills a jackal. By this 
deed he irritated the people who collected outside the 
town, and the people within the town were also 
estranged from him on account of this terrible act. 

At this time Kamaliya and others contracted friend- 
ship with otye of Sujji's friends, [ Rilhana ], whom Sujji 
in his prido treated with indifforence, altfttlligh he was 
worthy of respect. "Though he is faithful to me," 
thought Sujji in his pride, " is there any one who 


Confers any favor on me f And with this thought, Sujji 
treated him as if he had been a flatterer. Rilhana be- 
came the enemy of Sujji, on account of his matrimonial 
alliance with Kamaliya and others and on account of his 
own prowess. But through a slight cause, a division 
arose between Rilhana and Kamaliya and others, and 
soon-ths. diiFerenoe increased a hundred-fold. Ulhana, 
son of Sahadeva, soon incited the naturally proud Ril- 
hana by evil advices which stirred his vanity and inspire 
ed him with a spirit of opposition. " The king is un* 
grateful, he tolerates equality between Kamaliya and 
others and ourselves." Thus he made Rilhana angry 
even with the king. The king who was well supported, 
consequently excluded Rilhana, like an outsider, from 
confidential and familiar talk. But Rilhana who con- 
cealed his master's altered mood towards him by his 
cunning imparted firmness to his friends and fear to 
his enemies by his hypocrisy. By means of gifts he 
gained the friendship of Sanjapala who was till power- 
ful and who was sought for by both parties. Both the 
parties were armed, and in the sight of tjoch other, en- 
tered the capital which was every moment convulsed . 
with fear. 

Sujji caused a tumult among the opposing chiefs at 
a place of amusement cajled Mahimana, witjj a view to 
overthrow" tneip. Saiijapala standing at the gate with 
his hand resting on his neck was pointed out to Sujji. 
Sujji became angry, he rebuked Saujupala and threw a 


stone at him. But the king assuaged his anger and made 
him sit by him. He thought that no h.irm would befall s>o 
long Sujji lived. The Brahmanas of Malava said that they 
did not wish that Sujji should obtain possession of the 
kingdom of Kampana ; and they remained without food. 
Rilhana brought by night Fanchachandra who had collect- 
ed an army, in order secretly to strike terror interfile" ene- 
mies. Sujji feared Sanjapala and also Pagchachandra who 
Kad a large force, and did not consider any one else as his 
enemy. Afraid of an attack, Sujji issued out of the house 
with the cavalry, and remained awake at night in the 
street with a large army and the horsemen. The king 
was perplexed; and Koshteshvara became united by 
friendship with Sujji who was well supported. Sujji killed 
Manujeshvara who was favorably dispos<$ [ towards the 
king ] ; and for this act, the king who had detested Sujji 
before, now detested him all the more. When such was 
trie state*of things, Sujji's enemies told the king that Sujji 
was undoing during the night what the king had done for 
his own safety. The king was like a foolish man who consi- 
ders falsehood to be truth and regards truth as falsehood ; 
and he was deserted by prosperity and was oppressed with 
evils. They whose eyes are jaundiced believe the effulgence 
of gems to bo fire and avoid thorn, and they make a similar 
mistake in whatever they -look at. L What do not men devoid 
of reason sec ? In this world they regard falsehood as 
truth and truth as falsehood. The king did not know 
any other way of overcoming the troubles except battle, 

KINGS 0? KisHMfRA. 185 

and employed Safijapala to chastise the powerful Sujji. 
Like a coward, aud able to destroy the heroic Sujji only 
by deceit, Safijapala waited for opportunity at different 
places with, a view to kill Sujji by throwing a missle. 
Thus when both intended to kill each other by deceit and 
aimed at each other, the kingdom became disturbed, some- 
times .by fear, and sometimes by exuH ation. Sujji feared 
that his enemies would rise at night and kept himself 
awake as before. Even in the king's dwelling, the senti; 
nals remained vigilant. 

Sujji wished to banish Rilhana from the kingdom, 
and the king, unable to oppose him, consented. 
Rilhana wanted to go, but after he had bade adue 
to his sovereign, the lord of Dvara told the king that 
the people were grieved for Rilhana and with the 
king's permission kept him in the country. Sujji consulted 
the king and became desirous of reconciling Rilhana with 
the sovereign. But Safijapala, who along with fjjujji had 
devoured the king's treasures, thus spoke to the king : — 
" ! King ! It is at the instigation of Ulhana and 
others and through his own pride that Sujji is hoMing up 
his head. It is his wish not to bear the rivalry of others ; 
he says that with the king's permission; ho who has never 
rebelled against the king, but has done hi ii _, > >d service, 
can send Rilhana to exile, seize ijic very i ■■■ i i 'aitraratha, 
collect agsinthc cavalry which, has fled from Loliava, and 
can recover the king's treasures which have been totally 
'destroyed. He can collect an army and destroy Koshtaka. 

186 KtfJCtS OP KiSHMfRA. 

He regards his life as little as grass in bis master's work, 
and makes his will subservient to his duty, and not 
to the interests of his relatives. This youth [ meaning 
yourself] will be a king freed from all anxiety 
by the overthrow of the hostile king, and will 
reign in the centre of his kingdom the whole of which 
wjll submit to his exertions. Ho further says th^i-you are 
desinras that Ulhana, lord of Dvara, should have 
swpremc power in strengthening the kingdom, and that 
Sujji should be allowed full powers in dealing with Rilhana. 
And if there was no disagreement among Sujji, Ulhana 
and yourself, no one, you thought, could usurp the seat 
of the king. But if you do not abide by these terms, 
then he (Sujji) will bring here an aged relative and place 
him on the seat of the king." The king feared to be 
besieged by the enemy, and was anxious to bind Saiija- 
pala over to his side, and he thus spoke [ to himself] 
with a Iftavy sigh ; and as ho apoko tho rays from his> 
teeth seemed to show his worth. " What he [ Sujji ] hut 
said is true ; he is wanting neither in tho will to rise 
against tho feing nor in ability ; neither is it probable 
that the proud man will remain inactive. It is difficult to 
root out his enmity, not to mention his plan of doing harm. 
When I wan augry with him, I intended to kill him, and 
I am sorry* "that that tict must be done, be he really a 
rebel or not. fiuroly he will learn our plans By bestow- 
ing money to tho weak-minded men in whose presence 
we held consultation, and by bringing them over to his 

kings of kAshsiiea. 187 

aide. It is owing either to the dullness of our intellect 
or to the virtue of these men of inferior capacity that 
they are enjoying- our good things. Those kings who 
employ stupid men have to undergo such penances as are 
the fruits of ignorance. The path of kings becomes difficult 
on account of dishonest men, as the road ef the market 
place, dJigctilt on account of bulls. What a difference is 
there between the path known to politicians and that 
known to tho deceitful. The deceitful and the dogs are 
alike ; they arc both opposed to good work in every way, 
their tongues are restless and they steal others' food- 
This unavoidable bad deed which we are about to commit, 
troubled and frightened by the deceitful, will make us re- 
pent aftcv wards." Thus the king thought and was ready to 
accomplish Sum's murder, and with that view kept Saiija- 
pala always on the watch, and he also remained watchful. 
The king was in a disturbed state of mind, because he 
feared that the plan would ooze out, and because "lie hearS 
from his servant that Sujji also had intended to kill him. 
The king told Eilhana to go home and to form a matri- 
monial alliance with Sujji, and this alliancf he caused to 
be made. Though the king had planned to kill Sujji, yot 
he could not find an opportunity to do so, and he lost 
self-control and thought of it day and nighjt, rolling on his 
bed. As Safljapala did not return from his £ome, grieved 
at tho <Teafii,of a friend of his, the king feared that 
the desperate work was not done, and became the more 
' distressed in mind. Kularaja, a commander in the array, 


and a celebrated athlete, had brothers named KalySna- 
raja and others who had fallen like heroes in the field of 
battle, unmindful of the benefit done .to them by king 
Sussala. Kularaja was anxious to pay off the debt [of 
benefit done to his brothers by Sussala ] even at the 
sacrifice of hjs life, and asked the king the cause of lna 
misery. The king told him that the cause of his misevy 
was his fear of the lord of Kampana [ Sujji ] which he was 
unable to check or dispel and for ■which there was no 
remedy. What an insignificant thing it was, said Kularaja, 
to offer one's life in the service of the king ; and he was 
determined to do the desperate deed. The lord of Kam- 
pana [Sujji ] who for two days did not come out of his 
house, had no security guaranteed to him either against 
death or against ill-fortune. 

On the third day Shringara, a faithful servant, 
told the king that he saw Sujji on bed . and alone. 
The servant who is kept as an ornament to his master, 
though he serves always, is not employed in the 
performance of daring deeds. The Pinaka bow was 
an ornament in the hand of Shiva, and in the wars of 
old, the bow's work was done by the Mandara hill 
which Shiva had then obtained. The king sent Kularaja 
in the guise of a betol-bcaver, and his true firmness dis- 
guised his filling. " Death is certain, I will surely not 

come back, I shall be killed, but what of tlatf? " Thus 


thought he and did not carry the betel in a golden vessel. 
This man removed the difficulties of the king by giving 


up his life. Others try to do the same, but they fail to 
accomplish it. " Be he with or without attendants, he 
will surely be killed by me, stir yourself up king ! after 
this." Thus he said and went out. The king thought to 
himself that should Kularaja fail in the daring jict for 
which he was going, it was doubtful whether he would 
be able to- escape, and the king's mind became distracted. 
Kularaja was bgnt on benefiting his master, and ponder- 
ed a little, and afterwards, on some pretence, took with him 
two armed warriors to the place beyond which their passage 
was forbidden. Kularaja was introduced by the door-keeper 
under the pretenco that he had brought betel from the king 
himself. He entered and came to Sujji, but his followers 
were prevented from coming. He saw Sujji in company of 
a limited number of attendants, some seated on high and 
some on low seats, like a leader elephant attended by a 
few elephants. Sujji accepted and saluted his master's 
bete] and examined the mandate seat by hlb master; 
and having honored Kularaja who was entitled to honor, 
dismissed him after a short while. Fearing lest other 
people might come in, Kularaja made no (lolay in telling 
Sujji that an armed man of the Kaivartta caste had, after 
committing some offence, taken his (Kularaju's) shelter. 
" You should," he continued, " forbid youryservants who 
are reviling him from dping so*and, without looking into 
the cause or the occasion, you should first pay 'respect to our 
party." Sujji, in his pride, disregarded those proud words, 
and mado a rude reply that he would not do it. Kularaja 


went out, as if in anger, but Sujji's servants said that lie 
should be respected, assuaged him,proventedhisgoing away 
and again brought him back. Kularaja asked that his two 
servants, who wore waiting to enter, might be ordered to 
be brought in, that they might inform Sujji of some busi- 
ness. Sujji reluctantly permitted the servants to enter, 
and when Kularaja saw them come in, he, with their heljj, 
made up his mind to rise against Sujji and strike him. 
Sujji told them to go that day, promising to do what was 
needful, in the morning, and he turned his back and 
stretched himself on bed in order to sleep. Kularaja went 
a little way, bnt returned, quickly unsheathed his d.tggor, 
and without delay struck Sujji on his left side. Sujji's 
servants raised a cry against this treachery. All of them 
ran towards the knife, but the murderers all struck Sujji. 
Before Sujji's servants, who were looking at the dreadful 
deed, had time to realize the calamity, Sujji appeared as if 
b.8 had lotog ceased to breathe. The followers of Sujji had 
deserted their honor and fled in fear. Pifichadeva alone 
drew his weapon. Piilchndova who moved round as ho 
struck was surrounded by the three murderers who equally 
returned his blows ; his body streamed with blood and ho 
was driven out of the room. Sujji's attendants closed the 
doors [from outride] leaving the foes and darkness within, 
and surrounded thorn with, the, purpose to kill thoin. 
They too remained in the room bolting the, J doors'. In the 
darkness, the three opposed their enemies, and when the 
door was broken by the latter, they removed the coiton 


bed and lifted the corpse. The followers of Sujji shower- 
ed swords, arrows, darts, axes, knives and stones and 
tried to enter by . various ways and frightened those 
within. The three, situated in a perilous position aiid in 
despair, .out off Sujji's head from his trunk and threw it 
in the courtyard at their enemies. The eyalids and ears 
were whitened with continuous tears, and his nose, cover- 
ed by his hair, hung on his lower lip. The pupils of his 
eyes which were a little open reflected the images of 
men moving about, and it thus seemed that the eyes 
themselves wore moving. The head was cut off from the 
joint by several strokes, the muscles came off from their 
attachments in the bone, and the fat looked as if dyed 
with turmeric. The hah- of the head and beard was be- 
smeared with dust; the marks of saffron alone on the fore- 
head indicated that the head was Sujji's. And as it fell 
aslant, it showed the teeth at the junction of the lips. 
When Sujji's servants saw the head, they raisdtl a LouSL 
lamentation and fled away wherever they could. 

The king, after he had sent the three desperadoes, 
remained anxious ; but when ho hoard the yproar of men, 
he knew that something desperate was done. Accordingly, 
as previously advised, the king ordered the soldiers 
to collect and surround Sujji's house. .But when he 
heard these words that £'it was«in vain thattfhe king had 
escaped from ■fche hands of Sujji ; " he hastily prepared 
himself for fight. He knew for certain that Sujji was 
"killed. The attendants of the king bound Shivaratha who 


was there and whom all envied. My present narration is 
honored by the account of the conduct displayed on 
that day by Kalasha, son of Hilla, who was brother of 
Sujji'8 brother's wife. Bhikshu and others were in danger, 
and behaved at the end, like heroes; but Kalasha 
was not in any danger, but sought to perform a noble 
deed. When he heard the words T mentioned above! in 
the king's palace, he planned to sacrifice his life, and being 
Buffered to escape, he went to his deceased master. He 
tried to break open the door by kicking, but was removed 
by the powerful soldiers of the king and his life was, with 
difficulty, saved. He was wounded but not severely. When 
he had entered another room, Kularaja and others who 
had escaped with their lives went to the king. Kalasha 
who was with difficulty wounded by the enemies by an 
arrow from a distance forcibly entered"' the room and 
killed a powerful soldier. 

" Safljapala, who had arrived at that place of disturbance, 
was speedily sent by the king to destroy Bilhana and Ul- 
hana. Bilhana apprehended that Sanjapala had fled from 
the road ; and arrived after wandering about the banks 
' of the Kshiptika. SaSjapala opposed the way of Ul- 
hana, as the latter issued out of the gate, and severely 
beat him in the fight. He then arrived at the spot 
before Bilhrtua. But his right arm was out by some 
one's sword, so that only the skin was left, fihesbone and 
tondon being cut, he severed it off. In his family whose 
worth is almost beyond description, he had attained- 

KIKGS OF KiSHMillA. 193 

reputation in foreign as well as in his own country by 
the skill of his arm ; but when the time for reaping the 
fruit arrived, su«h an arm which wus the pledge of 
valor became maimed. Fie to the unsteady will of 
Fate ! There was no change in Sanjapala in the time of 
his prosperity, but the people would hav,e wondered if 

—that prosperity had continued, for they know that Fate 
is fickle. If the body of Eahu who had tasted of tne 
amrita hod not been maimed, how could the world have 
known of the well known fickleness of Fate ? 

Sahadeva's son who was severely wounded quickly killed 
Safljapala's father's brother, the old Shlla, who was found 
there. The respected Jajjala was weary and was enter- 
ing his house preceded by an attendant ; the attendant 
was killed as also a soldier and a Chandala sentinel. 
Jajjala's little boy was seated in the court-yard, but was 
coming out when he saw his father's party, when 
Rilhana caused the house to be set on fire. .From the 
darkness caused by the smoke, Jajjala was brought out 
by the principal soldiers, tied, and faint with wounds, 
and was killed at the gate of the house by some low- 
persons. When the king saw his head, he thought that 
his principal subjects were perishing; and his rage 
became ungovernable. The soldiers who were sent by 
the king, in their fury, killed. Sujji's servants, great and 
small, who displayed befitting valor. Lakshaka, the 

' younger brother of Sujji, was taken, bound, and some 
cruel men, on seeing the king angry, killed him in the 

194 KINGS 01 KisHMIEA. 

court-yard of the palace. Sankata, son of Lakshaka's 
father's brother, and a worthy man, limped like an actor 
in the king's court-yard and yielded his life as he should 
have done. His mad brother Mummuni, aB he entered 
the house, was, by some wicked men of the line of "Vana, 
killed in his own house. Chitriya, Sujji's wife's brother, 
Ijprn of noble family, was killed by red lead ( poison )'. 
The wounded door-keeper named Sangjka was slowly 
killed and the other dependants of Sujji were killed in 
different places. Two or three of the well born Virapala 
and others, saved their lives by the swiftness of their 
horses. They came to Eoshteshvara, and then they laid 
aside their fear of death. It was autumn when Sankata 
was going out ; on the way his horse was stopped by the 
tumult of the wicked men, and he wqs confined in 
soldiers' quarters. And then, Sajjala son of Sujji, Shve- 
tika, son of Sujji's elder brother, and the son of Ulhana 
were thrSwn into prison with him. Thus when the king 
and the minister were under the influence of the wicked, 
this commotion happened in the year 9, on the fifth 
bright lunar day of summer. Though in some matters 
the minister Sujji betrayed want of strength, yet the 
king thinks of him and grieves for him even to this day. 
It is truly fearful to serve a king, as it is to invoke spirits 
or to leap ove? a chasm or 1 to chejiv poison or to embrace 
a serpent. If the actions of a man who ,,is failhful to 
kings are not tested according to their own conscience, 
lie is like one kept before a [ running ] carriage, and 

kings of kIshmIra. 195 

h,ow can he enjoy pleasure ? The king considered Sujji'a 
murder to be wrong, but the people thought it right and 
as a manifestation .of the king's great power. 

The king served Sanjapala by making him lord of 
Kampana, and Kularaja, superintendent of the capital 
Dhanya and Udaya, favorites of the king, left Mallarj- 
— juna and came to the capital and began to prosper as 
before. The goddess of prosperity left all others, ami 
changing her fickle character, settled steadfastly on 
Chitraratha. He had immense wealth, and distressed 
the country by chastisements, and became uncontrolled ; 
and even the king was unable to check him. Kottesha 
killed Tikka in a village named Gandharwana and sent 
his head to the king on the other side [ of the river ]. 

At the time when the king - gained great power, 
Lothanadeva, on receiving repeated assurance from tho 
spies who wejre oppressed and who were naturally inimi- 
cal to the king, forcibly entered Haiigrama ^,t night, 
accompanied by Koshteshvara. The Lavanya [chief] 
had made peace with the enraged king, and immcdiate- 
' ly drove Lothana out from his well renowned town. 
Lothana now forcibly ruled the country wnich Koshtaka 
had obtained and which was under Uchchala and others. 
He wanted firmness, and foolish as he was, he became 
the object of laughter of the people. The king purposed 
to destroy him by employing the Tikshnas and other 
soldiers, and by adopting other means. Koshtaka who 
-had lost his senses, and was angry and displeased with 

196 KINGS OF kAshmira. 

the king, was a match for the Tlkshnas, and made his 
preparations to fight against the sovereign. He ordered 
the leaders of his army to enter th& capital through 
their respective territories, while he again himself 
attacked it with soldiers of different descriptions. The 
powerful Kosbjtaka arrived at the capital, and when he 
learnt that the king who arrived there hurriedly was 
attended by a small force, kept his army concealed. 
When the battle commenced, Chitraratha was accident- 
ally defeated by a section of Koshtaka's army, although 
he had a large force. As the recitation of the Onm by 
the females is injurious to their welfare, so was the 
defeat to Chitraratha. Prom that time his prosperity 
daily declined. 

As an elephant finds increased difficulties in ascending a 
hill, even so the powerful Lavanya found his difficulties 
heightened when after fighting with RUhana,"he arrived in 
th*e evening before the lord of Kampana. He was without 
his army which was completely scattered, but was 
accompanied with enraged followers, less than a hundred 
in number. A^hat need be said of this tiger-like man, 
who, as the battle raged hotter, did not consider his 
armour as a protection to his body. Tattrillaka and 
other Lavanvag arrived, having at the very beginning 
repulsed thei% angry enetaies. iput they remained neu- 
tral at that critical time owing to their tenderness for 
their own kinsmen. This was of some advantage to the 
Lavanya chief who drove away his enemies by his valor. 



He had timely prepared himself for war. In times of 
truce, he \ised to keep up nights with his army, and with 
a view to ensure victory, he had enlisted men heforohand 
and did not allow his soldiers to desert ; nor did he 
appropriate the treasures he had siezed in war. These 
virtues made his enemies waver. What praise is not due 
to one who has forbearance ? 

Koshtaka' was mistrustful, and deserted by his atten- 
dants and harassed in battles, he intended to flee. 
With that view he descended from the hill, but the way 
of the horses was blocked up by an untimely fall of 
snow, and the enemies who hung in the roar prevented 
his attempts to escape. Distressed at the disgrace and 
driven out of the country by the king, he went [ on 
pilgrimage ] to the Ganges to bathe, with a few atten- 
dants. • 

Somapala, driven by his son named BhQpala and 
grieved at the faction which prevailed for a long time 
in his own kingdom, wont to the king [ of Kashmlra ] 
and sought his protection. The king who loved those 
who asked for his shelter, promised safety to Somapala 
and also to Nagapala who had given awa^ his wealth to 
his two sons. The king, whose character was onnobled 
by real magnanimity, did not at this time of danger 
resent the crafty conduct of Somapala who fas the cause 
of calamjty. to a greatf kingdom. But in*order to help 
Nagapala, the*king gave him his own army, crushed the 
• pride of his enemies and re-established the stability of 

198 KINGS or ElsHHiSA. 

the kingdom. In the meantime Koshtaka returned after 
his ablutions in the Ganges, and taking Mallarjjnna on 
his side, set about to raise a faction in the kingdom. At 
the time of the solar eclipse, the prince was at Kurukshe- 
tra. He waived his former enmity towards the Lavanya 
and went to him in order to serve his purpose. Lothana 
came there invited, but when he heard that the prince 
w&s with the Damara (Lavanya), he was unable to estab- 
lish peace between himself and the Lavanya, and return- 
ed by the way he had come. Though the evil-minded 
Somapala had received the king's money, he remained 
negligent when the king's enemies entered the place before 
the temple of Vijayesha. In order to please the king, 
Somapala's son- caused Koshtaka to be robbed of bis 
properties by the Thakkuras. 

In the meantime the excessive oppression of Chitra- 
ratha became unbearable, and the twice-born people (Brah- 
mfinas} at Avuatipurs did not wish to harfi him and held 
a religious fast. Chitraratha who' did not fear even the 
king despised the twice-born through his pride, and 
many of them sacrificed themselves in the burning 
fire through- grief. In the pasture land of the cows which 
were kept for religious purposes, a cowherd, though 
surrounded by his dependants, threw himself into the 
fire out of siympathy [for the Brahmanas.] Vijayaraja 
son of Prithviraja the bard, and born in a.wejl known 
family, saw the calamity that befell there 1 . He became 
very sorrowful and wished to go to some other country. 


After shedding tears of sympathy, he thus addressed 
his younger brother — " The king has become inactive 
owing to his fondness for Chitraratha ; and behold his 
subjects, neglected by him, and entangled in the net 
of the ministers, are being destroyed. Who will pro- 
teot the poor from danger where the king neglects them, 
in order to humour the ministers 1 It generally happens, 
that when a commotion occurs, through mutual rivalry, 
either the protector punishes the protected or the pro- 
tected punish the protector. The roughness of a hard 
stone is sometimes smoothed by the rubbing of iron, 
while sometimes the stone makes the iron straight. The 
king is radiant with every virtue, and should not be 
detested for one fault. I see nothing else that can be 
done, except murdering Chitraratha. If one small of- 
fence proves #o be universally beneficial, then it is a vir- 
tue ; and even the great Buddha killed the serpent, the 
devourer of animals. When that wicked man is killgd 
by us, no governor will again oppress the subjects, out of 
fear of spirited men. If by the sacrifice of this life, the 
lives of numberless men be made happy, then ! brother ! 
is not the bargain good V Thus he advfflcd his brother 
who attentively listened to him, and then came to Kan- 
koshaplthina and went after Chitraratha in order to 
kill him. Even in this Ealiyuga whicS if turbid with 
feebleness of virtue, the power of Brahma&as shines un- 
broken. As file power of Brahmanas up roots evil, even 
. so those who retained their full measure of virtue could 

200 KINGS 07 KASHltfRA. 

not bear the evil any longer. Sujji who oppressed the 
Brahmanas -was killed by a Brahmana, and Chitraratha 
who insulted the Brahmanas was murdered by a Brah- 
mana. The heart of Vijayaraja was full of grief for the 
action of the twice-born [in burning themselves,] and he 
thought of destroying Chitraratha, even by giving up his 
own life, though he waB not compelled to do that act at 
each a sacrifice. At the time that the Brahmanas burnt 
themselves, the disgust of Vijayaraja kfiew no bounds. 
During several nights the [intended] murderer found no 
access to Chitraratha, and he kept himself awake day 
arid night. Chitraratha was attended by a large force, 
and he walked between rows of the leaders of armies, in 
the middle of the force ; and being in the centre, he 
could sometimes be seen and sometimes not. Once 
when Chitraratha had gone past the stairs-of the palace, 
"Vijayaraja, who had beoome hard of heart by a strange 
firmness, swiftly went after him ; and though Chitra- 
ratha was surrounded by the leaders of armies, Vijayara- 
ja, possessed of wonderful courage, struck him on the 
head with his sword, in front of a pillar, and laid him 
on the ground? There he lay like one dying, his me- 
mory began to fade, and his eyes rolled above, and his 
prowess was lost. The attendants believed that he was 
killed by the [orders of the] king, and bewildered and 
much frightened, they left him in that state. Believing 
him to bo dead, Vijayaraja did not again strike him, and 
forbade his brother who had arrived there by another 

KINGS 0* KisiraiBA. 201 

flight of stairs, to strike. Though all the ways were safe, 
Vijayar&ja fled not, but repeatedly called out that Chitra- 
ratha had been kilkd by the king. Chitraratha's coward- 
ly attendants who used to go forward for the " fried 
meat" of the kingdom, fled in fear. Lautharatha, Chitra- 
ratha's elder brother, fled in fear and took sholtcr with 
a dancing woman by taking her breast in his mouth. 
Chitraratha was brought to the king in his present 
plight, and the king told him not to fear and asked him 
who had. struck him ; and with these words he gave him 
courage. The soldiers searched for the murderer tind 
enquired what Tlkshna (desperado) had, by the king's 
order, killed the lord of Dvara ? The cool-headed Vijaya- 
raja became violent and showed admirable prowess. He 
killed thirty soldiers and wounded twenty ; and when 
hurt in the foot, he pointed out to himself and said "It 
was I." " For the delivery of the good, for the establish- 
ment of -virtue, I take birth in every Yuga." TMiis shlb- 
ka, explaining the cause of his action, was written in a 
holy scroll which was found in his hand, and in which 
mention was also mode of the end of time 4 Chitraratha 
was woundod, pierced at the junction of the hones of the 
head, and he lost his appetite and became insane and. 
feeble. Weak and without comfort, he spijnt five months 
in his bed surrounded by men. • 

At thi* time Koshtaka took Mallarjjuna with him, and 
with a view to create a commotion in the kingdom, 
'arrived at Giridurga which was well defended with trees. 

202 KINGS OF KiSHlffRA. 

As men are oppressed with dulness at the sudden 
appearance of a cloud, so the people booh became dis- 
heartened at the presence of the enemy's army. Kosh- 
taka who had come traversing many a mile, surrounded 
the woods and villages with his attendants and complete- 
ly blockaded,, Tarudurga (Giridnrga). But when 
Safijapala arrived in the camp with his fleet cavalry, the 
enemies became motionless, like the still trees in a 
windless place. Dhanyaka whose army was supplied 
with grainerics filled with corn, sat like a lion who can- 
not bear the smell of elephants, his foes. Kilhana was, 
by the king's orders, encamped at Govasa with his force. 
He moved about in the wood and harassed the enemies, 
as the sun-light does vermins. 

By these acts of the very powerful king, Koshteshvara 
became quiet, and for three or four months he could not 
move. He was harassed in a foreign country, driven by 
title neighbouring potentates and deserted by his follow- 
ers; his plans were frustrated by the officers of the 
king, and owing to his ignorance, ho was unable to 
understand tbo behaviour of kings. Forgetful of his 
wrongs and dismissed from his post, he wished to make 
peace with the king. He tried to assuage the king's 
anger ; and Safijapala attempted with humility derived 
from devotion, to further, his purpose, considering it a 
shame to disappoint him. The king's enemy [ Koshtesh- 
vara] cut off his finger and sent it to the king, but 
could not allay his wrath. [ His messenger ] tied the 


turban round bis neck, bore shoes on bis head and 
■waited long, but could not remove the king's anger. 
The king did not accept two or three objects, symbols 
befitting a sovereign [ which Koshteshvara had sent ], 
but gave orders like a king and behaved proudly like a 
sovereign. In the meantime he learnt thsft Mallarjjuna 
was seized on his way. Good luck waits on prosperity. 
Mallarjjuna wa§ being carried by his servants on their 
shoulders, his legs being like those of a goat, [defective], 
he could not walk on the road. When he had passed 
the dangerous places and had arrived at the village 
Sabarnika, revered in Lohnra, he was arrested by a 
Thakkura named Jaggika who had placed sentinels there. 
The king heard that this benefactor and servant, 
together with, Mallarjjuna had arrived, Mallarjjuna 
had been captured [once before] by his enemies, but had 
escaped from' the fort by some means, but he was now 
again seized by them. Who can escape that which must 
happen? The Ganges, which flows through heaven, issued 
with difficulty out of the stomach of a great Rishi, and 
falling into the sea was again drunk up by«anothcr Muni. 
No one is able to escape that which must happen. The 
very wise king had sent Udaya, lord of Dvara, to Jaggi- 
ka who had placed guards far and near m cjrdcr to seize 
[Mallarjjuna] who had *once bfeen captured. The king 
thought 'that .without Udaya, who was a man of great 
coolness, gravity, heroism and discretion, the common 
people would be at a loss to act in the critical time, By 


paying in two different ways [£. e. paying regular dues 
and bribes?], Udaya passed over the obstacles in the 
road and &aw the king's enemy at Taftiori. Udaya with 
a wonderful coolness which showed his prowess, praised 
him putwardly by various words, and thus again 
said : — " Yod chief of the wise ! You who greatly 
talue a praiseworthy devotion to master, you have been 
drawn away [from the king] by madneBs.v-You are like a 
jewel of security ; and as 1 had not you as my refuge, 
the wicked king was able, under various pretences, to 
do injuries to my territory during my boyhood. The 
king is like the sun ; and men can scarcely gaze on him, 
but when he is in misfortune, as when the sun is in the 
dewy season, people can look upon him. That sovereign is 
worthy of praise, who, like the sun, alike, in the time of 
rising and at the time of setting, shines blood-red, like a 
copper disk. His advent is fortunate, at the tint of 
whose fierce ascent, the Apsaras are alarmed, and at 
whose setting, citizen's wives are grieved. Employed in 
my post, and like a nobleman who has got a little 
money, I have become foolish like an elderly poet. Now 
make me a promise which, is difficult to fulfil, and grant 
me a boon and give peace to my heart." Thus he said, 
and in orde? to have assurance, the lord of Dvara placed 
a crystal Mga, together with, its seat, before Mallarjjunfl 
to touch. Mallarjjuna believed that thg lorcf of Dvara 
was making him promise to fight in fair field against 
the soldiers who used missiles, spears and arrows. 

sings of kAshmira. 205 

He touched • the Shivalinga and promised to grant the 
lord of Dvara the boon he desired. Udaya then said : — 
" Unwounded and* alive as you are now, I ask yon to 
appear publicly before the king." On hearing his words 
defiled \ritb. baseness, all became stupified with shame, 
and like leaves, wet with rains, turned their faces to- 
wards the ground. Mallarjjuna then remembered how, 
easy the mind o£ Bhikshu was at his last moments, and 
his heart became light. He ascended the vehicle carried 
by men, he felt no shame and looked on his followers 
without betraying any agitation of mind, and was led 
by Udaya. He was dragged in the way, like au animal, 
but he was not touched by emotion. He took his usual 
meals ■ and had good sleep. The people who saw him 
led by the guards in that state were touched with pity. 
They did not congratulate the king but said, " It does 
not look welTfor the king, eldor by birth, to use such 
unkindness towards tho younger'brothor who is 'father- 
less, and who is the object of pity. His eyes are liko 
the black lotus and his person is pleasant to behold. 
Who that has a heart unlike a sword can iorment such 
a body and disfigure it f The people did not know of 
their previous history, aud forgetful of Mallarjjima's 
faults, they roproached the king in the street^ when they 
saw him, in various manner. AThat judgment can there 
be in boys'and in fools 1 The feelings even of great men 
do not always remain in the same state. Listeners be- 
come angry with the sons of Dhritarashtra, rather than 


with Pandu's sons when they hear of the play at dice, and 
of the daughter of Pauohala dragged by the hair. But 
■when they hear of the quaffing of the blood of the sons 
of Kura and of the blow hit on the head [of Duryya- 
dhana] when his thigh was broken, their anger is turned 
against thet, sons of Pandu. Excepting the moderate 
jninded people others cannot judge the merits of actions ; 
and hence the king's acts were so misjudged. How could 
it be otherwise ? Mallarjjuna rode on a carriage drawn by 
a pair and bore on his lap an earthen vessel marked with 
the [blood of] the finger which was cut, making the citizens 
weep as he went, and reached the capital in the evening. 
, In the year 11, on the day of the full moon, in the 
month Ashvina, the king placed Mallarjjuna with guards 
in Navamatha. For five nights he remained without 
food, and sorrowful and longing to touch the king's feet. 
The king went to him through pity and 'promised him 
protection. Mallarjjuna then told the king what the 
king had wished to learn, he said that the rebels Chitra- 
ratha and Koshtaka surely deserved execution. 

The king -.,tb.en intended to accomplish the arrest of 
Koshtaka who was going out to his own territory. He 
Bent Eilhana and others, five trustworthy men. When 
all had lost, their power, and the king alone remained 
active, Eilhana with his arms saught hold of Koshtaka 
as one catches a fish. Koshtaka's weapon was snatched 
away, aud he remained motionless within the cage like 
arms of the strong Eilhana, blind with sleep as if dulled 

KINGS OF KASHirilU. 207 

by evil spirits. Bhihkharaja, a hot-tempered man and 
boii of Kularaja's brother, made a deep cut in the neck of 
Koshtaka by the menus of a sword, out of devotion to the 
king. Prithvipala, a follower of the king, was about to 
Btrike with an axe on tho head of Koshtaka in anger, 
when the king prevented him. Surrounded#on all sides, 
and •struck in a vital part in the bone of the nock fc 
Koshtaka lay on^the ground struggling and weltering in 
blood. His younger brother Chatnshka was stretched 
on the ground by Kamaliya and others, men of great 
strength, as a rook is felled by an elephant. AYhen 
Mallaka, a twice-born, saw his two masters siezed and 
thus killed by mutilation, he drew his knife and stood 
up. He came to the mingled strife unnoticed by any 
one but by the king, and. struck the king's followers 
great and small. Kularaja with his knife ran towards 
this man of great strength who destroyed many soldiers 
of the king. Ma,Uaka.'s blows fell fast oi\ his antagonists" 
and the athlote Kularaja, tinable to kill him, drove him 
against a wall. There stood Kularaja who knew various 
tactics, but was unable to go away or J;o stay, or to 
strike, and stopped Mallaka who remained unmoved. 
And when Padmaraja created a noise by stamping his 
feet and jumped and made a sound with bis.arm and in 
this way ran near to Ma,llaka, Mallaka turned his eyes 
towards him. Kularaja took advantage of this opportu- 
nity and struck him on his breast, but as ho was retiring' 
after striking, Mallaka cut his thumb. And when the 

208 kings of kAshmira. 

stout Vijjaraja, hot with pride, struck Mallaka, lie 
returned the blow, but both instantly fell on him. 
When the king appeared in view at tbe door of the four- 
cornered room, Mallaka left his three antagonists and ran 
towards the king. At the time when the king was thus 
singled out, $£ularaja ran swiftly in alarm and cut off 
the speed of Mallaka by cutting him in the bono of the 
buttooks. Then was Mallaka surrounded by all the 
■warriors, but he quickly killed the weak and the strong, 
and then stretched himself in the bed of heroes, making 
the stream of blood his bed-sheet. He was observed by his 
master who was still alive, though in extreme danger. 
Mallaka's prowess was praiseworthy but his end was 
undesirable. He too was counted among heroes. 

When the servants of Koshtaka fled away outside, a 


Damara named Janakachandra with much coolucss 
feigned great poverty. Ho was without a • weapon, but 
snatching an axe sent many to the king of death as the 
first messengers with the tidings of battle. As he tried 
to retire, the sharp shining axe which longed to divide 
the marrow of the backbono looked iu his hand as 
the crescent of the moon. The proud and chaste wife of 
Koshtaka behaved, at the time when her husband was 
arrested, in the way the like of which we have never 
seen and never heard. -She disregarded the words of 
her friends who told her that her husband wouid revive, 
and that she would got him again, and she threw herself 
into the fire. The fire that was polluted by the desire to 


embrace the wives of the seven Jjlishis became hallowed by 
the feet of her who departed to the region of chaste women. 
She was the daughter of Vasanta, the brother of Dhanyo- 
daya, and proud of being born in a pure family, she did not 
dot like the wives of the Damaras. The widows of the 
Lavanyas (Damaras) gratify their co-villagers and relatives 
with their embraces for the last of wealth. The proud 
Koshtaka was wholly prostrated by the loss of sense, 
but his head was lifted high [ i. e. he was honored ] by 
his wife and his two attendants. He was wounded, and 
through some sin, worms preyed on him, and though 
lifeless, he lay in prison for some nights. 

Now, Chitraratha who was feeble Jwith consumption 
heard that the king was under the evil influence of 
Maliarjjuna, and became very much distressed through 
fear. His only wife, the chaste and beloved AsuyamatI 
was dead ; she was the pledge of his prosperity before 
her death. He had become satiated with pleasures, fee 
had no wife in his house, and his master was alienated 
from him. For these reasons he was very unhappy ; he 
thought that though guilty, no injury would como to 
him from the king ns long as he lived in a place of 
pilgrimage ; so he went to Sureshvarl on pretence to die 
there. The king took possession, from Chitraratha's 
house, of various kinds of wealth which had enriched 
Chitraraflift more than Kuvera. The gold, clothes, arm- 
ours, horses, jewels, weapons and other things displayed 
their augmented beauty ; and with these the king who 


had been reduced by the rebellion of Lohara, prospered, 
as the tree dried up by the heat of summer, grows by 
the watering of a mountain stream. ,, 

Though the commotions had long oeased, Vijaya, son 
of Bhava, lived in the wood and had become timid, and 
like a frog which does not leave its well, he did not leave 
ShrikalySnapura. Boyal Fortune was imprisoned in. his 
house, sleepless and wan through anxiety, as if the rays 
of the white umbrella were reflected onner. The king 
sent inanda, a Tlkshna to him. Vijaya knew of this 
and killed inanda, but was also killed by him. 

Thus king Jayasimha ruled the subjects, and thus passed 
his time full of great excitements. When Ghitraratha 
had gone to the place of pilgrimage, his two servants 
Shringara and Janaka who desired to touch his feet [ to 
serve him] became bards. The king gave large bribe 
to Shringara whom Janaka deserted, and Shringara pro- 
mised to, the king [to serve his end] and became a sharer 
in the enjoyment of his master's ( Chitraratha's ) wealth. 
The king again bestowed on Udaya, the province of 
Dvara which Udaya had long possessed, as the rainy 
season brings to the banks, the waves of the river. Chi- 
traratha long suffered remorse for his wicked actions, 
and expired in eight months, leaving but his name behind. 
Let us pray lo Him by whose power even the pure mind- 
ed becomes an object of laughter and the foul and 
impure becomes indispensible, who can render the words 
of the stupid man acceptable, and can subdue ancient' 


dignity, — to Him who is universally known and yet 

The son of Sajijaka (Shringara) had become the 
favorite of the fickle-minded and wayward king during 
his boyhood by the reprehensible gamo at dice. And 
•when the king obtained the kingdom, ho wearied •Shrin- 
gara by sending him day and night to Chitraratha with 
betels. Engaged in the duty of a messenger, he was 
ignorant of all other work, but he afterwards secured 
the confidence of the king by getting him those of Chi- 
traratha's servants who discovered to the king, Chitra- 
ratha's treasures. At this time there were no great 
ministers in the kingdom, and he obtained the post of 
the prime minister. The king who was in the habit of 
making bad selections, through ignorance, did no wrong 
in trusting tfiis man, or in squandering money in food 
and in garments for women. For he considered his 
action commendable in having given paddy to Vis gurus 
according to his liberality. He added to the silver shrine 
of Sureshvarl, his own stock of silver and thus deserved 
' emancipation. This king maintained with great 
pomp and large expenditure of gold, for five years 
from the full moon of Ashadha, the worship of the 
image which was originally set up by Champaka and 
others at Nandikshetra, and.which kings cannot ap- 
proach even in speech. The king trusted in persons 
who even in pastimes were knowji to be worthless, 
'but who through the influence of their master's 

212 kings on kIshmi'ba. 

affection performed unheard of aotions. When young 
women adorned Mahadeva for the sake of amusement, 
and placed the serpent round his neck, as an ornament, 
the serpent often slided down ; but the snake did not 
slide when tied to the firm bow of Sihva at the bidding 
of the enemy of Tripura. Who does not acquire 
strength at the command of his master ? 
"Rilhana and Dhanya brought over Janaka and 
Shringara to their side by bribe for mutual support and 
in order to attain their object. The king hod once 
siezed Janak<t together with his ornament, the pearl 
necklace, and caused Shringara -with his wives and 
children to weep. He once felt romorse and dishonor- 
ed Shringara, after he had entreated both Shringara and 
Janaka with bribe. Ono of them attained his object by his 
habit of moving about the ring in his little" finger by the 
nail of his thumb, by his manner of drawing up the 
upper Kg wien speafrrag, by his uncouth mice aad eyes', 
by the movement of his brows which protruded the skin 
of his forehead which was low and yet protuberant ; 
but he became the object of the people's laughter. The - 
speech of the other was indistinct and harsh, he was 
garrulous, and in times of pleasure would shut his eyes, 
and clasp his hands when he laughed. 

The king is possessed of a mind which, overcomes all 
and is immoveable, and he has attained the* highest 
place among the virtuous by his pious acts. This rich 
sovereign performed acts of kindness in times of danger,- 

kings or KisinrfRA. 218 

like Buddha, even as the sandal wood relieves the burn- 
ing limbs during fever. He tended with duo treatment 
tho gurus, the learned, the twice-born, the helpless 
and others, and thoso forsaken by their kindred. The 
pure minded and admirablo king white washed tho line 
of houses of Vijaycsha and of other gojjs, and* made 
them look like mount Kaililsha. He has a passion for 
repairing delaradatod buildings, and he always delights 
in repairing schools, temples, gardens, lakes and canals. 
He once showed enmity towards religious students, and 
stupid people call him a receptacle of cruelty. Tho 
Ganges, which delights the world, fills tho seven seas, 
and sanctifies Brahma, washes, at the same time, the 
place where the elephants of the gods were burnt ; a bad 
deed once done does not soil one's reputation. 

At this timo the twice-born Shivaratha who w.aa a 
great conspirator, and worse than a Kayastha, was 
executed by a cord bled round his neck. The* well be- 
haved, king thus dostroyod his enemies and freed the 
kingdom of foes. When tho enemies who restrain kings 
are destroyed, kings generally appear fiercer, like the 
sun released from clouds. Tho latter days of tho king 
have been prosperous, and the excessive sweetness of this 
jewel among sovereigns is like the sweetness of grapes 
just beginning to ripen 4 Ho encourages the performance 
of religibus sacrifices with incessant gifts to Brahmanas, 
and he also encomages marriages, pilgrimages and 
' proper religious festivities. He helps in the completion 

214 kings of kAshmi'ra. 

of religious performance by pious men by. supplying 
them with his own provisions, as the moon by his own 
power makes certain plants in the Eula mountains,* 
luminous. The sedate king promises to help with all 
necessary things, in the performance of marriages of the 
citizens'-' sons. For the increase of his treasure, he gave 
permission to owners of extensive forests to reclaim their 
lands, and he repaired the capital. The wise see with 
wonder his excessive fervour, like that of a Bishi, in 
the worship of Hara, though ho is engrossed, in the 
duties of a king. From morning to evening he performs 
no act which is not guided by the wise. Jayapida and 
others, by their kingly grace, made wisdom shine amidst 
the deep darkness of injustice, like fleeting lightning 
in the clouds. But this king, by the gift of things of 
permanent value, prevented, like the rays of jewels,, his 
other virtues from being known. 

He built very high houses for the learned, and the 
seven Ei. ? his,f as if to see their beauty, spread themselves 
out over their head. Owing to religious sacrifices perform- 
ed with intelligence, the wisdom of the learned became 
pure, and travelling by road became safe. The noise of 
the falling water with which the Linga was bathed, and 
which he listened forsaking the Bounds of the flute and 
the lute, as he lay in his bed, was as dear to him as the 
varied speech of the learned, untainted with envy. The 

* The seven great mountains of the ancient Hiudua. 
t The seven brighest stars in the Great Bear. 


' temples &o., which were set up in the times of Shrilalita- 
dityu, Avantivarmma and others were now brought to 
perfection. The 'king made perpetual grants for all 
schools and houses of gods set up during his reign. The 
matha of Ratnadevi to whom her husband [ the king ] 
was strongly attached was the best of all that were set 

At this time^Bilhana who was the friend of the worthy 
was, of all the ministers, the first traveller in the path 
of virtue. Though this pure-minded man lived in a 
house of amusement, yet he could never forsake the 
chief Bishis and the elders in religion. His life was not 
void of virtue acquired by the gift of the skin of black 
deer, by giving shelter to men, by oblations, by good 
deeds, and by helping in the marriage of girls. This 
great man bestowed things suited for religious sacrifices 
on all the fire-worshipping, and made the 
performance of their work easy. His heart V&s hjs- 
touched by envy, and in the wonderful sacrificial feast 
which he held, the people of the sixty-four castes enjoyed 
the delightful objects of enjoyment. , By bestowing 
valuable villages on Brahmanas, by building largo schools 
and bridges, lie embellished the two cities of the two 
Pravarasenas. In the city of Pravarascna, J. ,he set up the 
wonderful Rilhancshvara [atf image of a god] which 
wasthe'chief,of all the religious monuments he built. 
This pious man, for the memory of his wife Sussala who 
was dead, caused a vihara to be built for the Buddhists, 

216 KINGS of kIshmira. 

at the place called Akaprapa. A female 'cat died of 
grief for the death of Rilkana's wife, and Rilhana feared 
lest he should forgot the affection due 1 to the brute orea- 
tion, and called the vihara after the cat. In that dis- 
trict soiled by envy, and not far from the town, this cat 
lived and was dear to her master, as a human being. 
From the day on which Rilhana went on pilgrimage, Ihe 
cat ceased to take food which was brought +o her, and died 
of griof without a groan. 

Didda, among the wives of kings and Sussala, among 
the wives of ministers, reached the utmost perfection of 
virtue by setting up various religious establishments. 
> Sussala built the matha of Shrlchankuna of stone 
which till then had existed only in name. She attained 
perfection in all kinds of virtues by building wells with 
masonary works, small wells, houses for students and 
other works. The whole city looked beautiful on account 
of* her "matha which covered the entire sacrificial 
land of the ancient lines of kings. She rapidly wasted 
away by consumption, and died at Shrlsureshvarl; 
and her death yas like a harbinger of her absorption in 
tho Deity attained by her setting up religious edifices. 

The Brahmana village and the edifices built by 
Dhanya did ;ioi fulfil the purpose for which they were 
raised. How can fame be obtained, without virtue ? In the 
like manner, the religious edifices built by yday% lord of 
Kampana, in the villages of the Brahamanaa, and named 
after him, served no useful purpose except that they 


went by his name. Udaya, lord of Dvara, with tlie 
help of the Gana sect of BrahmapurT, built a beautiful 
religious edifice in "which the lotus tank looked beautiful. 
At Shrldvara, Shvingaratantvapati, a jewel of aBrahmana 
and an owner of a large mart, built a religious edi£«e with 
garden and tank, and he adorned the eartn by erecting 
rooms for bathing, religious edifices, and a bridge at 
Brahmapuri, s»d by similar works. The matha of 
Shring&rabhatta near that of Bhattaraka was like a well 
in an expanded ocean, and was deservedly forgotten. 
Jatta, the minister for peace and war of the lord of 
Darwabhisara, and prone to pious work, set up the 
image of the eight faced [Mahadeva]. 

Among the trees, karavlra alone, owing to the loveli- 
ness of its floors, has the dignity of beauty, and the 
flowers become useful in the worship of the Shivalinga. 
So among the several ministers of the king, one alone 
named Binrtta, younger Wother of Satiia, attained, digni- 
fied excellence. The offering which ho inside to Maha- 
deva the Jyeshtarudra, othcrwiso called tho Balakcshvara, 
and sot up by Vashishta, was accepted by'tho god who 
appeared in person. Tliero ho built a town without a 
defect, named Bhuttapura with mathas, religious schools 
and high buildings. In the capital also he sciJ up a Hara, 
named Bhutteshvara, and in the villago of Madava he 
excavated a tank named Dharmmavibhramadarpana. 

The queen RatnadevI set up a religious school named 
Vaikuntha and mathas and other edifices, and with 

S18 KINGS 03? kIshmira. 

her own money mado arrangements for their permanent 
maintenance. At Ratnapura, a town of great value, 
and which had many gates, the spotle&s religions school 
was the receptacle of virtue, and looked like a large 
cage for a swan. Mahadeva graced by his presence 
her white washed houses, like a white light, to destroy 
the transient stato of man's existence. . When she 
built sheds for cows, Shuravarmma and fjhe other buil- 
ders were reckoned as cows. There [at Katnapura] 
adorned with cowsheds, where the kine roamed 
unrestricted, and which was washed by the waves of 
the Vitasta, she parted with her deseased body (died), 
At Nandikshetra she had raised religious sohools, and 
in tho principal placeB of the Yavanas she had built 
delightful mathns. In Darwa she built a town like the 
city of Indra, and named it after her name. It con- 
tained a beautiful and grand house befitting a king. 
The queen who was kind towards her dependants built 
various monuments consecrated to the memory of the 
great, the honored and the principal men who were 
dead. w 

The world held such jewels of women who were its 
ornaments. The chief among the kings made his own 
matha a specially desirable object. He was without 
vanity, and gave away in gifts many villages, tho 
principal among which was celebrated as Simhapura by 
thoso who knew of his gifts. In this place the son of 
the daughter of the lord of Karapatha established a 

Kings of KisHJtfaA. 219 

Colony of the twice-born who were going to Sindhu and 
of the rough out caste people of Draviia who formerly 
lived at Siddhachohhatra. What need is there of 
narrating about the construction of mathas &c. by the 
king who turned the whole of Kashmlra into (Villages 
and towns. Owing to the troubles of *the time, the 
country had become like a wasted forest, but the king 
again made it wealthy, populous and full of houses. 
From the beginning, when he engaged himself in 
giving what was asked from him, men of skill built 
mathas and houses of gods. He was not jealous, and 
vhen he gave valuable riches, clothes and jewels for 
the use of the public, the citizens celebrated various 
great festivities. About this time the shall crop was 
destroyed bj the sudden fall of snow, by fire and 
similar troubles, but there was no severe famine. 
Strange things happened, for though at night the voices 
of the Kakshasas were heard, and omens like comets 
were seen, people did not die. The king killed the 
rebellious Chhudda, the younger brother of the lord 
of Eoundha by secret punishment. T*he king also 
destroyed Vikramaraja and other kings in Vallapura &c., 
and raised Guhlana and others to sovereignty. This 
sun among sovereigns, enriched honorahfa "men out of 
his affection for them> by giving them possession of 
beautiful landa in Kanyakubja and other places. 

At one time Yashodhara, king of Darad, a place 
where good counsel did not prevail, was during his life 


time reduced to poverty. Though his kingdom was 
situated next to that of the king of Kashmlra, yet he 
had become the favourite of the king of Kashmlra by 
rendering great service in time of danger. His son was 
overpowered by the ministers and his condition was 
pitiable. For, his own minister Viddasimha snatched 
the kingdom from him, violated his queen and gave 
the kingdom to his minor son. But when after gradu- 
ally subduing the country, the minister intended to 
destroy the boy who was king only in name in order to 
usurp the kingdom, another minister named Paryyuka 
set up another son of Yashodhara and commenced hosti- 
lities. When Paryyuka turned his back towards the 
people of Kashmlra and left unnoticed Sanjapala and 
others who were capable of undertaking all things, 
and began the civil war, the wise king of Kashnura, 
led by his prejudices which clogged his intellect, thought 
ifwould be a useless display of pride to send the Super- 
intendent of Affairs or other officers like him to support 
Hevaka.* He therefore sent his minor brother Sujji as 
his minister jio Paryyuka. Paryyuka could' not be 
overcomo by force. What a difference is there between 
business-like, influential and powerful men with all con- 
quering and^unshaken genius who constructed wonder- 
ful kingdoms, and boys* and foolish men ignorant of 
the practices of courts? Fie to the troublesome wanton- 
ness of kings which brings afflictions in the end ! The 

* The prince whom Paryyuka befriended. 

kings op kAshmiua. 221 

enemies who live near the country and those who 
become hostile from interested motives try to destroy 
prosperity. They conceal their knowledge of armies, 
kingdoms, forts,* treasures &c. ; they take advice in 
every work they do ; and if friendship be contracted 
with them, their sincerity cannot be relied upon. 

As a tree in the midst of a narrow 'stream is not 
felled by the current even when the banks give way, 
so the king oi Darad could not be drawn into the civil 
war between the minors. The king of Darad neglect- 
ed to obtain any advantage from Paryyuka who 
was willing to accept bribes in many important matters. 
Viddasimha made peace with Paryyuka, and Snjji 
returned as he had gone, whereupon the king of Kash- 
mlra was angry. 

Shringara. in his newly appointed post of the 
Superintendent of Affairs became, within a short time, 
like a tree in a stream, and died. He displayed him- 
self in various ways, as a waterfall flowing through a 
hundred channels, by the light of the spotted moon. 
At this time other ministers in obeying the orders of 
their noble master suddenly died. Wff do not praise 
the foolish kings who place young boys, sons of 
deceased ministers, in the places of thoir fathers. 
But the servants of the ministers inaugurated a new 
custom. Without feeling shame they appropriated' 
the wealth of their masters as they would' do their 
.own wives. They gave presents to the king, did some 


little services to their masters' children, and then 
robbed the wealth, of their deceased masters. When 
the treasurer Yishva died, Sahaja alone became the 
protector [of Yishva's children]. At this period such 
men who offered assistance were rare. Though request- 
ed by Jhe king, Sahaja did not accept his master's 
post, but helped in the aggrandizement of his master's 
son named Tishfca. Fie to employers who see servants 
negligent in their devotion to their msteter but still 
raise them to prosperity. When the feet of Brahma, 
the foe of the Asuras, were weary with walking over 
the world, he had in his vessel the water of the Three 
Streams (Ganges) to wet his throat, and so overcome 
his fatigue. Mahadeva therefore placed that water 
on his head. So if one admires even a dull object, all 
others, one after another, greatly welcome, it and are 
stupified with it. 

When Sujji was away from the country, the tree of 
his iniquities nourished by Sajjijsdya was about to 
bear fruit. Viddasimha remained indignant for two 
or three years. He took refuge with the warrior king 
[of Eashmira] and with his friends, he put down from 
a distance, the rising of the people by means of active 
trade and agriculture. He engaged himself in cons- 
piracy with « Ma&karachakra and other Damaras who 
were related by marriago to the ministers of Darad. 
At the time when he first marched out with a view to 
obtain possession of the mountains and forts, a low 

KINGS OF xiSHAfiiu. 223 

' person named Janakabhadra had become Mis friend ; 
this man now expired by his side. In Karnata and in 
many other places through which he was seen to paBS, 
some rose in rebellion and some became friendly. He 
planned to enter [the capital of Darad?]. Though he 
made grand preparations yet he artfully made .his pro- 
gress slow, and the king of' Darad, inactive through 
■indolence, overlooked him. The king of the world 
[Kashmlra] dtat Udaya, lord of Dvara, with men. He 
brought riches to the peaceful and tumults to the tur- 

v Udaya who worked hard, until he fainted, in collecting 
an army, heard that in the town of Shankaravarmma, 
Lothana had joined Alankarachakra, and he also heard 
that Vigraharaja, son of king Sussala, and Bhoja, son 
of'Sulhana, iad come with. Lothana. Then when their 
insurrection had gained strength, Udaya hurriedly 
marched in one day over the road which is traversed in 
many days. The Damara (Alankarachakra), unable to 
take possession of KanthS with his own party, waB at 
a loss, and on being checked in his movements by 
Udaya's attack, he fled and took shelter in the fort of 
Shirahshila, situated on the banks of the Sindhu, where 
the MadhumatI also flowed with its pearl like beauty. 
The lord of Dvara (Udaya) wandered over an extensive 
country, but could not" ascertain whether the Damara 
had bid himself in the dense forest or within the fort. 

, When he ascended the fort, it appeared as if the king's 


power couid not bo overthrown even by chance. When 
the party was attempting to ascend, the marauders 
(Damaras) in the fort, where tumult prevailed, were 
scattered by the sword. The clever conspirators 
Trillaka and others whose disaffection was still undis- 
closed, ^defeated Lothana. He who had burnt towns 
and villages 'before now fled, baffling pursuit; and 
though he fell into danger at every step, he was protect- 
ed'by his party. Fie I that he wandered in the circle 
of Fate and was sometimes visible and sometimes in- 
visible like the comet, son of Brahma, which rises at 
the time of the destruction of the creation ! 

When, in course of time, the ministers established 
peace, the people thought that the whole land of 
Madava was lost. Unable to find any remedy when the 
enemy gained strength, the king, as advised, sent 
Dhanya [to quell the commotion.] The people said that 
when the work devolved on Dhanya's shoulders, the 
lord of Dvara would feel humiliation or become indiffer- 
. ent or would act against the king. The people also 
said that Bhikshu and Mallarjjuna had been as one, but 
that these three [the lord of Dvara, Dhanya and 
the king] would be unable to effect the destruction 
of the united enemy. But the lord of Dvara did 
not behave like Hevaka, and even at the sacrifice of 
his reputation, he desired the fulfilment of the king's 
work, and made grand preparations. Such a man who, 
even when left by himself, never behaved foolishly in . 

KiNas 05 kIshmiua. 225 

the work of his master, and who when that master was 
under the influence of many, did not, through anger, 
become indifferent [to the interest of the king] ; such 
a minister who did not behave like Hevaka but wished 
the completion of that which was to be accomplished, 
can be had only by a very virtuous king., Dhanya too, 
when PafiQhachandra died, raised his younger brother 
ShashthachaiyLra on the king's seat, [at Madava ?], and 
Bet about to begin his work. Divahuka and other princi- 
pal dependants of the king and the outsiders also 
followed Dhanya with bards and singers. 

When Dhanya and his party took shelter of TilagrS- 
ma on the banks of the Kotisindb.ii, the lord of Dvara 
who was in the town went out leaving the road behind. 
He also left behind Hevaka, the cause of the war, though 
unfit for battle, and reduced the enemy, and behaved 
with patience and gravity. 

By the help of many architects with their' buil&iag 
instruments, Dhanya caused rows of temples to be built 
on the banks of the HadhumatI; and the temples 
emulated [the beauty of a] town. Tljis able master 
dispelled darkness from among the groups of trees, 
built houses in the woodlands and furnished the camp 
with all enjoyable things. The country, where winter 
was intolerable for excessive* snow, fortunately became 
adorned by the sun and was fit for the enjoyment of 
the king. The king wished to conquer foreign coun- 
tries, but though at times his orders were obeyed, 

226 KINGS 0* KisSJlfRA. 

yet tho civil war in his own country had raised a number" 
of difficulties such as were never seen before. 

Being in a foreign land for a long timej the soldiers' 
spirit was cast down, and they began to desert. But 
the king was angry with those who deserted, satisfied 
with money those who stayed and thus established the 
stability of the army. Three or four months thus 
passed away, and though the army workftl hard during 
this time, they could not seize those within the fort. 
They were no Way humiliated, and they could not bo 
reduced even by the stoppage of the entry of grain 
[within the fort]. At the end of the winter, the 
Samaras who were desirous of displaying their wealth 
and whose exultation began to increase remained fixed 
aB a rock. The peasants left their cultivation, the 
twice-born left their study of the Vedas and arrayed 
themselves in hot haste and took up arms 'on all sides 
of the village. The people of Darad waited for the 
termination of the fall of snow and wished for victory 
over the king who was on the way, with the help of 
the well armed ^cavalry. Both the people and the king's 
soldiers trembled, fearing the fall of snow, like the 
cotton of Death's bed. The king had foolishly com- 
menced the .war without examining the strength of the 
enemy ; and victory was "doubtful. The skilful have 
one good means to deceive the enemy, viz, jjy pretending 
to fear the power of the enemy ; but the foolish enemy 
could not judge of their preparations. Though well 


armed with weapons long in use, yet blind with anxiety, 
he helped his enemy's success. If the elephant through 
vain and imaginary ideas is afraid of the lotus, fearing 
to be stung by the black bees, ot to be attacked by the 
leaves or to be tied up by tho fibres, then he will not 
venture against such enemies, nor uproot the* lotus. 
When Lothana and others, after escaping with difficulty 
from Karnata, joined Alankarachakra, the first idea 
which occurred was that tho king would be conquered, 
It was in vain that with his party ho [Alankarachakra] 
garrisoned Kantha, for the lord of Dvara who came 
rapidly made a vigorous attack on it. Unable to oppose 
the, enemy, he fled from the fort and on the next day 
he [Alankarachakra] followed the followers of the king. 
The hill fortress situated on the water where the stream 
was narrow and having an extensive construction 
behind, appeared to them like a heron anxious to catch 
fish. But seeing the fort without strength, *like »an 
elephant stable without elephants, they despaired of 
overcoming the enemies, [who had fled,] and bore 
apprehension in their hearts. 

The enemies were afterwards surrounded on one 
side by the arrows discharged by their foes, on another 
side they were proteoted by water and on the third 
side, by rocks. Whon thus besieged they believed 
that the Damara [Alankarachakra] was contriving for 
his own safety, and they could not form any dctermina- 
'tion to fight. At Tilagrama where the attack was 

228 kings of kAshmira. 

severe, these outcaste (Damara) soldiers were unable 
to find any remedy, and became very anxious. Lothana, 
the balance of whose judgment was considerably shaken, 
believed that the Damara could defend him no longer, 
and he openly accused him. Bhoja said that disaffec- 
tion imfst arise among them and he arrested his father's 
brother [Lothana] although with reluctance, and 
although he still daily served him, to savfy appearances. 
Kunthashavya, in order to soothe Lothana, acknowledged 
his prudence in his presence, and came to some agree- 
ment with him. When the uncle wished to depart, 
[Bhoja] told him that the king would kill him, and 
would not let him escape, although others might go, and 
ho wept. [Then said Lothana] "We are all closely blocka- 
ded ; wc do not expect the enemies to attack us in the 
rear. Through some reason, they have now become 
inactive, but they will succeed in what they propose 
to do; ed bring without delay other Lavanyas or 
' the men of Darad, but let me go from this place." 
. "I will release you" [said Bhoja] " from the arrest, as 
it is fit to do." The Damara [Alankarachakra] now 
under the protection of Bhoja seemed to express his 
willingness to comply with his desire and said. — " I 
will release you either today or tomorrow at night." 
But he was in possession .of power, he was relentless, 
and deceived the [ prisoner ] every moment. 

Their enemies were at a great distance and did not 
stop the roads as they should have done, so they (the 

230 KINGS of kAshmiea. 

motion becomes hot, as if united with fire, and the 
■water by incessant friction waste even the Kula Moun-' 
tains. In this world unexpected prosperity is begotten 
evei-y moment by firm perseveranee." 

When Dlyinya and others heard the stern orders of 
the king, they left the river banks and speedily ascend- 
ed the high road of the fort. The inmates of the 
fortress discharged their arrows and looked with feelings 
of astonishment as to how the assailants would fight 
and how they would stand on the ground. Though 
Dhanya was below, he defeated those above in a hard 
figat, and by constructing houses made the place 
appear like a town. Owing to incessant combats 
innumerable soldiers fell every moment Gn both sides'. 
On the nest day, the son of Garga arrived after 
having visited [goddess] Sarada and he added to 
[the slaughter] by bringing in the warrior citizens of 
Samkrandana. Alankara who was in possession of the 
outer palace was invincible in human fight, and killed 
the enemies in various ways. How can they who roam 
over the plains rival those who roam o-w.r mountains 1 
But even then, the machineries of war of .the army" 
which accomplished things beyond thought should be 
taken Snto consideration. The inmates of the fort 
were few, those of the camp were many, hence the 
former, though besieged, were easily destroyed. Harass- 
ed in two or three bittles, they closed the doors of 
the castle gates, as if the fortress shut its eyes out of 

kings of kAshmhia.. 229 

besieged) brought jewels from the villages outside and 
from their sale proceeds they passed the day. They 
informed the 'king that evil consequences might ensue, 
and Dhanyodaya advised the £ing to make peace. But 
for many reasons, the king was of opinion that peace 
should not be concluded with them and he ordered that 
the houses within the fort (kofcta) should be surrounded. 
He also warned them that when the bvibed Damaras 
would forsake them in their posts, their relatives who 
had obtained a good name would also deceive them. 
"We are engaged in hard work and our negligence 
would be culpable, and we shall surely be reproached by 
men for not accomplishing the task. If king Hargha 
who was about to reach the Dugdhapravaha (a river ?) 
hiid not for seven days given up all efforts, then who 
would have had occasion to grieve on listening to his 
history. All men receive their due by their own good 
or brad work, and if even our acts remain unfinished in 
this world even then. 1 ho sovereignty of the three worlds 
may come to us unsought. Possessed of legs and wings, 
the winged ante neither rove on the earth nor in the 
t-ky T but -Uke the lamo and the blind go into the fire. 
How can wealth affect the course of life< The cripple 
Aruna is bom to guide the sun even with his thousand 
legs (rays), and even if Auma had a pair of legs what 
more would he have done ? Shake off indifference there- 
fore, and surround the whole fort well, and here let 
our lives and theirs be lost. The wind by constant 


fear. Finding that Dhanya and others sought such 
opportunities as disagreement among the guards, divi- 
sion among, the 'inmates, those in the fort became 
mistrustful. In order to keep off sleep, they called one 
another aloud at night and did not sleep, but they slept 
during the day when the fort became sileyt. At night 
"these soldiers were afraid of the sound of trumpet 
sounded at swerf prahara, as the sparrows in their cells 
are, of the sound of the thunder. The king's soldiers 
by means of boats plying day and night prevented water 
from being taken within the fort, and alarmed their 
enemies in every way. Their water being out off, they 
endured the sufferings of thirst; and- checked in their 
movements, their food was reduced, and they became 
exhausted. The enemies of the king were- famished, 
and any thing that could be eaten, any foul food that 
could be got by chance, was considered as worthy of 
sovereigns. Emulation was oast aside, and these hun- 
gry people showed every day a greater hankering after 
food oven than those who live on the king's substance. 

Bhoja who said that there were mauy,useless things 
done in the arrangement of troops, kept himself aloof 
in the middle tower within the fort. His enemies 
thought that as one was old and the other jwas the son 
of a prostitute they weije both * unworthy, and believed 
that it was but natural that there should be a division 
in the kingdom. They believed there would be no dis- 
agreement in the camp if [ Bhoja ] went away. Thus 

288 kings ov kAshmika. 


the enemies [of Bhoja] made an excuse to drive him 
out of the fort, in anger. 

The unchaste wife of Alankarachakra wished for 
his death. She was deeply enamoured of Shashtha- 
chandra who was the delight of her eye. She disclosed 
counsel public and private. But the son of Salhana who 
enquired after every thing . daily heard of^her ways. ' 
Fearing that a dissention would be caused, he informed 
[ her husband J of her conduct and asked permission to 
go away. But Alankarachakra's intellect was covered 
with the darkness of love. Though he was of a for- 
giving nature, though he knew how to wait for oppor- 
tunities, and was happy in the continuance of friendship, 
yet he was as angry as the serpent was on the offending 
Bodhisattva. But affectionate as he was, he forgot in 
his heart, the resentment towards his "beloved who 
might have caused his death, as a grasshopper is un- 
mindful of danger while seated on the elephant's back. 

Bhoja walked through the camp of the sleeping 
enemies, and had almost passed them when the son of 
Alankara, either with a view to rebel or losing his' 
courage out of fear, followed him and brought him back 
again before his father who was in the fort. Alankara 
reprimanded his son and ordered Bhoja to go away the 
next night. Alankara hid Bhoja during the day and 
told all men that Bhoja had gone away. Dhanya and 
others were informed that one had already issued out of 
the fort and the other two would go out the next day, 

KINGS Of K'AsHMfuA. 233 

but not knowing who were fleeing, they kept themselves 
- aWake at night. He who was "to ; escape at night saw 
■ from the -pavilion of the fort, that the fire was burning 
on all sides of the camp and all were awake. The fire 
lighted up the fort in such a way that an ant issuing 
out of it by the road leading from, it might Hot pass 
J unobserved by the watchful enemies. By the flickering 
light of the fire, the houses of the sentinals seemed «to 
quiver, as if taey forbade the son of Salhana to venture 
■on his enterprise by the shaking of their heads.- The 
Damara was unable to proceed fast during the first 
portion of the night. He descended into a hollow be- 
neath, by holding to a rope. The lord of the Damaras 
named 1 Kshemaraja joined him, and they rested on an 
altar-like stone within the hollow. They ascended the 
stone which* was just sufficient for them to sit upon, 
and afraid of falling down, the two persons spent five 
nights without sleep. They lived upon balls of powder- 
ed oats which they had in their hands, and they eased 
themselves as birds do from their nests. They spoke 
not, and though they wondered at seeing from behind 
the prosperity in the enemy's camp, tney did not ex- 
press their feeling. The heat from the fire of king Jaya- 
Bimha's power made them forget the great cold [to 
which they were exposed],' and it was beneficial to 
them. On the sixth (fay their food was exhausted, and 
the clouds be'gan to pour snows, like salt on a wound. 
Their hands and legs were benumbed with cold, as -'if 


they slept on listening to the befitting music of the 
harp. They thought that, overpowered with hunger 
and cold, they would surely fall in the enemy's camp 
that day, like two birds tied to a string. " Whom shall 
we call?' they said to themselves, "who knows us? 
who will deliver us, as the chief elephant delivers the 
young elephants when they sink in the mire." The, 
TSamara [Alankarachakra] at night called out to them 
who were in peril, and by means of a rope took them up 
and placed them in a vacant house. There they warmed 
themselves by the straw-fire and relieved themselves of 
the cold ; and they forgot their woes in sleep which 
they had after a long time. But a greater danger than 
this befell the crooked-eyed and amiable Lothana and 
Vigraha who did not even hear the voices of men. They 
ate barley and husk powdered together roid cakes, and 
their persons and clothes were unclean and discolored. 

gDhanya who, like Alaxikarachakra, lived on scant food, 
drew Hola and Yashaskara to his party by giving them 
food. Then the Damara [ Alarikarachakra ], oppressed 
with hunger and afraid of disunion among his servants,, 
promised, thrdugh his messengers, to sell the enemy of 
the king. Owing to the insurmountable difficulties, his 
strength departed and his heart was contaminated with 
vice and discarded the fear of sin and evil reputation. 
He planned his own safety by giving up the remnant of 
the king's enemies, and for regaining a good reputation, 
he sought the help of worthless objects like grass and 

kings op kAshmira. 235 

weeds. On the advice of his servant named* Udayana, 
he hid and protected Bhoja, son of Salhana, and 
hurriedly gave up the other two. He thought that it 
would not be right if the king were to punish thein 
without consulting him, and he believed that the acta 
which he had done without meeting any opposition were 
bright. • 

f)hanya*and others who were bent on effecting peape 
did not know of the danger in which Alankarachakra 
was for want of food, an<i the plan which he had 
adopted. They were anxious to depart from the place on 
some pretence, and it was all the better for them to get 
the promise [ from Alankarachakra ] about giving up his 
kinsmen. With a view to give what was to be given up, 
to remove the army and to fulfil other promises, Dhanya 
made Kaljguia, his brother's son, his representative. 
He now totally closed operations, conciliated the ene- 
mies by humouring their anger, and thus brought them 
over to his side. But he dealt insincerely with them as 
his policy required. Active in the discharge of duty, 
he accomplished all that was necessary and took off the 
edge of the enemy's resentment. The grief caused by long 
absence from home demoralized the king's servants and 
they relaxed their auger. Truly ministers are rare who 
can boast of completing and bringing into* order affairs 
which are in confusions The soldiers who were anxious 
to return heme, when they learnt that peace was estab- 
lished, disregarded the rewards of their masters and 

Z3S KINflS 03? KlSHMfRA. 

departed within a short time. When the Lavanya 
[ Alatikarachakra ] obtained the food which, was sold 
to him. he slackened his action. 

The soldiers under Dhanya were few and it was there- 
fore with difficulty that they could save their lives. 
The besiegers looked with eagerness towards the road 
leading to the fort where they wished and expected is- 
arrive; Alatikarachakra, however, did not permit them 
to come up that day but harassed them. At night 
when the chakravaka lamented, the soldiers saw nothing 
else but the chance of losing their lives, and it was with 
difficulty that they passed the night. They said that 
it was owing to foolishness that the siege commenced with 
care was raised, and the ministers pretending to grieve 
for what was destroyed ridiculed the plans of their master 
who was favorably inclined towards them, add they wish- 
ed to bring him to grief, though he disregarded the words 
of tus ministers, out of respect towards them. " Or is it," 
they continued, "that the other ministers not seeing how 
the work would end, would bring disgrace on us by the 
circumstances of today's march? Having consulted the 
evil-wishers of the king, the villain f Dhanya] has 
thus acted deceitfully and now his purpose being ful- 
filled, he is surely laughing at us." Thus they mado 
many conjectures. At last, the night, during which many 
soldiers died, came to an end, and the day dawned. In 
the morning Alankara who was in the palace and was 
anxious to do some courageous deed ascended the fort, 



and by his tactics and menaces lie subdued the Damara. 
He had brooked the delay of Lothana's departure so 
long but this day he was relentless towards, 
and he plainly told him to go. Some persons made a 
proposal which might have removed the grief aud dis- 
grace of this proud man. [They BaidJ that " tne time 
"jWas suciL. as blinded the eyes of the crowd but gave 
^flght to those.of the good Kshetriyas. The blade of 6hi* 
sword, dark as the cloud, is connected with the Apsaras, 
and has a wonderful and clear affinity with the fiery sun. 
Although we may not subdue the king, yet if we die 
in the field of battle, we attain the sphere of the sun, 
or the bosom of the lovely Apsarii full of love. In a 
death like this we do Jiot fool the pain which is felt in 
the bed made rough by constant rolling, nor the acuto 
pain felt at ^;he departure of life from the joints, nor is 
the heart alarmed at the loud lamentations of weeping 
friends. But that death (in battle) is as pleauiut as »the 
desire for a beautiful woman. Your father went to 
heaven by the way covered with the forests of sword 
blades, your two brothers after having roamed in the 
wood of daggers found the good path [to heaven]. So do 
thou too walk in the way trodden by your ancestors, 
and by high deeds enter the sphere of the sun in the 
sky, and 'in this world remnia endeared in the hearts of 
spirited men. Fate brought to you, several times, the 
kingdom which you have lost through weakness, and 
in that kingdom you behaved like a boy at an age when 


you should have acquired composure. Fate at present 
has given you an expiation of your deeds, you have 
become dumb in the discharge of your duty, but you 
should not miss the expiation as you have missed the 
kingdom. Bhikshaehara lost the kingdom after ho had 
obtained? it. He then spent his time in eating the rc- 
mams of other's meals — a conduct which wasjyiworthy - ' 
of %i king, and by remaining in the country, he was the 
cause of the death of many persons. Yet that powerful 
man did something eminent which received its perfection 
after his body had perished, and for which he stands 
superior to all." Though thus excited, the powerless 
man did not tnke courage, lien without spirit and moist 
wood do not bum even when in contact ■with fire. But 
he felt fear and anxiety, and like a child, when soothed 
after being roused from sleep, he was inclined to weep 
pouting his lower lip. The dependants of the king who 
cams to. take him, saw him given up by the Damara 
(Alaiikara) in that condition, and out of pity, they 
came before him to pacify him. "Be not cast down." 
Tacy said, " In the king's heart illuminated by the 
advent of kindness, as by the rising of the moon, foul 
passions which darken the heart by their gloom do 
not grow uncontrolled. He is the sea of the nectar of 
gentility ; in firmness he iB like the mountain of the 
gods, and in removing the troubles and griefs of others, 
he is like the sandal tree. Like the Ganges in autumn 
is his holy and pure person, at the sight of which your 


anxious heart will be relieved. Like his stainless ances- 
tors, he respects the high characters. He is disliked 
by the light hearted. He will keep you at a distance 
from harm. Ho shows mercy to enemies who do him 
harm, if they are immersed in danger; and he considers 
them as benefactors for testing his pojver of forgive- 
ness." lEhen they had thus said, Lothana, with his 
long and quivering beaid, issued, delighted, from the 
house, like an old hairy ox from a cowpen. 

Dhanya humbled himself out of shame when he saw 

Lo '"liana riding in a carriage, and without ornaments 

and with clothes and weapons dirty and worn out. His 

eyes were large and motionless, his moustache and 

beard thick and rough and he had taken with him an 

image of a god. Jjothana was seen like an owl fled from 

his cavern home. As the party moved on and lighted 

fire in the camp, the light brightened the hill which 

looked as if it weto, a touch-atoua to test the power of 

the king. "When the encampment broke up, nil of a 

sudden the sky poured snow, and thus removed all 

doubt about the divinity of the king. Scaring that the 

snow fall would t>e heavy and that men falling under it 

would die in a moment, the soldiers went within caverns 

and looked as if besmeared with red powdeif. Thus in the 

year 19, on the tenth e lunar "day, bright moon, of Phal- 

guna, aged fifty-nine was Lothana captured once more. 

The disinterested king ascended a high building in 
' order to honor the army returning after a long residence 

240 KIVGR OS 1 KASmtflU. 

in a foreign country ; and with befitting gifts, honors, 
and kind conversation and inspection he pleased the 
soldiers and took leave of them. lie. then looked on 
Dhanya and others who had bent themselves down. 
There was Lothana, his hands over his shoulders, his face 
covered with the ends of the garments given to him by 
the soldiers, without nose, and with the rojjgh white' 
beard on his cheek entering the ends of |jis ears which 
were without ornaments; his weakness and troubles 
were apparent. The citizens were talking with a loud 
or in low voice, and at times, Lothana looked on them 
through the corner of his eyes, the eye-balls of which 
were feeble and moist. Afflicted with agitation, wretch- 
edness, apprehension, weariness, hunger and distress, 
and with limbs shaking for want of sleep, he was like 
a cow tormented with cold. He felt as il? the world 
was swinging, the hills thrown down on every side and 
the*sky fallen down. His lips were parched and dried. 
" I who have come near the palace am unable to stay 
before the king to whom I have done all kinds of 
injury. Or am I covered with darkness or weakened bj 
rheumatism." While he thought thus, his legs failed 
him at every stop. He was surrounded by many men, 
so that glimpses only of him were seen, and the ganrds 
pointed him out to the spectators. In such a state the 
king saw Lothana in the court-yard. By the king's 
order which was communicated by the movement tf 
his brow, Lothana entered the court on which the eyes 

KINGS OP EiSHllfEA. 241 


of the spectators feasted. Then with his eyes the king 
indicated the plase where he was to wait. Lothana 
knelt on the grqund and with his head touched the 
lotus feet of the king. The great king with his lotus 
hands held Lothana's forehead, bent down and humbled 
out of respect, and raised his head. The touch of the 
hands adfipned with jewels and herbs removed all grief 
from Lothana's heart, and the king's person, cool as 
the sandal, relieved him of his misery ; and Lothana 
soon felt confidence in the hofy authority of tho merci- 
ful king. " Fear not, you will prosper " would have 
been the words of pride ; to say that " your goodness 
is marred by your angry disposition" would hare 
been an allusion to former enmity ; " you are our 
friend " would at that moment have been irony ; " you 
have suffered? pain" would have indicated his own 
power and authority. Thus thought the king, and 
when he saw Lothana, he spoke no word to • console 
him. Lothana bent down his head to touch the king's 
feet, hi order to crave assurance of safety, the king 
touched the hairs on Lothana's head with the feet of 
the image of a god. " I am not worthy of respect " 
said tho uncle (Lothana), but the king compelled him 
to take the betel which the king had in his hand. To 
the humble lord of Dvara ho. said smiling that he had 
undergone fatigue, and'he touched the principal person- 
ages, Dhanya and Shashtha with his left hand. When 
Lothana saw the king endowed with skill, mercy, 


gravity, humility and other qualifications, and saw him 
surrounded 'with petty kings, he thought very poorly " 
of himself. Dhanya who out of bashfulness had re- 
mained with his face bent down was consoled and sent 
home, with kind words, his face beaming and his 
hands clasped together. But the composure of the king's 
face, who actecl in observance of good manners was _ ths,- 
siime whether engaged in active exertion or in reaping 
fruits. The sea is not heated by the boiling of the 
sub-marine fire, nor doeslt cool at the access of the 
waters from the Himalaya. The dignity of those minds 
which always remain the same in grief as in pleasure 
is profound. The king effaced the shame of those two 
whose lives had become void of manliness, by -steady 
and sincere benefits, cheerfully conferred, such as is due 
to kinsmen, But while the king, like a Mnd relative, 
fed them, he feared them also like the teeth of serpents 
beqause^he had deprived them of the kingdom. 

The king intended to sub due [Salhana] together with 
the remnant of the enemies who afraid of the difficulties 
of living in a foreign • country, had cooled down their 
anger and relaxed their exertions. Salhana therefore 
remained sleepless, living in a vacant house, and when he 
came out of his hole, he found no persons waiting for him 
from his uncle Vigraha. The king saw Uankara come to 
the Damara in his house and thought it probable that 
the rebels would rise from behind. The vay leading to 
the capital was spread out with camps, but owing to 


KINGS OF KiSHllfEA. £43 


.distance, the extent of the encampment was hot visible. 
The uncle (Lothana) rode in a vehicle between the vehi- 
cles of Dhanya and Shashtha, but owing to the great 
distance he could not be distinguished. The king 
wondered what the cause of the approach of the army 
could be, and who the third person Resides Dhanya 
and Shash$ha was, riding on a vehicle and following 
them. Then* from behind the army came a Damara, 
happy in appearance. He established peace between 
Lothana and Vigraha, whereupon they both went to the 

That day discord was removed from among the multi- 
tude, and fear which had risen high was for a short 
time driven away by the love of kinsmen. When the 
army had departed, swarms of -birds made sounds on 
the river bank vacated by the army, and he [Alankara !] 
fancied that -the river wept for the departure of the two 
forces. In the noise of the water-fall heard at time% he 
feared the return of the royal army to take him away. 
Then at noon the clouds covered the earth with dark- 
ness displaying the beauty of midnight. From that 
time till the month of Vaishakha clouds prevented the 
performance of the festivity of snow on the earth. The 
villain [Alankara ?] accused himself saying that he was 
faithless, irreligious and Bhameless and sat down before 
Bhoja. The son of £falhana, however, was not grieved ; 
he opportunely checked his anger and even consoled 
him and said, that he did not blame him in that matter. 



Ho further said, "you have acted thus in order tq 
save the sons, kinsmen and others who were in clanger 
and who sought your help, and you deserve no censure 
therefore from any one. If you wish to rebel, it would 
be a cruelty to me. According to the exigencies of the 
time be"your conduct towards me as of a stranger. We 
two are not the objects of the king's wra% ^sis those ' 
bdrn in the dynasty of king Harsha ; but^we who have 
submitted to the king's administration should be kept 
under check. You who are wise have protected your 
own party, retrieved your reputation, prevented the 
opposition of those two men, and hindered the king 
from going in his own way." When Bhoja had said 
thus, the villniu [ Alankarachakra ] freed himself from 
the weight of shame, and aftor having repeatedly praised 
Bhoja, said, " you are my witness in " all things." 
"At present for a moment send me away," said Bhoja, 
but he replied that he would send him after the termi- 
nation of the fall of snow, and he went away. Bhoja 
was told by some that the villain would show his anger 
towards him, so Bhoja did not eat nor drink in that 
place. But after the termination of the snow, fall, tho 
villain told him that he would surely send him away 
that day or on the day following, but still he did not 
let him go for two months. Bhoja believed that the 
king knew that he was there, and! would, at the termi- 
nation of the cold, behead him, and consequently he 
hurried to depart. The villain evaded the pretext' 

KINGS OF xIsHJlfltA. 245 

which Bhoja made for his departure which was delayed 
and Bhoja was convicted of guilt. 

Rajavadana wt^s born of Ojas, a loader in the army 
and in the womb of a chaste woman. This Ojas beam- 
ed with prowess, and during the civil war, adorned 
Sussala's army which was, as it were, a tesf stone of 
-heroism^ for the principal warriors. Rajavadana was, 
during his childhood, called the Iong-blanket-clAd. 
Owing to the faithfulness of his father, he was retained 
by the king in his service,* and the possession of the 
estates of Ebenaka &c. was gradually given to him. But 
Naga, born in the hermitage of Khuya, turned the 
king against Rajavadana, whereupon the latter, with a 
view to fight, held him in subjection. All feared that 
being a servant, he would not act cruelly towards the 
king, and not being a Lavanya, would not stand against 
the sovereign. ' 

Then Alankara who had reached Dranga and had 
taken possession of the estates was sent by the king 
with money, to subdue Bhoja. Bhoja said to the Dama- 
ca [Alankara], " I am ready to go to you, but should 
yon depart leaving me, I will kill myself." The other 
promised to see him on the next morning. When thus 
promised, [Bhoja] without saying any thing to any body 
left Kotta at the fourth watch of night And when 
le [Alaiikarachakra] inquired after him who, though 
t then raindfl, was looking after the road, he heard 
;hat [Bhoja] had gone out of the fort at the latter end 

.246 kings of kAshmi'ba. 

of the night. The irrepressible Bhoja, with a limited 
number of followers, journied on by day and went to ''* 
the shrine of the goddess Sharada. But out of pity 
and feeling ashamed to appear before the females of his 
kinsmen, without the two kinsmen who accompanied 
him, he, though advanced in years, like a young man, 
five times tried* [to leave the place]. He believed that h& 
wsuld be blamed by men, and felt no desire to go to 
Durania. He went by the road along the banks of the 
MadlmmatI with the intention to fight with the help of 
the people of Darad. He splircfive or six days in the 
way, and the days were very dreadful. Sometimes ho 
passed over rough and broken stones, sometimes the 
clouds hid the light and darkened all sides, spreading 
themselves like the net of death. At times masses of 
snow, like elephants, slided down making the day dread- 
ful. At times the rush of the water fall, like arrows, 
pierced his body. Sometimes the wind, hurtful to the 
body, penetrated him into the skin. And at times his 
eyes, distressed by the sun, were fixed on the moon. The 
days became fearful on account of the fall of snow. He 
then descended down a plain not quite level but extended. 
The descent was difficult, and though ho walked down, 
yjet he frequently" thought as if he was ascending. At 
last he reached a village in the skirts of Darad. 

His own things which was privately given to him 
were lost, nor did he receive much respect on the way. 
But the lord of the fort of DugdhadhStta now bowed - 


to him and paid him respects. When Bhoja's "messengers 
announced to ViidasLqiha, who was at a distance, of 
Bhoja's arcival,* Viidasimha sent him umbrella and music 
and royal insignia befitting a king. In that kingdom, 
the lord of the fort (kotta) raised him to prosperity, but ■ 
prevented the appropriation of the treasures belonging to 
Ahe Rajavlji. Eajavadana's son went over to the side of 
Bhoja who was behaving like a king, and brought Mm 
to a place befitting a sovereign. But the father (Raja- 
vadana) who was a determined enemy sent his son who 
was worthy to be tied with a string, to the king. The 
father did not trust his son with any important work, and 
he acted as he should have acted. After giving him notice 
he sent turn to the king without cither acknowledging or 
disclaiming his acts. Eajavadana informed his son, 
through ^messengers, that he would soon come to know 
whether he (Rajavadana) was in the confidence of the 
king or his determined enemy. 

The great Naga attained such fame that his own 
countrymen did not feci ashamed to serve him. He 
was adorned with the virtues of charity, forgiveness,' 
activity and want of avarice, and he shdhc as one who 
always enjoyed riches, and he was accessible to men. 
The composure of Prithvihara and others who had 
means of protection at their command Vas not to be 
wondered at, but the great grandeur of this man who 
had none to help him was praiseworthy. He filled th© 
; ranks of his army with thieves, dwellers of forests, 

248 KINGS OF KlSHMfltA. 

criers, &c. J He overran several villages and then stopped. 
He protected Bhoja and others. The Damaras became ' 
disorderly either through the advice pf ministers who 
on account of mutual disagreement had become jealous 
of one another, or for the love of plunder. 

The desire of the people for rebelling which destroyed 
the affairs of ttie state and which was manifested at the 
time of arresting Lothana now assumed ' a hundred 
branches. Trillaka and Jayarajn, though favored by 
the king, could by no kind treatment be pursuaded from 
attempting to reduce the kingdom. As the hole is to 
the lice, tho wasting disease to other diseases, the nether 
world to infernal beings, the sea to the aquatic animals, 
so was the hypocrite Trillaka, the shelter of all the villains. 
He securely imprisoned the lord of Devasara and com- 
menced rebellion. The Brahmanas wished'* his fall and 
the deliverance of the world ; they therefore commenced 
religious Jast for the king at Vijayeshvara. The king 
anticipated the untimely destruction of the villains, 
but the Brahmanas did not act according to his request. 
Then out of charity, the king consented to go to their 
assembly. But *when ho armed himself to start, Jaya- 
raja, that chief among the wicked, died of carbuncle. 
The fortunate king who [beheld] on one hand the 
destruction of 1 the villains, came to Madavarajya to 
please the Brahmanas. The Brahmanas, whose action 
was disapproved by tho minister Alankara add who were 
vexed at his craftiness, caused him to J be removed from • 

kings of kAshm/ra. 249 

.tie side of the king. Alankara who had always tried 
to keep the wicked villains under control appeared to 
the jealous Brakmanas as the encourager of their 
enemies. The king, by making a promise to root out 
Trillaka, after he had crushed the civil war, prevented 
the Brahmanas from performing their .religious fast. 
Triilakay ^ruck with fear by several disagreeable acts, 
harassed the «king, as an undetected disease harasses a 
man with various complications. 

Yashoraja, the younger brother of Jayaraja, was em- 
ployed by the king. He was attacked by his nephew 
(brother's son) named Eajaka. Safijapala went to relieve 
Devasarasa where the proud enemies were ; but as the 
number of his soldiers was small, he was doubtful of 
victory. He then learnt tho -account of Bilhana who 
was favored with victory at a terrible fight. When 
like Mandaia, Rilhaua churned the enemies who 
iiese, li&a «. THWsa c£ iratas, iha, «ea, lifea. $&&j%p&b& 
remained tranquil and acquired some advantage from 
the enemies. When Rajaka was subdued, Yashoraja, 
like a boy in a lonely place, was unable to Btay 
without a protector. Trillaka waited the suppres- 
sion of the civil war by the king, and spent time in 
various devices which wore never completed^ He privately 
disbanded the men who were, tho thorns of the state, 
and in duo time, ho spread out, liko a porcupine, tho 
spikes on all sides. Then Koshtaka's younger brothers, 
Tamktlhari and Chatushka, whom the king had impri- 


or near, with gold. Rajavadana, au irrepressible conspi- 
rator, fearlessly joined Bhoja because ke was greatly 
injured. They two became friends with each other, 
and their previous distrust was soon forgotten. Bhoja 
did not wish to . begin hostility without the lord of 
Darad ; J but Rajavadana, out of pride, came to help 
him with a few soldiers and desired to engage irj, battlff 
at^nce. " If our enemies in the camp give, vent to their 
pride, it will be checked now, though we have borne it 
before, and a defeat will destroy their union. Therefore I 
wish for a battle with the whole of our strength, and after 
one day my victory or defeat will be known." Thus said 
Bhoja, but Rajavadana smiled in pride, disregarded the 
soldiers of Darad and led on the advancing army. After 
the followers of the Rajaviji had crossed over the Sankata, 
he heard that the lord of Darad had arrived in hia 
neighbourhood. With a view to join him, he re- 
turned to Kotta. Balahara caused his soldiers to enter 
the village of Matrigrama. 

The son of Garga who was naturally of an equable 
disposition saw the horses on all sides wandering like 
deer against the wind, but he did not lose his compo- 
sure. The Damaras who rode black horses and his 
own soldiers who leagued with the enemies, went to 
.create a mutiny among the troops. Thus .encompassed 
by danger and requested by his" friends "to leave the 
'place, the son of Garga only replied, wrtib. a sad face 
that he was unable to see his king. SuryyavarmmS ' 


was " not born in the Lunar family, for he did not go 
to confer benefit on those bom in the family of Malla.* 

After this, the' king and Viddasimha treated Bhoja - 
who was attended by his soldiers with courtesj', and 
allowed him to win a victory. Leaving Viddasimha 
and others in the rear, Bhoja led the avny in which 
the* Mlftshohhas predominated. Followed by the army 
which disturbed the world, the son of Salhana 
thought that he had already conquered the whole 
earth. With this powerful and proud force consisting 
of cavalry and Mlechchha kings, he encamped at a 
place called Samudradharn. With this powerful and 
invincible force the beaming Rajavadana thought that 
Shashthachandra was doomed to death within a short 
time. • s 

After , this, the clouds of the rainy season accompa- 
nied by lightnings flooded the country, and land and 
-waiter wssennti urns -cnnSurni •uppeurant-e. Such loeuane 
the state of the world. The earth was full of water, 
like a drinking cup with wine. The trees were drowned 
and their tops which were slightly visible nppenred 
like blue lotuses. The king knew the danger to which 
Shashtha was exposed, and with the remainder of the 
army sent Udaya, lord of Dvara, and Dhanya. The 
way of their army wa^ obstifucted, but they pursued 
their road even as Yudhishthira and Bhima did after Arjju- 
na's death. In both instances the clouds hung down from 

* The dvuabt; to which Siiuhadeva belonged. 

254 kings o* kAshmib^. 

£he sky, and the world was full of water, and between 
them,- the flashes of lightning were seen and the roar of 

.thunder was heard. It seemed as if « both the sky and 
the earth were stitched with lightnings. At this time 
the king, attended by a handsome, retinae, remained 
without a division in his camp. 

The BajavijI disregarded Bfijavadana, ajid.Triilafa 
informed the men of Darad by messengers, that in the 
first instance neither force nor opposition should be 
employed in the affair. He strengthened Pamktlhari 
who was in his hands, and wished to win over one of 
the forces [under Eajavfjl or Eajavadana]. The king 
saw Balahara's force like a picture not painted on a 
wall [i. e. unsubstantial] and exposed to various dangers 
from the encodes. The king divided his innumerable 
force. Trillaka, whose evil intention was' known, and 
who was aware of the king's prowess and also knew 
that he was strengthening his weak points, beha\ed 
liko a fattened porcupine. He openly deserted the 
haughty enemy [ Chatushka 1] whom he had once before 
kept bidden in his own person. 

In the datkness caused by the gathering of clouds 
and covered with a load of. dust raised by high wind, 
Lofchaka, sop of Prithvihara, suddenly arrived at Shura- 
pura, with many pamiiras, and was re-enforced by 
[Trillaka,] Ltjlhaka had learnt frpm informants of the 
efforts made by the two sections of his party. He had 

• on various occasions and under great difficulties des- 


grayed men of royal blood. He was the cause of tumul- 
tuous risings and was the encourager of evil things. He 
arrived there aftef a long time, and changes were per- 
ceptible in him, as in tho full banks of the river in the 
rainy season when the embankment is broken. ( At the 

■ advent of the rains, his troops appeared* all collected 
together} like the world as it issued from the navel of 
Vishnu when 'he slept contented at the time of the 
deluge. Pifijadeva, lord of Draiiga, attended by ' a 
handful of warriors, such as were not sufficient even to 
count the soldiers of Lothaka, sent the latter in the 
direction of death or in the river. A multitude of bla- 
zing pyres werfe reflected in the river, and it seemed, as 
if the last rites of those who were drowned wore being 
performed. Thus one day, Lothaka, forgetful of death, 
and taking with him his faithful men, fought an arduous 
battle ;, and on the next Hay, he was boaten back with 
a Ymkvti force. He Taaa ■W&tmgYrt, ibsA, ft -fftralti'l&e eSsy 
to take within two or three days that lonely town in 
which he had collected an army from ali sides. 

The desire of Trillaka to attack Padtnapura abated 
out of fear of Yashoraja and of the lord of Kampana 
who were at his back. During tho civil war in Sus- 
S'da's time, no such calamity happened te Sussala as 
befel his son. As one disregards the disease of the leg 
and attends to, the inflammation of the throat, so the 
king disregarded Chatushka and sent Rilhana to destroy 
Trillaka. When Rilhana departed with this object, Mil 

256 KINGS OF KAsHjrflU. 

was followed by the people of Shamala, as Aryyuna was 
followed by determined warriors when he went to kill 
the king of Pragyotisha. He turned round, faced them 
bravely, killed them and ran about, as does an elephant, 
stung by bees on his back when- he goes towards a 
tank. Weary of battle, he. spent the night at Bamasha 
where he was disturbed by the cries of ^he-enemy's 
troops fallen into the roaring canal. In the morning 
[Rilhana] entered Kalyauapura, but (Trillaka] arrived 
there before him and filled all directions with troops 
,and opposed" him.' He destroyed the spies and the in- 
fantry who were marching, as soon as he saw them, as a 
huge serpent devours the goats' ; before it. When he 
arrived like a strong wind, the infantry of Bilhana de- 
serted him, as the leaves desert the tree in the dewy 
season. Bilhana saw the wicked men disregarding him 
and fleeing, and they were not ashamed to. do so. Who 
. can perform his duty properly if he takes excessive care 
of his own person 1 ■ When his trusty men came to his 
side and begged, him .to flee, he remembered the devo- 
tion due to his master whom he considered equal to 
Brahma, and smiled and said. " Though shame exists 
equally in all, yet peopte allow a victor to gain asccn- 
denoy over Jheni. Fie to his life who being a servant 
performs n")t his d uty. During my service at the king's 
feet, my black beard round the face has turned white 
with age, as the blue lotuses, beautifying' a tank, close 
at the decline of the sun and white ku'mudas expand at 

KINGS Or KisiftrfRA. 257 

night. When the king dies, useless then is the enjoy- 
ment of fortune 'which is transcient as the movement of 
the brow. It is the custom of the wise not to take 
cowards into service ; for their employers come to grief 
through their reluctance even to perform a slight task. 
One is afraid of cold when he puts off his clothes, but 
when he has bathed in the waters in a place of pilgrim- 
agoj he^fecls pleasure and the comfort, as if he becomes 
conscious of the presence of the great Brahma. It*is 
so in battle ; those who leave their bodies there, feel a 
little afraid in the beginning* but afterwards obtain the 
repose which arises from great pleasure." Thus said he, 
and taking the arrows whose whizzling sound was like 
the breathing of a lion, he descended among the enemy's 
soldiers. The reflection of the golden hilt of the Sword 
made the blade look yellow like arsenic, and the blade 
was as active in the battle as an actor is on the stage. 
His sword destroyed the swords of the enemies. Surely 
men wore drawn on his weapon as if by magic, as a grass 
is drawn on the 'grass-jewel. He was followed by coward- 
ly men who could only fight with the beasts that they 
saw and the grass which was the food of the animals. 
Somehow he came out from the mouth of death into- 
which he had entered, as the water issues out of the ears 
of the whale when he shuts his mouth. Kilhana who 
behaved proudly towards his. foes came out from thniu 
to relieve his weariness. He had continually cuinpelk-d 
the enemies fib retreat, and his strength was exhausted. 

258 kin as. or kAshmjba. 

At this time Chatushka with a large army leu on nis 
rear and tlilharia at first took him to be some one who 
had come to help him. As a peacock is not enraged, " 
but dances with joy at the sight of a; serpent, even in 
the same manner did he behave when he saw the ene- 
mies facing him on both sides. He then exposed his 
front atd his rear by turns to the two enemies and 
reduced their armies in battle, even as the ehurnjng'>xSi 
'ware, away the two shores of the sea, wl\en the ocean 
was churned. Between the two armies fixed as pegs, 
he, fleet as a horse, constantly moved about, like a 
weaver with his warp and his woof. He shone in the 
midst. of the battle. As waters rush over the side of 
an island in which there is a break, so he was attacked 
by the enemy's army on whichever side he was weak. 
He performed very rapid movements, as if in play, and 
caused the weapons and ear-rings of the eneTmy's soldiers 
tremble, and they were stupified and unable to behave 
like, men. He made their faces, * like so ■ many water 
. pots, pale through fear, and drenched with perspiration 
and it seemed as if he again anointed the king in the 

At night Kuhana and Panktihari having arrayed 
themselves .sought each other's weak points, as the 
magician and the, evil spirit do towards each other. 
On the next day, Rilhana drove into the forests, the 
soldiers of the king who were sent to help him but who 
had hitherto behaved as witnesses.. Safijapala who. 

kings op kIshmi'ra. 259 

thought that Trillaka was no longer innocent, Game on 
the third day to Rilhana. Trillaka had already been 
exhausted by the prowess of the king, he was now des^ 
troyed by these .two, oven as a tree in the forest is 
weakened by worms and is then quite dried up by the 
hot. season and fire. Udaya gradually reduced the 
courage of Chatushka whos,e fire, like that of the fu- 
ijeigil p^re, had not been quenched in useless battles. 
The proud soldiers of Darad, eager for battle, rode t>n 
horses, bore golden armours, and_ descended from the 
mountain caverns. The people feared that the countries 
attacked by the Turashkas would be subjected to them 
and believed that the whole world w ould be overspread 
by the MIechcahas.* Dhanya, lord of Dvara, marched 
out without any help, except his sword, on which rested 
his courage, and obstructed the enemy's troops who 
shone brightly in their golden armour, even as a hill 
with waterfalls arrests the course of the forest fire 
accompanied with cloud like flames. The siiidier* of 
Darad, proud of their number, bent back Jayachandra 
and others who h.<d been preventing their march to tbo 
front, and descended into the battle field. The son of 
Garga [Dhanya] with twenty [thousand J horso speedily 
went and' opposed, their thirty thousand cavalry and 
dpfeatcd them. His enemies saw \m m superhuman 

* The army of Darad as^ stated "before, consisted mostly of the 
Mahometans Their power had already speared all about KSel- 
miia. and the people of that country now began to fear of loaing 
their independence. . & - 

260 KINGS* OF kAshmira. 

prowess, for he appeared before each with -his whole 
force. With their faces thrown over the reins o'f their 
horses, these cowardly men fled within a short time, 
and entered the hills like the. Kimpiirujhas. ,. 

At night Rajiivadana, Jayachandra and others thus 
addressed the men of Darad who were ready to flee : — 
" It was. owing to want of knowledge of the ground and 
owing' to treachery that this defeat has hay^jtuCT 
Tomorrow therefore take us to the front arjd restore vic- 
tory." They falsely replied,— "So will it be." The 
powerful Valahara wished to establish peace ; he caused 
Dhanya and the lord of Dvira to proceed far, and then 
obstructed the road from behind. The Rajavlji \ Bhoja ?] 
who was with the camp -at T&ramfilaka thought of 
coming into terms. When Valahara wished for peace, 
the villains became glad, and the 'son of Salhana [Bhoja] 
expected the conquest of the whole kingdom. Though 
he was accompanied by innumerable leaders of armies, 

■ he gained no victory ; and yet he became proud, for he 
believed that his position was strong and. his expectations 
would be realized. When the unfriendly tusk of the 
elephant destroyes the lotus, the body of the friend of 
the lotus [black bee] is also cut to pieces. When the 
moon rises, the beautiful and graceful sun-jewel parts 
with its heat. So at the time of danger good or evil may 
arrive, quite unexpected. 
Naga was a Dimara and had therefore always neglcct- 

• ed Bhikshu at the timo of trouble and* headed the 

.KINGS OF xi-SHltfBA. 261 

rebels against the king on account of his. kinship with 
Tikka and others. Rajavadana, on the other hand, was 
always trusted because he was not a Lavanya, and also, 
because of his wonderful prosperity and his beneficial 
service in a time of difficulty. It is curious that both 

, thqse men now turned unfriendly inorder to serve their 
dwa-c&ds. , Naga saw the rebellion commenced by others 
which he shoujd have commenced and lamented, os dees 
a poet when a brother poet obtains credit by explaining 
an easy' passage. The king inorder to bring his enemies 
to his side, asked [N£ga] with an assumed composure, 
to leave Eajavadana and to come under his protection. 
[NigaJ who was like a milch cow addressed [the soldiers] 

"•saying, — "Here is [B/ijavadana], the son of Tejas, a 
leader in the army, riding in the carriage in your 
presence. Why do you wait for him, as a sentinal waits , 
for his time 1" But they left him and laughed at him ; 
for no work is done by the help of a goat. Men ars en-; . 
gaged in pleasant or unpleasant work to serve their own 
ends, not alas 1 to do service to others. The two rows 
of teeth [of Rihu i which tfye moan surpasses in lumino- 
city ■ still harass, that luminary. The favprite places, 
of the black bees are the . elephants' temples because 
tbey long to taste the fluid issuing from thom. The 
lotus loves not the moon because the moon is the sun's, 
enemy ; but it does not dislike the black bee who serves 
it though it serves the moon also. 
|Uaga] then published it among his own men th^t 

262 KINGS 07 KisHMiltA. 

Rajavadana who was not estranged from [tie king] 
would destroy the men of Darad who were routed in 
battle, together with Bhoja. The celebrated Kshema- 
vadana and Madhubhadra, two leaders of the lord of 
Kampana who were brought before the lord of Darad, and 
the terrified Ojas, lord of Kcita ; — these three privately 
held a consultation. But Bhoja who knew the fteHrts 
of men laughed at them. Though the kr,ng was sur- 
rounded by the soldiers, as the sun is by a crystal, yet 
[Bhoja] fell on Vidlasuryya, as on fueL with a desire to 
burn the king. Viddasuryya labored under anxiety on 
account of tho danger of the king, as if he labored 
under consumption, and he became like the waning 
moon in the nights of the dark fortnight. 

Suffering from disease, but chief in war and the defen- 
der of the rear, — even such a leader as Valahara was, fit 
the place of attack, overcome with fright. On the next 
day fee was deserted 1 by all while he was at ins meak 
He descended the hill on horse-back and fled. They 
said that they would come :igain on the morning, after 
visiting Bahumata. They then sought the son of Sal- 
hana (Bhoja) and took him with them. Bhoja had 
secured his wealth, and was compelled to follow them. 
But when his purpose was fraustrated, he became 
anxious, like a man sunk in a hollow. All his arteries 
were filled with blood and swelled his body, and it look- 
ed like the stone of a staircase over which dirty water 
had flowed. Though his fall had been anticipated, yet 


be now repeatedly thought as if he had fallen from the 
sky, and owing to his shame none could look upon his 
eyes. " Fie to us," he thought, " that we who saw the 
prowess of the king did not know ourselves, though we 
knew the ways of mortals. Great poets who by their 
genius have made truth graceful do no,t mislead us in 
dBSoriiingj the power of kings. If the fire 'of royal 
power had nj>t existed in the world, wherefore then at 
his approach have we become restless ? The bodies of 
heroes often soaked in rains could not be dried up except 
by the heat produced by such a flame [as royal power]. 
What else but the lino of smoke arising from the fire 
should, like darkness, mislead us, whose eyes are wide 
open, from knowing the right from the wrong path ¥' 
Leaving the men of who were on the other side 
of the Macfhumatl, he arrived on the banks of that 
river and remained hid behind the waves. 

Tnc iYmcuities Vnic'n "foe men of "Imraci'nacl.'givctt' rise 
to gradually disappeared, and they who were so long 
agitated by a desire to rebel against the king, took 
Bhoja within their tent and wished fqr peace with the 
king. They wished to serve the king as guards, and 
the king who was well versed in policy gave away much 
wealth to them. They thus said to Raja^adana, — " The 
approach of the dewy seasan which is nigh is not the 
time for war. In the month of Chaitra we will again 
begin to make preparations for battle, If you oan 
' afford to wait for sometime, then for the present, we 



■will place you in the loose of the powerful Trillaka,. 
on the road leading to the kingdom of Bhutta." Thus 
they said to Rajavadana who was in the neighbourhood 
of the king, and according to the policy of their country 
(Darad) they wished to establish peace between him and 
the king. Thijy surpassed* even the people of R&japurl 
in cunning, even' as the length of a sumraer "Sayis 
surpassed by the length of the day of separation. 

Valahara sent messengers, to Rajavadana reproaching 
him by saying that he had fallen into the well by the 
breaking of the rope.' In the midst of the battle [Vala- 
hara] saw the son of Gnrga (Dhanya) coming in advance 
and the soldiers of the king approaching, yet he did not 
lose his composure. When he' heard of the sudden flight 
of the lord of Darad and of Bhoja and others bis compo- 
sure was not destroyed, and this indicated that he pos- 
sessed that virtue in an eminent degree. Though there 
was" difference in his party yet his battles did not cease, 
and he fought eagerly. Who can behave like him except 
a superhuman being or one possessed of special merit 1 

According to the necessities of the time, Dhanya and 
the lord of Dvara wished for peace. ' But [Valahara] ex- 
pected the return of Bhoja and caused delay. Then came 
Alankarachakra to take the son of Salhana from the 
lord of Darad. The lord of" Dar-adj was his kindred and 
refused him nothing. - He [the lord of Darad] suppress- 
ed, the meeting of those who were determined to "rebel 
and resolved against all persuation to die at the bridge 


pn the rood. When his soldiers saw him, with servants 
mostly youths, about to die, they were afraid and be- 
came distressed. >An offshoot of the river Balahari had 
destroyed the road, and seemed to speak in disparage- 
ment of the soldiers of Darad by the noise of its dash- 
ing waves. • # 

Viatjasimjia was put to shame by the ladies of his 
household, by the jealous Mleohchha kings aud by the 
undaunted soldiers, and he deserted the [lord of 
Darad]. Then the advanced guards broke the bridge 
and drove the enemy's soldiers to the other side of the 
river. [Viddasimha] arrived among the latter with the 
sound of trumpet which pierced all sides. But when 
he and his soldiers were unable to cope with the antago- 
nists, he sued for peace, and sent a messenger, whom he 
had brought with him, to the king. [The messenger 
thus saidj :-*-" ! Master ! Chief of the wise, of super- 
human power ! It is not possible to challange' you," as 
if you were a petty neighbouring chief, I and Jayaraja 
will soon go to the realm of Death, and will easily be 
in heaven, the proclaimers of your prowejs. The defeat 
I have sustained from your superhuman prowess is like 
a victory unto me, — even as the death of a pilgrim from 
the falling of a river bank in a holy plice is a gain 
to him." He then resided for sometime in his town, 
and then set out and entered the house of Death, fit- 
tingly-decorated byjthe garland of his evil deeds. 

Not knowing that Bhoja was coming that day, 


Rsjavadana concluded peace with the lord of Dvara and^ 
with Dhanj'a. He then returned and welcomed Shash- 
tha, the chief among the noble minded t Shashtha came 
on horseback and entered the presence of the king, 
but when the Eajavljl Bhqja, who received no wounds, 
refused to come out either«owing to vanity or ignorance 
or grief, the king • became very anxious and.,reptfaTedly 
invited Bilhana. But Bilhana had not then destroyed 
all his enemies, so he did not return. He could by no 
means come before his master while his work yet re- 
mained undone, as a cook who longs to eat the remnant 
of the food partaken by his master cannot eat in his 
presence. During the war Bilhana kept apart the two 
sons of Prithvlhara and made them useless for any work, 
oven as Bhima divided the body of the king of Magadha. 
As Aryyuna cut the serpent at Khandava, so did 
he sever Loshtaka in battle, and Loshtaka fell on 
the* earth, as if on his ■ own mother's lap. Chatushka, 
deprived of his courage and pride, entered the invulner- 
able house pf Trillaka, even as a tortoise enters his shell. 
By his heroism^ Bilhana completed the work, and he 
then proceeded to the king ; as if desiring to obtain the 
light reflected from the nails of the king's feet, as a 
turban on his, head. 

When by the prowess of 'the king, the rebellion was 
thus quelled, it again broke forth owing to the dullness 
of his minister's intellect. Sinco. Rajavadana ' who 
deserved punishment was soothed by gifts, he became 


-bold and again welcomed Bhoja who had arrived there. 
In a place called Dinnagrania inhabitod by the Khashas, 
[Bhoja] gave a large bribe to [Rijavadana]. Ho then 
told [Rljavadana] : — " If cither you or your retainers do 
not come tomorrow, then the lord of D vara, who is 
accompanied with a limited number oS followers will 
come to ma" When the stream of courage was reduced, 
Trillaka with %, trembling heart, spread out the rope of 
policy and fixed the lord of i^vara like a boat. [Tillaka] 
had expected that the king, in exulting over the diffi- 
culties overcome, would become negligent, and this 
cunning man was the first to create disorder again. 

Though Alankara and other ministers kept the king 
at ease, yet they had no self command over themselves. 
and did not give up difficult and crooked ways. The 
king neglected Trillaka, as physicians neglect diseases 
not yet developed, and began to root out other enemies 
who wore like boils fit to be opened. Alankiir.i snid to 
Bhoja: — "Come to our assistance when wo are in fear." 
and he set out and commenced civil war. The villain 
named Jayanandavara, son of Anandawa, and other? 
of Kramarajya who wore renowned for their valor fol- 
lowed him. 

The king fell on Alankara who had advanced with 
a small force, even as, the Sea. falls on an embankment 
made of sand. But Alankara fought alone against 
many enemies, and in the first part of tho battle, he 
harassed the men. The field of battb was filled by the 


RSkshasas excited by drinking [human blood,] and it_, 

was soon washed by blood, even as a tavern is washed by 

wine. What else need be said 1 Even as the wind blows 

away a heap of cotton, so did the king, drive away 

the dreadful army of the enemies. In the battle he 

killed the son of Anandavara with arrows and left him 

as food for flights of swooping birds, vjaltufSs -and 

ETaiikas. <* 

Bhoja who was longing to rise, and the kiug who was 
longing to seize him, were like a partridge running in 

the mire and the fowler following. As the partridge, 
unable to fly, gets tired by running over the mire, and 
as the fowler, constantly following it, gets weary, so in 
this work of violence Bhoja became weakened, and the 
king too, wishing to capture him, was every moment 
bewildered even more than Bhoja. 

When Bhoja was at Dinnagrama, the -king said to 
Bajavadana: — "What! Will the thieves and the Damaras 
again obtain the ascendency 1" At this time the Dama- 
ras, whose party had been broken before, took over to 
their side, the gpwerful men from outside the town in 
larger numbers than before. But when the lord of 
Dvara arrived, these men were not only not able to with- 
stand him, but were frightened out of their purpose, in 
an irresistible lattle. Fer the relief of these men, 
Alankarachakra gave money to the son of Salhana 
[Bhoja] and informed him of the defeat, and brought 
him near himself. On the next day >» hen [Bhoja] intended 

KINGS OF KASHm'rA. 26*9 

to go over to them, the lord of Dvara, whsse soldiers 
lay weary at Hayashrama, understood his purpose. But 
as if not knowing their seoret union, the lord of Dvara 
went on some pretence to Sannaramulaka -which was situ- 
ated in a difficult position. When he was there, Bhoja 
heard a noise in the evening coming from soma distant 
place, and he became uneasy and ssfid something. 
Though his own men laughed at this causeless appre- 
hension, he remained afraid but arranged the horses. 
At this time Alankarachakua was also Btruok with fear, 
and he cried out: — ."Where art thou 0! Kajaputra," and 
swiftly fled from DashagrSma. At night fall, the sound 
of trumpet bespoke an attack, and the noise of the 
soldiers rose from the village. Bhoja, invisible in dark- 
ness, fled ; and Alaiikarachakra busied himself in mak- 
ing preparations for the battle on the next day. Tho 
fire lighted by the lord of Dvara, which showed the 
mountain way, became advantageous to those bevrildw- 

• a 

ed in the dark. The D&naras who had consented to 
the terms of peace of the lord of Dvara, in the expecta- 
tion of the arrival of Bhoja, disbanded themselves when . 
they heard of this occurrence. • 

Bhoja remained with a composed mind and did not 
deprive himself of the delights arising from affection 
for his children, and enjoyed the pleasures of eating and 
drinking. In anger the began an inauspicious quarrel 
with Alankaaachakra, and as Alaiikarachakra was strong, 
he did not put up* with the quarrel. At tho burning, of 

$70 kings 0? kIshmisa. 

Tripura, *he fire arose from «the arrow; and at tlie 
churning of the ocean, the heat arose from the sub-' " 
marine fire ; the friendship of the lord of the serpents 


with Mandara was not productive of happiness. Simi- 
larly the friendship between Alankarachakra and Bhoja 
did no* prove happy in result. 

In order t6 destroy the weariness caused by hunger 
and thirst, Bhoja came to his own possession, and the 
-sons of Alankara wished to establish peace with him 
again. Their father intending to accomplish various 
results, concluded peace with Bhoja, either by his own 
will or according to their plan. Bhoja came out of his 
estates and went to others. The other [Alankara,] who 
understood business felt certain that the work could not 
be accomplished by the Valahara. So without depend- 
ing on the Lavanyas, he again went to JMnnagrama. 
The lord of Dvara who was an able man and was steady 
in 'bringmg about the good of his friends was, in the 
meantime, suddenly checked in his career by an eye 
disease. The two girls whom the Damara had wished 
to give to Bhoja, were given by him to Parmmadi ami 
Gulhana, sons <sf the king, now that Bhoja was worsted. 
At the time when punishment was inflicted on tho 
rebels, the lord of Dvara was suffering from serious 
| illness ; so when he came to the place of punishment he 
ordered a conciliation. At "the time when the battle was 
raging, even Shashthachandra, son of Garga, weakened 
by piles, met his death. And at" the time when he 

KINGS OF KA8HHfK.l. 271 

was suffering from illness, his two younger brothers being 
under excitement, harassed the earth, by inroads. 

Trillaka who had greatly fixed his mind on war, made 
up his differences with the powerful enemies of the king 
and did not accept the proposal of the king. 

When Shashtha died and the lord of Dvara was laid 
up with illness, Dhanya, employed by tile king, went to 
Taraniulaka. Bhoja who was liked by others was driven 
out [ from the place where he went] and was within the 
reach of the strong. But tl* king thought that whether 
Bhoja remained fixed in a place or was driven out of the 
country, he should be brought under the king's power 
by such means as conciliation, and he wished to get hold 
of him. He had mortally offended Bhoja who was acting 
as his enemy. This unwise policy, the result of which 
could not »be foreseen, proved fatal to the king, like a 
serpent when pulled by the tail. For the people both 
within and without [the capital] believed that R^ava- 
dana was strong and that the king was weak ; and they 
gradually turned against the king. Alas ! There are 
many hollows to be found in the ground, and a policy of 
inflicting punishments is similarly fulf of dangers. He 
who enters these hollows may either find spacious room 
therein, or not knowing the ground may fall. The 
Valahara said to Rajavadanp : — " It is tne king's desire 
that Bhoja should tie sent away from us, and if Bhoja 
be in need of money, he will, of his own accord, depart 
from us." Thus saying he settlod a maintenance 

272 KIKGS O? KiSBJilRA. 

for Bhoji. • Eajavadana saw ihat the king was about to 
succeed in his dcrsign, and lust on adopting some wily 
means, be agreed to the proposal. 

At every (step Dhany.i tuasle pe*ce with, the Yalaban 
and held personal communication with him ; and so lie 
became the object of laughter of the people. The kind's 
affair was constantly thrown backward, and like the ruje 
ofi the .wheel in a well, it found no end. fifes tactics 
though clever did not prevail, and were unsum^ful, 
even as a sharp arrow canned penetrate a wheel in motion. 
In the civil war during which two sovereigns were 
removed and which is now carried on by the renuinin:.' 
one, the king became confounded, as in chess play. The 
Valahara intended to win over Naga, but had neither in- 
fantry nor cavalry to execute his purpose; he nevertheless 
persisted in his aim without such assistance. J He deceiv- 
ed his enemies by craft. The villains f party of the Vah- 
haraj wer,e addicted to dice, and were waiting for the end 
of the winter oeason. The Vulahara consequently appre- 
hended the destruction of his own men by Naga who 
was strong and remained unslakened in his enmity and 
had commenced* to commit unfriendly acts. Naga and 
Dhanya ran [after the Valahara j who trembled ^\ith 
fear. He then consulted Bhoja and sent a message- 
to Dhanya to £he following effect : — " Bring Naga bound 
to me, and I will give up Bhoja." * Dhanya had in pre- 
vious instances arrested many enemies, but«he was now 
confounded by the danger, and did not understand the 

KIN3S of kashm/ra. 273 

policy of the enemy. The mind of kings becomes de- 
prived, of its intelligence wlien impelled by elf interest, 
•and it is not surprising if they are led to bad acts. For 
the sake of his beloved, even the heroic descendant of 
Kakutstha, [ Rama ] sided with Sugrlva and blind with 
self interest, killed Vail unfairly. The* king of the 
Pandavas,,[Yudhishthira] was virtuous, but his in- 
tellect was clouded by vanity and the desire for a king- 
dom; and thus he abandoned his truthfulness and 
caused the death of Drona. But the action of the king 
on the present occasion was not blamable. Since the 
time of Bhikshu, Naga was always rebelling, and on 
account of his hostility, the king was waging war, for self 
interest, and had become indifferent towards him. The 
king arrested [ Naga ] without taking any pledge for ob- 
taining Bhoja. Sensible men became for this reason angry 
with him. This action of the king was finally productive 
of good results, but such results were not foreseen by 
him, and could not be foreseen except by superhuman 
intelligence. Bhoja, as if estranged [ from the Valahara ] 
sent information to Naga that " the Valahara intends to 
give me up to the king after takin g from the king a 
pledgo for his surrendering you to the Valahara." Bhoja 
did not believe that he would be seized, but said this to 
Naga in the hope that Naga, out of fear of the king, 
might remain neutral. 

When Shashthachandra died, the king caused Naga 
to be brought to him, by means of Jayachandra whom 


lie had von over to his sido. Fearing that [Jayachan- 
dra] whom the king had brought over to his side 
■would kill him, the minister [ Naga J»was preparing to 
depart, but Bhoja caused hiin to be obstructed. Even after 
knowing that he had been drawn there by these two 
men, Naga lost his self control, and sent a message, 
through messengers, to Bhoja. When a man sinks 'in the 
womb of the stream of fate, his oars caniiot hear the 
voice of one warning him, from the banks, of his 
condition. When Naga was arrested, his terrified re- 
latives came and took protection of tho crafty Valahara 
■who could with difficulty be seen. Dhanya took with 
him Naga who was tho price for buying Bhoja, ran 
together with Rilhaiia, and went to the Valahara. The 
"Valahara who was deceiving them, laughed internally 
and misled them saying : — " Give up Naga to me first, 
and I will give up Bhoja to you." 

The Valahara, who was difficult of access, engaged 
himself in battle with Dhanya and Bilhana. The soldiers 
of the two had become united, and had come a long 
way, to fight. But they were weakened by the disadvan- 
tages of carryiug on war during the rains. The Vala- 
hara told them that he would act according to their 
wish [t. e. would give up Bhoja] at the time when they 
would retire. One of them marched away, and they 
became detached from each other in the way, and being 
involved in battle they were confounded and they lost 
their senses. The Valahara's firmness and strength were 

KINGS o^ xAsiiufKA. 278 

ample. In these wonderful times such merits are rare 
in heroes. Dhanya lost his way and boldly came up to 
the side of [the Valahara ] ; but [the Valahara] did not 
attack him, and out of greed, he did not act against 
Bhoja, but he thought that should the ministers give up 
Naga to him, in their bewilderment, ho w,ould ask [ the 
king ] for hjp reinstatement in his post. 

Loshtaka, oon of [Naga's] brother, was a determined 
man and had obtained property when Naga was afar ; 
and was secretly [Naga's] enemy. Ho caused Naga to 
be killed by Dhanya and others. When Naga was 
destroyed by the ministers blinded by causeless enmity, 
[the king's] own men and others blamed the ill advised 
act. The Damaras, followers of Naga, became angry 
at the murder of their own tribes-mnn, and set them- 
selves up against [the king) and took refugo of the 
powerful Valahara. When a man gets confused at the 
approach of danger, and wanders from his object, ftnd 
does evil deeds, Fate determines his work. Auspicious 
Fate puts an end to the miseries of the man who, having 
obtained money, finds it difficult to enjoy it, who first 
allows his miud to travel hi evil ways, loses self control 
and then turns about hastily into a hollow, and who 
shows on his person the marks produced by. the stroke 
of the scabbard of other wen. Bhoja did not know 
the fate of Naga, after whom none enquired, and who 
was thus murdered, by the wise ministers. Bhoja enter- 
tained fears about him and entertained these suspicions ;- 

278 KINGS op kAshmiba.. 

torn, and foam was issuing from his month and he was 
weeping. When questioned, the Braomana said that the 
wicked Damaras had taken all he had; and had thus 
wounded him ; and he blamed Bhoja for being unable 
to protegt him. Oppressed with grief every day, Bhoja 
became like one who had been wounded, and bled anew. 
He consoled the Brahmana and said, " ! Brahmana ! 
I am not to be blamed, I am in difficulty myself, and 
am therefore an object of your favor." Then said the 
other, " O ! Son of a king ! thou who knowest good from 
bad, thou who art a youth, and born in a good family 
and proud, say what is the use of your striving for the 
■unattainable ? What object have you in view in endanger- 
ing your life, in bowing to the low-minded, and in 
oppressing men with hardships? The king appears to 
you as one who can be subdued, but do not you know 
that he is like gold, fire-proof, and can plunge into the 
fire 'of the enemy's valor? Even the points of the wea- 
pons have no effect on him, as the oval shaped petals of 
the blue lotus have none on the moon-jewel. Even the 
Avatara Prithv T hara and others were subdued by him, 
and will not weaker people be ruined by fighting against 
him 3 Why do you vaunt even after you have understood 
the acts of those who live by the civil war,- and who 
are like serpents wishing to sting him who feeds them, 
but caught by the serpent-catcher ? Alas ! it is in vain that 
the young ones of serpents, born to bear the world, take 
shelter iu holes in villages where serpent catchers abide. 


These serpent-catchers frighten people by making the 
serpents rise and sink in the road, not with a "view to 
make the serpents known, but to earn their own liveli- 
hood by begging." "When thus spoken to, Bhoja left 
the Brahmana after consoling him. Bhoja's good sense 
instantly returned to him at.this time. Good behaviour 
leads to peace, otherwise the mildness of character 
would be cruilty. When the nectar is touched by t"he 
beams of the sun, it becomes solid, and the moon-jewel, 
although a solid stone, melts speedily when touched by 
the beams of the moon. Bhoja, born in a royal family, 
had not lost all sense of shame. He thought for a 
moment about the great difference between himself and 
the king. " In heroism, policy and gifts, in truth and 
goodness and other virtues, even the former kings dwind- 
led in comparison with our. master (king). What are 
we, little beings, that vie with him? Even in moments 
wImhi. Ilia power blaoaa fcttk, tos retains his coo,ine&s«an& 
patience. We fools, though made inert by being sub- 
dued, become fiery ! The high sandal, tree, though thick- 
ly beset with serpents, with fire-like poison, romains 
cool ; but the cavity of the deep well, becomes warm 
in the dewy season when we shiver to. our ribs with 
cold. If in order to find relief, shelter should be sought 
of the king ; his heart is strong, and he will not be 
angry because of the troubles planned against him. If a -. 
man sets fire to a t vigorous sandal tree, in order to burn 
it, and if scorched by that fire, ho comes near the tree 


to relieve his burning, will not that sandal tree be bene- 
ficial to him? Dbanya, in order to relieve the wise king 
from all troubles, served him repeatedly, as if in atone- 
ment of some injury done. 

Bhoja who was seeking means to appease the king saw 
messengers cogae to the Vaiahara, one by one. In order 
to learn the news beforehand, Bhoja called io his side 
one of them who was going to the country»of Darad. As 
the messenger bowed to him, he smiled a little and 
said : — "What is the use of the king's making 
peace with others, let him make peace with me. Physi- 
cians give diet to the sick through sensible men." The 
messenger did not at first believe him and. laughed in 
jest. But he afterwards ^understood him, and after some 
conversation on various subjects, was somewhat convinc- 
ed. Bhoja's speech, which was without vanity, inspired 
confidence in the man, and when it ended, the messenger 
prstised ' the king in the presence of Bhoja and said : — 
" Only the virtuous can obtain the shadow of the feet 
of the king who is born of a prince, is of a happy dis- 
position, and is Jiko the shadow of the golden mountain. 
His anger is assuaged by small persuation, as the heat 
of the autumn sun is removed from the water by the 
beams of the moon. Do you remember that when you 
were about to enter the "Darad country, I was present 
before you, engaged as a spy 1 When I returned, I told the 
king about the principal events respecting you ; and in 
order to cause delay, I engaged myself in a long converea- 

KINGS 01* RAsHMitU. &81 

tiott with him. In the midst of this coversation, I told him 
that weary with 'hunger, thirst and the toils of journey, 
your followers were blaming you, but that when you saw 
me, you rebuked them and said : — 'The king is the orna- 
ment of hia dynasty and is to us like a godj we are 
Without virtues, that we cannot serve his feet. It is 
owing to him that we who are extremely worthless have 
become great f the wood that is scented with sandal is 1 
mistaken for the sandal wood.' As soon as the king 
heard this, he felt pity for you, and asked as a father 
does of a child, ' what does that boy [Bhoja] say of 
me ?' — and he looked as if he were your father." When 
Bhoja heard this, his heart melted, and with tears with- 
in him, he thought as if the king had come before him 
and had consoled him. Not accustomed to understand 
the clear expressions of the mind, the messenger could 
not know his heart as a philosopher would have known. 

Th» poxpoae «E Bhoja, ■■who ■was safe fwa danger, 
was not believed by Dhanya, and he disbelieved the 
king's spy who was sent as a messenger to Bhoja. Bhoja 
privately told the Valahara that he was.not in earnest, 
but was playing a part as in the case of Naga, that he 
was acting as a hypocrite and trying to impose upon the 
king, so there need be no quarrel between them [Bhoja 
and the Valahara], Thus pretending simplicity, he 
tried to establish his peace with the king. Bhoja with- 
out delay employed a boy, a native of the place, as 
messenger. He was fit to be a counsellor at that time, 

282 kings of kAshmiha. 

and was skilful in conspiracy. As Bhoja was young, 
the Valahara did not suspect that he would act independ- 
ently and engage himself in a conspiracy every day, 
The boy returned and told Bhoja that the king who 
■was solicited [to establish peace with Bhoja] was waiting 
to receive a trustworthy messenger for the purpose. 
There being no trustworthy person about A Bhoja, he 
sent to the king, his own nurse who was known by 
various names, even though she was a woman and did 
not possess a brilliant intellect. She was worthy of 
honor, and was the younger sister of Bhoja's father; 
and when his parents died and left him an orphan, she 
acted as his mother. In order to please her husband, 
she served without jealousy as a companion to her co- 
wives, removing disagreement between them and offering 


them ornaments. By the due fulfilment of her duties, 
she convinced her husband of her trustworthyness. 
She* was a gentlewoman and a good Kshetriya womau 
on whom the king always looked with no small delight. 
When the king was crowned, it was she, the principal 
queen, who wore that desirable object, the tiara made by 
her father-in-law and the subjects. Her mind, though 
affected by the love of offspring, the desire of enjoy- 
ment, and the wish to please her husband, does not run 
after evil tilings. In the 'present treaty of peace, as 
on other treaties of peace, she did not differ in opinion 
from her husband. She was not vain„at the time of the 
ascendency of her fortune, and her good purpose was 


never defeated. From her young age she understood the 
purpose of her husband. She preserved her dignity and 
her family name j and in her acts there is no probability 
of her having recourse to cunning. Such was lady 
Kalhanlka whom Bhoja thought of making, a mediator 
between him and the king- She journjed on foot till 
she reached the frontier. For her protection, Bhoja gave 
much wealth, and the wealth was kept iu the centre of 
the party. For her expenses on the road, he gave much 
money in which gold predominated ; and he sent her 
with eight well-born Rajputs to serve her, and with 
every mark of royalty, 

Dhanya took with him a messenger, and, together with 
the king, went to her and assured her of the fulfilment 
of her yet unaccomplished desire, since it was likely that 
the king would soon confide in her. But the mind of the 
king was vacilating, and he had not yet come to a deci- 
sion. He was without animosity, and thought ihuS : — 
" Is it owing to the indifference of the world or through 
hypocrisy that her mind has been thus changed ? She 
should be rescued from difficulty. The gun rising in the * 
midst of an undispelled mass of clouds prevails at last ; 
and even so the feeling of entire resignation at last pre- 
vails over alhworldly attachments. Is it that Bhoja knows 
our opposition to the foolish *and careless Naga, and is he 
therefore acting with hypocrisy 1 This sort of indiffer- 
ence to worldly things is never seen in persons who have 
attained their objects, who are totally weak, who aro 

234 kings otf kIshmIra. 

young, who have the support of their numerous adher- 
ents or who are engaged in the work of a Kshatriya. 
Or as the saffron flower grows without the plant, the 
fig fruit without the flower, is it that the feeling of 
indifference, to worldly things in great minds does not 
wait for adverse j circumstances f If this prince [Bhoja] 
be the receptacle of hypocrisy, he should not be left 
aside ; but if he is really changed, what is tlte use* of our 
sight without seeing him ? This princess and these Raj- 
puts bespeak the loss of dignity ; and she is so simple 
that she cannot see through any object clearly. The river 
that flows circuitously is not clearly seen by all, even 
like the drops of water flowing through a woman's hair." 
Thus thought the king, and listening to the advice of 
Dhanya and Rilhana, he dismissed others and performed 
the duty of a king according to true wisdom. J 

The messengers told Dhanya that Bhoja, -inorder to 
serve" his own interests, wished, to have an interview with 
him, and took Dhanya with them. "Fear not the 
soldiers, Bhoja wants to make peace." Thus they told 
•Dhanya. Dhanya, with a limited number of followers, 
stationed himself on an island in a river, expecting Bhoja. 
But when the snow from Charmma melted, the river 
became waist deep, and was formidable with waves that 
embraced the sky, and became unfordable by elephants, 
as if by reason of jealousy against these animals. Then 
blocked up in the river, Dhanya came within the power 
of the enemies who were seeking for an opportunity. 


, On both sides the water extended to the banks and in 
the midst, they, pressed together and dressed in pale 
colored clothes, 'looked like the foam of the water. 
When Bhoja's army arrived, many thousands of Kbasha- 
kas belonging to that army planned the destruction of 
•Dhanya who was in this .critical situation. Anxious 
to avoid j;he perpetration of a crime, and also touched 
by pity at locking at Dhanya's timid and pitiable eyes, 
the son of Salhana pacified his wicked followers and 
thus whispered into their ears. " If he who has come 
running, in humility and confidence for us, be doomed 
to death, surely our descent to hell will be unavoid- 
able. If he be killed, the strength of the master 
who has many servants will not be reduced. The 
speed of Goruda is not destroyed by the loss of 
one feather. If we betray the confidence of king 
thus, we will get a bad name. Deal fairly with a foe in 
eqa&l pasctam ; wfty nrarifer deiebststei^} Ism msliaed ' 
to serve the same king, leaving other work aside, whom 
he serves for money." When ho had said these words of 
reason, and even resolved on his own death [in case they . 
did not hear him], they were dissuaded from their firm 
purpose. At night Bhoja boldly went to protect Dhanya 
in his disadvantageous position. The [Khashas] were 
made to drink, and the fact was intimated to Bhoja. 
The king was informed without reserve, by Bhoja, [of 
what was 'going pn], but.^|hat wise sovereign whose 
senses were not bewildered, felt doubtful about the 


conclusion of the peace and uncertain 'about the success 
of the negotiation without making an impression on 
the heart of the enemy ; and he sent, queen Samanya 
to Taramulaka. She consented to go according to her 
lord's request, but she feared some unavoidable cruelty, 
the outcome of the king's policy, and said : — "0 ! son 
of Arya ! How can the enemies trust us, having once 
seen the depravity of the great ministers ; or how can 
human being fathom the superhuman depth of your 
intelligence % My life, I deem, is for your service, but the 
virtue of the chaste woman cares naught for the policy of 
king. Thi3 Bhoja will behave badly towards you, as 
may be expected in this Kaliyuga. ! lord ! Bhoja" has 
commenced to sell snow in the Himalaya. Now-a-days 
even an ordinary man admits none to he his equal, nor 
knows the difference between his mind and those of 
others, and is generally guilty of excessive pride. Even 
well* behaved kings, lose their sense when angry with a 
son or annoyed at an advice, and fly against trustworthy 
men. Your orders are never given in vain, and there 
can be no delay in carrying them out.; you are quaffing 
the drink of fame from three worlds, as from a vessel, 
in company with me. I disregard the destruction of 
my life, and am also earning that fame. But you should 
save my reputation from being exposed before such men 
as have different motives and are selfish." Thus said the 
chaste queen and remainedddlent ; buj; the truth-abiding 
' king, without soothing her fear, deputed a step-mother 
of his, of inferior caste, to accompany her. 


, "What is the king revolving in his mind 1" Thus won. 
dered all the people. The king employed various means, 
after sending the queen, and did not leave untried any 
means that might have been employed. Owing to the 
division in the king's own party, all the Damaijas, both 
great and small, who were neutral, examined the strength 
and weakness of the king, and the chain of their friendly 
attachment Ifccame feeble, and they went over to those 
whom Bhoja had attracted to, his side. " Even by our re- 
maining neutral," said they, " Bhoja has in the civil war 
become powerful •;" and they threw off their neutrality. 

Trillaka sent his son to Bhoja without delay and caused 
Ghatushka with a large army to enter Shatn&la. The 
Damaras of Nilash-ya who had even at the time of 
Bhikshu's rebellion preserved their friendliness towards 
the king, now went over to -the .enemies. Of the Dama- 
ras from L'ahara, Devasarasa and Holarat, only three 
remained faithful and only one Damara woman of all'the 
Damaras from Nilashva remained so. The snow fell on 
the Lavanya force of the son of Salhana, which became 
like roaring ocean waves maddened by the fall of rain. 

But when the Valahara heard that Bhoja had gone 
to the queen with the fixed intention of establishing 
peace, he spoke thus in no ambiguous terms. >" Man was 
misled by man during theEte days, but now that female 
relatives have become mediators, men belonging to their 
own family must come to terms. When Bhoja, the chief 
of- the family, has acted thus out of love, how can men, 

288 SINGS 07 KlSHllfKA. 

like myself whom no one reckons, behave rudely. This 
you say is hypocrisy, be it so. He begot my confidence 
and then I am deceived ; I mil not have a bad reputa- 
tion. All men have united against us, be not therefore 
hopeful of victory. We have seen armies like ours des- 
troyed, before this." He spoke these reasonable words, 
and many other words after deliberation; butjieither he 
nor others could turn Bhoja from his purpose. Two or 
three days before the battle, the king asked Bhoja why 
he acted contrary to previous arrangement, just .at the 
eve of reaping the fruit of his good work. 

At the time when the king stayed at Ta.ramu.laka, 
Ehanya and Bilhana accompanied with armies and 
Jtajputs went to Panchigrama. When Bhoja learnt that 
the two had arrived on the southern bank of the river 
and were staying there, he too sat down hi the woods 
on the opposite bank. When the king's army saw that 
the ''soldiers from various quarters incessantly enter tie 
camp of the enemy, none of them believed that there 
would be peace. Dhanya and others had entered the 
place forcibly qnd were unable to come out, they had a 
small force with them; and Rajavadana constantly 
meditated the plan for their destruction. With a view 
to destroy the king's army, some people cut the bridge 
from Suryyapura, and sat hid. on the boats which were 
at the Mahapadma lake. Others of the king's enemies 
who sought for bold adventure and w,ere about to fall 
pn the king's army stayed at various points on the road, 


JBhangileya and other Damaras meditated arf attack on 
.the town of Shankaravarmma from the Kshiptika to the 
Samala. Trillaka. and others calculated that they would 
reach the banks of the great river, and that the Dama- 
ras of Nllashva would commence hostility outside the 
town. 'What more should be said ? It was planned that 
all should fall simultaneously on the followers of the 
king who were like duoks surrounded by water, and kill 
them. But this plan, which was not well directed, was 
stopped by the rains wbicfj foil at that time, as tho 
planets for the drought wore afav. 

The Valahara wished to pursue the road Liken by the 
royal army, but Bhoj.x busied himself in thwarting hid 
.desire at every step. At every moment lihoja feared tho 
breaking up of the peace, and removed the obstacles 
which arose* to the execut'on of his scheme. He himself 
boldly and speedily removed all those difficulties which 
arose in the two camps. . 

Flatterers of the king who brnrrped about the duties of 
messengers and protended to devise pl.uis of operations 
became frightened and uneasy at t!iis time of diriioulty. 
Men of low position, who whisper in the king's ears old 
news which have bean proclaimed to tho world by tho 
boating of drums, who repeat iu a miserable tone what 
men are likely to be ashamed of, who 2«'iiise the heart- 
rending deeds of the cruel enemies, and who are cun- 
ning and ignorant, become flatterers of tho kiug. Tho 
villains who act. as jesters iu the dancing room, who aro 
prone to use rudo words, who aro like a poet iu an 


290 KINGS Or KiSHMfllA. 

assembly, 'like a dog in the courtyard of one's own I 
house, a\id like a bawd iu the hill aud cavern ; — enter the i 
house of a king as heroes in eating. It is strange that in 
other places they go like tortoises drawn out of the 

When the power of the sun declined, the heat abated, 
and the day soon rested on the summit of the mountain ; 
iii the round earth, the sun gave ug his post to 
his brother twilight, and having placed hia rays on the 
mountain head, became a blood-red disk ; aud men 
with clasped hands adored that conjunction between dny 
and night ; — when the moou was about to rise, the tusk 
of the elephants glittered, the moon-jewel was dewed 
on the surface, the sea swelled, and the black bees rested 
on the meagre lotuses which seemed like the frontal 
globes on the heads of elephants ; — the ministers being 
in danger, and not knowing how the thing would 
terminate, lamented by the banks of the river. An 
those who are carried oif by the waves do not know 
what to take hold of, so their light and bewildered 
minds did not display intelligence. The Valnhara 
who sat on the other side of the river and whose plan for 
the battle was matured, was constantly opposed by the 
son of Salhana. The ministers who arrived there too 
late for the work, and with & limited force, could have 
been easily destroyed by the Vnlahara whose army 
continued to swell, as men continue to pour in the 
place of pilgrimage, at the confluence of the Vitasta and 
the Indus, crowded like a town. 


,. In order to prevent the destruction of the Damaras, 
Bhoja sent letters with a small detachment of 
foreigners under ^aga, and a body of Riijputs. Neither 
by his own cunning followers nor by tumults could the 
-patient Bhoja be moved from his cool determination and 
fixed purpose. Bhoja believed that whew the feudatory 
chiefs would arrive and distrust the Valahara, he would 
be enraged ])y such distrust and do great harm ; and 
if the Valahara once began , the mischief, the Damaras 
would rise on all sides, as Brahnianas do at the sound cf 
Onkara, He therefore 2)retcnded that he intended fight- 
ing against the king, and soothed the Valahara by 
saying that he would do some daring deed at the wane 
of night. When the feudatory chiefs who had come to 
do the work of Bhoja were in want of food, Bhoja, who 
was born of noble family, also abstained from food. 

The mistrustful ministers did not know that Bhoja's 
intention was altered. They thought that ho would not 
conic over to the king. At the fluttering of the bird's 
wings, or at the movement of the small fish they appre- 
hended that their enemies came rusning and were 
about to attack them. Satisfied with their own position 
on the other side of the river, they did not sympathise 
with the grief of separation of any but of the Chakravaka. 
The wind, the father, of H&numana, Rama's messenger 
who crossed the sea, gave strength to their messengers 
to cross over . the river. In this way they passed that 
night taking shelter of the enemies whose ears were 


pained at the rustling sound of the trees on the banks 
and who remained sleepless. 

When the night waned, when the rays of the 
rising sun had not yet dispelled the mistake that 
the tinggd snow on the mountain crest was a golden 
lotus, when the nightdew* had not yet trickled from 
the buds which were like the e} T es of the, sorrowing 
creepers shedding tears at seeing the separation of the 
Chakravaka from its mate : it was then that the hero 
[ Bhoja ] with a few infantry issued from the woody 
bank of the river and roused the war horses kicking 
them on the head. He wished to obstruct the progress 
of the Damara warriors and resisted their prowess. The 
warriors of that people ran away on all sides at his 
sight. They saw him armed with an axe, well dressed, 
and of youthful appearance, come in the front riding in 
a vehicle and reaching the bank of the river. They had 
not seen him like that before. His curl was marked with 
sandal paste and his forehead was besmeared with saffron ; 
and when they saw him, they knew that it was Bhoja. 
Having spent the night and having deceived Kajavadana, 
he had in the morning taken a hasty adieu of him and 
had come out. When the carnage had entered the 
water, the delighted Dhanya and " others came quickly 
to him from the other sMe, riding on horses, and sur- 
rounded him. Great noise then arose in the two camps, 
in the one for the departure, and in the other that of 
rejoicing. When the Daniaras heard the noise they 

kings of KlsHiriaA. 293 

believed that the battle had commenced, and they came 
running from all sides. But when they saw Bhoja 
joined with the* enemies, they struck their heads [in 

After congratulations, Bhoja, remained tru,e to hit) 
usual practice, and acquitted, his promise, to noble Dha- 
nya and others. Dhanya restrained the overflowing joy 
of his heart and thus spoke in praise of Bhoja : — " O ! 
son of a king ! Patient and of magnanimous mind ! Tho 
earth is hallowed by you as by the mountain Sumoru. 
Your mother has humbled the pride of all mothers by 
her humility. You are like cream in the sea of cream. 
Who 1 else, beside yourself, has come away from the com- 
pany of the low and has joined his own kindred, like 
the kokila ? It , is not strange that the path of 
virtue, first trodden by you, should long afterwards be 
walked over by us ?" Thus the conversation went on, 
and the mind of Bhoja was delighted. He rode a Worse 
which had become ungovernable as with success, and 
was led by those who were praising him. The Lava- 
nyas for many a krosha reproached Bhojfl, who was being 
led by his kindred, as the crows reproach the kokila 
when it is led by its tribe, and then they went away. 
Thus in the year 21, on the tenth day of Jyaishtha, 
the king drew to his side Bheja who was aged 33 j'ears. 

The queen welcomed Bhoja who came like a beloved 
son and bowe'd to fyer. His servants were weary : and 
the queen arranged for his meal. He was possessed of 


qualifications not unworthy of the family of Indra, and 
the queen thought that the eyes which did not see hiiu 
were useless. Bhoja too, on account of. her unassumcd 
virtues of honesty, compassion and mildness, thought 
the king to be of pure character. The color of the 
face is the door to the working of the mind, a bright 
door indicates prosperity within, and the behaviour of 
women is indicative of the character of Jhe husband. 
When the day declined, he felt the weariness of travel- 
ling, and he was anxious to go to the king ; but none 
asked him, out of kindness, to enter the room. The 
ministers overcame their coldness and ill feeling with 
difficulty and said that " the king orders the turbu- 
lent to behave well." These words spoken as a sort of 
a preface, entered Bhqja's ears as he was entering 
the presence of the king, and hurt them as with a stick. 
He was wounded, as it were, at a vital point, but he 
' consoled himself, and thought with a feeling of con- 
tempt that the bravery of these low men was only lip 
deep. The ruffled state of the mind of Bhoja who did 
not care for his life was soothed by those rude speakers 
when they bowed their heads in humility. The conduct 
of the just and fluent Bhoja could not be influenced bj 
such things, though his mind might be ruffled. Dhanya. 
who was ever obedient to his master, the king, thus 
spoke courteously to Bhoja, while the rays of his teett 
issued like a fountain, " You know the. rules of kingl; 
decorum, and have always behaved in a proper manner 


do not then- get impatient if things happen In their due 
course. That treaty is imperfect, in which one goes 
away without seeing the party with whom the treaty is 
made. Why did you not calculate this before? The 
king knows you to be radient with goodness, and attentive 
to the duty towards your kindred. It is not often that 
kings obtain such adherents as yourself, in modern times. 
The king will not behave towards you with vanity or 
pride, indifference or coldness through the advice of 
cunning men. The breath W men cannot soil the mirror 
like purity of his courtesy. The grace of his life is not 
equalled by the grace which appears in his kingdom. 
Tift light which is reflected from the sun does not issue 
from a burning lamp. There is a holiness in pious con- 
versation which exists only in the cottages of Rishi ; and 
a Similar "holiness exists in this Rishi-king and draws to 
bis side those who oppose him. What more can a weal- 
thy king do for you whose house will soon be graeed by 
prosperity ? The man who forsakes the water in the tank 
in the summer time is considered a greater fool than 
the serpent which coils round the cool sandal tree in 
summer, and in the month of Magna enters its old warm 
hole. The queen and the princes are a portion of the 
king, and even if they commit something wrong, it is 
right in their estimation, provided it be done for the 
king's good. Your* work is now like water cooled after 
being once"boiled j if you heat it again, it will be, like 
water, tasteless." 

896 KINGS OF KiSHllfRA. 

Unable to put any construction to these words and 
unwilling to disregard them, Bhoja behaved in a more 
open manner, and delayed his departure. On his way 
he saw on all sides, the inhabitants who had composed 
pieces in his praise, and this confirmed him in his deter- 
mination to persevere in his good work. The dust raised 
by the feet of the infantry seemed like a delusion, as if 
the*earth had established peace with the skjg. The wise 
Bhoja meditated whether he should go to the king, or 
if his visit to the king would *be prevented by the de- 
ceitful courtiers. Who can, thought Bhoja, by simply 
remaining at home and there serving his master, make his 
worth known to him? Deceitful men oppose him In 
the way. The current of water descending from the 
Himalaya flows to the sea with a view to cool the ocean 
which is heated by the submarine fire, and thus to find 
favour with the sea. But as soon as it falls into the sea, 
ft is Swallowed up by whales and is destroyed. He 
remained still with these and other thoughts, and 
consequently did not notice the noise of the city. But 
when the horses of the soldiers were stopped, he knew 
that the palace was nigh. 

The king saw him at last. He was of middle stature 
and not very thin, his face was darkened by the rays of 
the sun and was fair like the pericarp of the lotus, his 
body was languid and relaxed with toil, his shoulders 
were high like the hump of an ox, Ids breast was ex- 
panded, and his beard which was not long disclosed his 

' KT&SS OF KisHMIEA. 297 

high cheeks and ample neck. His nose was high and 
his lips were like the ripe bimba. His limbs were ample 
but not disproportionately so, and his head was bent. 
He was calm and moved slowly ; the turban on his head 
was made of clothes collected together, and kissed the 
parting of the hairs, and tlie lines on hjs forehead were 
fair as th^ moon, and seemed to extend the marks of the 
sandal past* The king saw him descend from the horse 
and approach him like the god of love, with the 
royal ministers around him. 

The eyes of the king expanded with delight, and 
Bhoja at the king's request ascended the assembly. The 
way was obstructed by men who stretched out their 
necks out of curiosity. Bhoja touched the feet of the 
king with his hand, and sat before him, and placed 
before the king's seat, the dagger which he held in his 
hand. The king placed his hand, like the hood of a 
serpent, with two fingers projecting, on Bhoja's*chin,' 
and said : — " You are not captured in battle, and will 
not be imprisoned now, why shall I then accept this 
weapon placed by you?" Bhoja rcpljed to the king. 
'' I king ! To take up arm for the defence of one's 
master is the means of securing his own salvation. You 
protect the seven £0as by your own valour, and we 
rarely find on opportunity for doing you service by our 
weapon. The shelter of my lord's feet will be my pro- 
motion in the next world ; what is the use then of any 
>ther means of salvation in this world ?" The king then 

298 KINGS OF KAsHMifiA, 

spoke like a wise man. " By your good qualities my 
present work has been accomplished, we have now other 
work to do." Bhoja said: — "All that I am stating now 
is only feigned in order to beget my master's confidence. 
What is the use then in repeating such statements ? 
What unfriendly deeds were, not thought of or tried or 
what not done 1 Know that those which were noj; success- 
ful were not known to the public. We who© have eyes 
of skin, [ not of reason, ] believed you before to be our 
enemy. But were you not born of the family of Malla 
for some great purpose 1 ! king ! Whenever wc wished 
to do some unfriendly act towarda you, then always 
occurred great earthquakes. When, ! king ! we heard 
of your great prowess described by the bright genius 
of poets, I felt a feverish impulse, on hearing of your 
valour, which never forsook rue, neither in the crest of 
mountains nor in clefts, nor in the caverns, nor in the 
Siwsaj' Tto» ya t\ift gvoves of mwmtainB. Since that 
time I felt a desire ! king ! to take your shelter, and, 
though owing to the distance between us, the establish- 
ment of peace was not possible, yet I wished to humble 
myself before you. After I had wished for reconcilia- 
tion, all my deeds undertaken through an impious zeal 
for war were insignificant and obscure. It is for our 
kinship with you that chiefs respect us and wait upon 
us. In this world, a glass vessel is respected when 
filled with the water of the Ganges. E?en to" 1 this day, 
there are innumerable Kshatriyas on all sides of us,' 


connected with you by blood and called Shaheva." 
With adulations like these, Bhoja called his master, the 
arbiter of his fate, and again touched the king's feet 
■with his head. He then rose, and in his hurry to bow 
.down, his turban fell down, but the king covered 
Bhoja's head with the cloth from his ewn head. The 
king, wifch unabated gi-avity, took the dagger which 
was kept by Bhoja, and which was lying untouched, 
soothed him and placed it oji his lap ; and when Bhoja 
declined to take it, the king spoko thus : — " I give you 
•this, and you should accept it and revere it ; I desire 
that you should not decline to accept it." Bhoja knew 
the proper time and import of every act and he under- 
stood that the order of the proud king should not 
be disobeyed. He obeyed, bowed and took that weapon. 
Then, as if he had boon an old servant of the king, he 
behaved freely with the king ; ho was reconciled with 
him, and became a boon companion. This fortunate 
man bowed to the king, praisud him highly, and said : — 
" ! king ! He is not fortunate who engages himself in 
any work other than that of listenings to the account of 
your virtues. Neither life nor wealth is worth reckon- 
ing to day. Know therefore O ! king ! that the homage 
which is paid to you is without dissimulation." He 
again said : — " Wo think we can adequately express our 
loyalty to the king, but when we attempt to do so in 
words, wo fail." , 
„ The king then for a short time made enquiries on 

800 KINGS OF k1shm£ra. 

subjects both of great and little importance, and then 
went to the inner appartments of queen Radda, with 
Bhoja. Bhoja saw her beaming with c&arteaj, and he 
bowed to her and acknowledged that the king was the 
Parijata t?ee attended by Kalpalata. Then the king 
said to the quocn : — " O ! Queen ! This courteous kins- 
man has come to you." The queen rcpligd: — "Ho 
should be honoi-ed and treated with respecfo among our 
sons." The king who was full of courtesy took Bhoja 
with him and went to the house of the queen who had 
accomplished the work of reconciliation, hi order to do 
her honor. The clever queen smiled and spoke thus to 
Bhoja who had come with the king : — " Have you become 
a confidant of the sovereign within so short a time '? " 
She smiled out of bashfulness as she bowed to huv 
■husband, the king, and welcomed his kinsman Bhoja, 
and spoke thus to the king about Bhoja. " ! Son of 
■Arya, I he (Bhoja) neglected the council of his um 
men and followed honor. His endeavour to satisfy his 
■kindred should not be forgotten. Lotuses grow in the 
water, but when grown, they rise above the water and 
are taken in company by other lotuses. Do thou also, 
lotus of the family ! now accept Bhoja. We were tired with 
our task, and could not, without his help, have accomplish- 
ed the work of supporting out dignity or even returning to 
our capital. When the tree which protects the sea shore 
falls, the creeper which clings to it falls also. The life 
of a woman is said to follow the course of her husband'ii 


life. Means should be adopted for the protection of your 
life, so that there may not be any mishap to it." The 
king said to he* : — " O Queen ! You are a witness to all 
my deeds; do you not think that Bhoja's purpose 
honest? I have suppressed the wicked §ujji azzd 
Mallarjuna, but my heart ,' which laboi,jcd under sorrow 
has not ev^n to this day been relieved of grief." 
' The king ihen asked Bhoja to stay in the most magni- 
ficient house, and Bhoja and his followers did not think 
it safe to stay anywhero else in the capital. He thought 
that those who remained at a distance became helpless, 
and were not able to see the king frequently, and 
consequently, could not serve the king. The king under- 
Stood his purpose and was glad, and Bhoja lived in the 
house given to him by the king, within the capital, and 
furnished with all necessary furniture. The king also 
was served by his kindred and others, whose pleasure 
was heightened through affection ,- and his affection* was* 
drawn towards Bhoja, as to an old dependant, At the 
time of enjoyment, when there wore many strange sights 
to see, the king used to remember hinj, like a beloved 
aon, and used to call him, by messengers, to his side. As 
he was a kindred, the king, when at meal, used to place 
him on his right sid§ and give him delicious food before 
he parted with him. The king bore towards him an 
unfeigned affection, like a father, and along with the 
sons of his own bk>od, he favored his relative. Though 
attended by many attendants, the king reposed his full 


confidence on him. He too behaved befittingly. He 
pointed out to the king those who were intimate with 
him during the civil war, and thereby removed his dis- 
pleasure and reduced the number of his enemies. He 
did not appear in the court as a meaningless show or 
like an impudent man or with the assumed virtue of a 
heron. When through carelessness, the king ^proceeded 
too far or too short in any act, he passed them unheeded, 
as the minor poems of - a great poet are passed un- 
noticed. He did not narrate with pride the deeds of 
his valor or his gifts given in religious ceremonies ; and 
when questioned, he did not speak of past events with 
exaggeration. With a bold look the wise Bhoja silenced 
those who flattered him, as equal to the king, or as born 
of the same family, and thus compared him with the 
king. Even when asked about his intentions, he would 
so lower his ambition, ~ that the wicked, the cunning, 
and those who could see through a joke, could not 
fathom him. At times when the lights were extinguish- 
ed, and all hod retired on account of the darkness, 
he would go to the house of the king without betraying 
any fear. Even when the king slackened his vigilance, 
owing to his confidence in Bhoja, Bhoja acted like a 
tame horse, and did not run away,. Always forward in 
other places, Bhoja felt himself embarrassed in going to 
the inner appartments or to the council room, although 
not forbidden. The king sent away even the lord of 
Darat who had petitioned for some concessions, for the' 

KINGS OF KiSHlrfRA. 303 

king felt his expectations could not 'be realize^! by depend- 
ing- on any one other than Bhoja. Guards were not 
set on Bhoja's way even in times of distrust, and Bhoja 
did not fail to disclose to the king even what he saw in 
dreams. He gave no account to the king of the mutual 
censure which the ministers and the ladies of the inner 
appartments indulged in, but forgot them like evil 
dreams. Ii> assemblies where ill-natured jokes were* in- 
dulged in, the intelligent Bhoja simply echoed the words 
' of the bad men whose lightness was apparent in their 
words ; but he spoke otherwise in his own mind. Thus 
endued with purity of intention, he became, by his 
deeds, the beloved of the king who understood business 
and who entertained a greater affection for him than 
for his own sons. King Simharaja attained what can 
with difficulty be attained by the kings of the Kali age ; 
he constructed a new bridge, as it were, for saving his 
kindred. " 

When the tumults raised by Trillaka were quelled, 
he thought that even burning in fire would be a relief 
to his body. He delayed to escape in time by the 
mountain road which was devoid of snow, thinking that 
such escape was impossible, and that he would be caught 
in attempting it. Therefore while the sensible Trillaka 
waited for an opportunity to depart, Sailjapala 
commenced to pursue him, without further deliberation. 
That great hero Trillaka who rested but little, stopped 
at Martanda with many good warriors of Devasarasa. 

304 kings of kAshmira. 

That country was easily accessible to the opponents, nor 
was he so vain as to think that the hostile soldiers who 
were beyond Martaada were weak. The followers of 
Trillaka who had not their arrows near at hand, fought 
with thejr enemies; nor did they display cowardice. 
The Lavnnya, wjfh his unlimited soldiers and with the 
Damaras of several places, and with the whohj strength, 
fought there in anger with those who were running. The 
■men of Devasarasa fled, full of plundered riches. They felt 
the power of Sanjapala. When the whole place was cover- 
ed by rain and by enemies, the soldiers looked like the 
Kula mountains.* They who had been exposed to the 
powerful rays of the sun, had long withstood the rage 
of the foes and had destroyed several of the enemy's 
soldiers, were slain in these battles. The other party, 
when they had slain all the heroes in battle, reached 
ManAala. The people of Marttanda were also thickly 

Gayapala, son of Sanjapala, became distinguished in 
this battle. When three horses were killed under him, 
he fought on foot for want of a fourth, and was unobserved. 
His younger brother, the boy Jarjja, who fought for the 
first time in this battle, astonished the heroes who had 
witnessed innumerable great battles. He cut down the 
handsome right hand of the lord of Eampana. The 
sun torments large elephants and the hyppopotamus 
— _ 

* The seven great mountains that are believed to have kept, 
their heads above the water at the deluge. 


breaks their tusks.- The lord of Kampana An on horse- 
back, displayed his weapon in one hand and looked 
like a forest fire with a column of smoke on a winged 
. mountain.* In this fierce battle with the enemies, the 
horse, put to flight by a wound inflicted by an arrow, 
ran backwards and threw him down from its. back. 
.Owing to the weight of his armour and to the heavy 
fall on tlie surface of the groimd, he became sensetess, 
and was carried away by his two sons from among the 
enemios. When the army was completely destroyed, his 
men cast him in the courtyard of the temple of Marttari- 
da, out of the sight of the enemies, and fled. The lord 
of 'Kampana departed with the whole of the large army 
and found the Damara who was there, and crushed 

When 8he king came to Vijayakshetra, Saujapala 
completely burnt the broken house of the Lavanya. The 
king frowned in anger, and the Lavanya, though reduced 
to that plight, was not reduced to poverty. Ho had 
plenty of food in the rows of villages in the mountains. 
He had no friends, and was sent away out of his family, 
and was rebuked by servants whoso wisdom becomes 
cheap at the time of distress. His hand was cut, and 
owing to the helplessness of his condition, he gave 
up his head as an offering to the anger of the king, as 
one gives a fruit to Tishnu. 

* It ia believed thjit, in ancient times, mountains) were furnished 
.with wings. 

306 KINGS OF KlsHillRA. 

The king "then anointed Gulhana, the eldest of the 
sons of Raidadevi, as king of the prosperous kingdom of ' 
Lohara. That prince was aged six or seven years, and he 
surpassed older kings, as a young mango tree surpasses 
worn out trees. As the queen [Radda] went to anoint 
her son, tne feudatory kings bowed to her, and reddened 
her feet by the rays of the rubies on their heads, as if paint. When the prince was anointed, the clouds, 
as- if in compliance with, the wishes of the queen, drench- 
ed the earth which had btteu dried up by a fearful 

Rajavadana who was anxious to create a revolution 
again vigorously attacked Jayachandra, in obedience to 
the orders of the king. Accompanied by the son of 
Naga's brother, he destroyed the rear of the army which 
followed the son of Garga, as he was entering a narrow 
defile. The son of Garga, whose face became dejected 
jja aqpoimt of the discomfiture, captured Loshtaka, the 
eldest of the sons of Naga's brother, in battle, after a 
few days. Owing to the difficulty of access, Dinnagrama 
was not attacked by the enemies, but the son of Garga 
entered it with "dexterous valor, burnt it,, and came oat 
of it. Even then Rajavadana's power was not reduced. 
He did not ostablish peace, nor was he angry with him 
who had gone out of Dinnagrama 'and with whom he 
was quite able to cope. 

Jayachandra and others whose army decreased day by 
day, and who always disregarded discomforts, fell on the 

KINGS op xisHuinA. 307 


king. The king placed the Tikshnas who had long arms 
and long fingers in an ambuscade and caused Jayachandra 
to be killed in .the midst of the battle. Jayachandra 
who was engaged in the unfortunate battle was soon cut 
down, and his life departed from his body ; his head and 
■face rolled on the ground, and his body was cut to 
.pieces. Seeking a pretext for the extermination of the 
family of* Prithvlhara, the king killed even Lothana 
after he had bestowed on him the royal umbrella and 
staff. He had once been saved by Trillaka when 
surrounded by foes, but now he again fell in the meshes 
of the king's policy. Mallakoshta, Ksharajayya, Madda- 
ctuindra and others were harassed by poverty and 
disturbances, and were like dead though living, and 
they remained quiet. 

Simhar^jn, the chief of his dynasty, as if believing 
that the soul of king Uchchala was imperishable, gave 
an endowment to a matha which had obtained the pro- 
tection of many kings, but which had been thrown into 
disorder through vanity proceeding from the possession 
of wealth. The king completed the ancestral Sulla vihara, 
■and the three temples commenced by his father, as well as , 
the half-finished palace. He was of immovable purpose, . 
and gathered faultless courtiers and friends around him 
by the gift of villag'es, articles and markets. In memory 
of the deceased Chandrala, an inmate of the female 
appartments, whose face was as beautiful as the mooo, 
he established at iDvara, a matha of exceeding beauty, in 

30 8 kings of kAshmira. 

which, guests were never refused shelter. The king, who 
had no vanity, built Suryyamatimatha with greater ' 
magnificence than before ; and" people talked with wonder 
about the structure. 

Then, when Safijapala departed from this world, his 
son GayapSla was set up in Eampana by the king. 
People forgot lino fame or the mighty and unbearable 
SaSjapala when his gentle son succeeded, as tnoy forget 
the autumn sun on seeing the gentle moon. When at 
the rising of a cloud, a sudden lightning strikes down 
a tree which had stood on the bank of a river, unaffected 
by the heat of the summer, the stream does not show 
the destruction of the tree, but displays the beauty of 
its own waters. 

It was Dhanya who was the main stay of the king's 
party from the time of Bhikshu's destruction -86 the time 
when Bhoja was won over, that is, during the period uf 
the ting's trouble. He took an unusual interest iu the 
performance of the king's work, and by treacherous 
murders, reduced and anihilated the enemies. He also 
devoted, like a son, his dear life to the service of that 
grateful king who should be saved at the sacrifice of the 
world's life, and who, though sunk in danger at every 
step, was steady in his purpose to protect his subjects. 
The king mixed with those who*" were near Dhanya 
wishing his welfare ; and ho remained sleepless and did 
not move from the side of Dhanya who was«> ill, in his 
last moments. The death of this dear subject and minis- 

KINSS OF KASHlflltA. 309 

ter, for a time, gave new life to the people. They had 
grieved at the death of JIandhata and other kings, but 
they now rejoiced. At the time when the kingdom of 
the new king was harassed by eivil wars, it was his 
ministry which overcame all reverses and became irresist- 
ible. At the time when Sujji was kil^d and he be- 
came the .superintendent of the capital, he put down 
the disorders^ the kingdom which were of long growth. 
The use of Dinnara, in the making of purchases, had 
been prohibited by law, but he repealed the law, and 
Djnnava has now a wide currency without any fall in 
its price. When the character of a married woman 
• was lost, the master of the house used to inflict 
punishment ; but this practice was prohibited by him 
after deliberation. Thus on obtaining the superintendent- 
ship of the capital, he had become useful to men. But 
even he oppressed the people in conducting his affairs. 
He inflicted violent punishments on many dissipated" 
men who, it was reported, had been In ing in houses full 
of immured women and dancing girls. What will jou 
gain by thinking about the le.idor-, of t^Miors who wore 
ever ready to fly like husks ? Yet there was none so de\ oid 
of rebellious feelings and of a\ arioc as he was. Even 
when he heard of Bhikshu and Mallarjjunn, lie did not 
forsake the good of his master according to the preval- 
ent custom of the time. In the time of prosperity, ha 
never forgot his disiutcrestcdncas, and at the tunc of 
ius death, he had not acquired much wealth, either- 

310 KINGS 07 KlsHJlfRA. 

honestly or dishonestly. The king divided the whole of 
Dhanya's wealth among his dependants, even as he 
would have done if Dhanya had been alive. Ho,w could 
he have expressed his gratitude to Dhanya more ade- 
quately Uian by this conduct ? Dhanya had commenced 
building a Vifcara named • Vijja, after the name of his 
beloved wife Vijja who had gone to the next w,orld. But 
after Dhanya had gone to the other wgirld, the king 
spent some money from the remnant of Dhanya's estate 
to finish the Vihara. 

Encouraged to do good works by the virtues of the 
king who began many sacred works, the EajavijI Sangiya, 
younger brother of Kamaliya, built a temple after his 
own name. He was born in the family of those Kshetri- 
yas whose ■ only occupation was to engage themselves 
in battle after drink, and who, when the Turashkas 
entered the country, and there were numerous enemies, 
learned nothing but cruelty for the preservation of the 
native land. It was at the time when king Sussala was 
engaged in war that they took advantage of the discord 
to come into Kashmira, according to their custom. 
Men learn wisdom at the Vanalinga, set up by Sangiya, 
on the banks of the Vitasta, even like those who have 
obtained salvation on the banks B of the Ganges. The 
sight of his matha graced* with devotees satiates the 
curiosity to see the heaven of Mahadeva. 

Having spent money to no purpoce, the clear headed 
Lothana did not commence any other consecration-. 


Chinta, wife of Udaya, lord of Kampana, adorned the 
land on the bunks of the Vitasta with a vihara. There 
the five ' temples* 1 1 the vihara appeared like the five 
tall fingers of the hand of the god of virtue. Maiikhaka, 
minister for war and peace, brother of Alarikafa, set up 
the Shrlkantha matha, and btecame great* 

Sumana,* the younger sister [of AlankaraJ became 
equal to KilHana by pious acts such as constructing 
matha, giving villages to Brahmanas, building temples 
of gods and repairing the worn out temples. [Kilhana] 
raised a matha at Bhuteshvara, and he paid oblation to 
his ancestors with the waters of the gold bearing Vitasta, 
which flowed by Trigrama. In the district named 
Kashyapagara, the river Nilabhu flows eastward, as if 
emulating t£e Ganges. There he caused a bridge to—be 
built for the crossing over of cows and other animals. 
He secured his salvation by this pious act. Even in^ the . 
capital he- built .a inscribed faith his jamae, farMahM- 
deva, and constructed mathas for the shelter of images 
of Shiva which were deprived of their temples. He con- 
structed an image named Mammeshvara of pure gold, 
and constructed Somatlrtha and a garden in a lake which 
was illuminated on its sides. Born in the dynasty of 
the king who was the master of life and property, and 
possessed of greatness^md riches, he exsited the jealousy 
of the ministers, even as king Mandhata, when seated 
in his new seat in heaven, excited Indra's jealousy and 
SUger and was cast out of heaven by him. The king 


who was steady of purpose saw his servants improving t 
in their work day by day and thought of his own groat 
intellect and was happy. 

King Kalasha had strong common sense, and his ser- 
vant RilBaiia set up gold umbrellas and became his 
favourite. At Sureshvari where the united images of 
Ha,ra and Parvatt were kept, the gold umbrella, decorated 
with bells, won the affection of both the %od and the 
goddess, on the " night of th»lamps." The gold umbrella 
seemed like the mountain Meru which appeared to have 
travelled to the spot to breathe on the heads of Parmti 
and Hara who were the daughter and son-in-law of his 
friend the Himalaya mountain. The fire of Mahadeva's 
eye pondered thus : — " Mahadeva burnt Kama, the 
beloved TJma therefore embraced Mahadeva u in terror ; 
she should therefore feel grateful to Kama." Tims pon- 
,dering, the fire darted upwards in the form of an um- 
brella. There was a large gold umbrella constructed by 
Rilhana and fixed on the top of the temple of the beloved 
of Eukmini, (Krishna), and now it looks small and beauti- 
ful, as if the sufl has come to see whether his master 
Narfiyana has recovered his Chakra, beautiful as itself (the 
sun), and which Chakra had once gone mad with drink- 
ing blood and had fled away. At theshrine which has boon 
deeply and everlastingly hallowed »by the conqueror of 
Kama (Mahadeva) and by him (Vishnu) whose banner 
is marked with the image of a bird, there on an orna- 
mental stick, Mahadeva's golden umbrella, the perfection 


of workmanship, looked like the pollen of the lotus of 
the Ganges wiurk-d round by the breath of the serpent 
on his liead.* ^The silver umbrella] of the other god 
[Vishnu] seemed like a lightning on the skirts of his 
cloud-like hair. Within the rich, deep antf golden 
dome of the temple, locJking like flic dome of the 
universe, the white and the sablo beauty of Mahad^va 
and Vishnu* blends with the rays of the spreading um- 
brella. The beautiful golcUimbrclla spreads over them, 
as over two seas. 

•After the king of Lohara (Gulhana), queen Rodda's four 
sous, olever and eminent on account of their virtues, be- 
came kings. As Lakshmana bore inseparable love 
towards Rama, so Gulhana is loved by Aparaditya, and 
lives in prosperity in Lohara. As Shatrughna^was 
brought up by Bharnta, even so Jayapida lives under the 
fostering care of Lalitaditya. King Aluiskuru was re- 
nowned on account of humility and wus the fifth 
virtuous king, and rose like the young sun. He was 
restless on account of his young age, graceful on ac- 
(tfnint of his reverence and power, Aid although like 
the beautiful sun, he softened men. His fair face with 
eyes lined with collyrium, and his lower lip red as 
copper, appeared lik* a golden lotus on which the rays 
of the newly risen sun were reflected. Though 

* It would appear* that-. Mahadeva was here repvfsonted by an 
image with a serpent round itts head uud with the Gauged flowing 
through its hair. 


314 KINGS OF kAshmiea. 

young, his conversation was clear and full of magnani- 
mity, and was as grateful to men as the source of the 
nectar, (the moon), churned out of the ocean. " He is 
horn of a great family, and the graceful dignity of hia 
infancy indicates future expansion. Four daughters, — 
Menila, Kajalak|hmT, Padm&hrX and Kamala, — all bent 
on .good deeds, were born to the king of Kashmira. 
Always surrounded by beautiful children in*the pleasure 
garden made for enjoyment? the unblemished king and 
queen look graceful like two gardens in the rainy 
season. By the reduction of the expenditure of ike 
kingdom, hallowed by holy temples, the riches „of 
queen Rodda were augmented. The queen was followed 
by the king and petty chiefs and ministers in her pilgri- 
mage to shrines of gods, and she beamed like Hie goddess 
of Royal Fortune. When she bathed, her companions 
in pilgrimage touched the person of that chaste lady 
and instantly abandoned their desire to touch the image 
of Satl. AVhen she marched, the rain clouds in the sky 
always followed her, in order to see her, as they follow 
the rainy season ; l no doubt, because, when she bathed ip 
the shrines of this world, the shrines of heaven bathed her 
too, out of jealousy, in the guise of rain clouds. In her 
eagerness to go to shrines, the que*en with her tender 
limbs does not thiuk even the cloud-touching hills and 
the bank-breaking rivers in her way to be insurmount- 
able. By setting up many images and repairing worn 
out temples, the wise and clever queen surpassed the 


" Idle " (Nirjjitavarmma) and Didda. She set up a bbautifi 
image of Rudra named Rudveshvam, made of white ston 
grateful as|he gource of the nectar, (the moon), an. 
beauteousas the' melting sea of cream. It shines to th 
dav^and destroys hunger, thirst, poverty and all disttii 
bailees. Set with pure gold, it is the graceful omamflht c 
Kashmira, the essence of all beautiful things in the world 
She also repaired the building named Sha\»tavasada. • 

When the king is ruffled with anger, as the sea is bj 
the sub-marine fire, the queen> is the shelter of the 
servants, as the Ganges is of aquatic creatures. "When 
the kdng is in even temper, punishments or favors on 
[subordinate] kings were awarded at her desire. Sbo 
favored king Bhupala, son of Somap&la, by marriage 
with the honorable Moniladovl. The dignity inherited 
from nolSe birth is easily discerned, and is, ne^vejj, 
completely lost. The fiery sun has the power to destroy 
darkness., and' the disk (moon} receives thcDower from the 
snn, and so destroys darkness. This kingdom, wonderful ' 
among all kingdoms on earth, and purified and full of . 
jewels, displays in a befitting manner the virtues of the 
lflng. After MeniladevJ was married, her father sincerely 
forgot his former displeasure against the bridegroom and 
bestowed on him a kingdom. 

The king had, by his vigour, killed king Prajidhara 

and other enemies in battle. The powerful Ghatotkacha, 

, younger briJther of Prajidhara now tried to heal up his 

cn/aity with the king. He took shelter of Rodda and 

31 C KINGS 0* KAsHMfUi. 

obtained a beautiful kingdom, and enjoyed a kingly 
fortune. Pjiichavafca, helped by the ministers of the 
king, caused the kingdom of Angada inaludfcig Prajji to 
he taken away from its owner who behaved with hostili- 
ty towards his brother. His [ Paiichavata's] prowess 
was as great as that of the 9pharadana river, when full 
of water ; but by crossing it, he [ Ghafcotkacha J eluded 
theft river as well as Paiichavata's black sw$rd flashing 
before enemies. The latter [ Pafichavata ] created a bad 
iiixme for the king, and by the prowess of the gods, took 
jossession of Atyugrapura full of combatants. 
Under the beams #f the white umbrella, beautiful**is the 
moon, many joyful leaders of armies thus attained fame. 

In this year 25, tweuty-two years have now passed 
since the king obtained the kingdom. Owing to the 
wtu n «.«»of the subjects, the happiness attained. 
l>) this king in the end was not equalled in any other 
.jif.icc for nuuy years and cycles. Water which natural- 
ly JJows is, by n certain plant, consolidated, and it becomes 
like stone. Solid stone (sun-jewel) melts at the rising of 
the sun, and flows. Whose work can shine unchanged 
against the irVisistible power of time, as long as sucn 
irrisistible power endures 1 Such is the power of Fate ! 

When 653 years of Kali had elapsed, Gonarda became, 
king in Kcshmira by Serving the Pandavis. Then his 
son Darnodara, then Damodara's wife Yashomatr, then her 
fon another Gonarda. Then thirty-five kings whose goorf' 
dteds, family and names are unknown. Passing them over, 


-Lava became king. His son wns Kushcshayn. His son 
nml grandson named Khagendrn mid Surcndra became 
kings. Thou Gbdharu born of another family became 
king. ^Pficn his son named Suvarna. His son Janaka 
hoewme lung. Shachln.ava son of ShachI [wife of Janaka], 
and thcr his cousin's son AsTioka beenme king, Then his 
son J.ilouka. Jhen ]>amods>ra born in a family which 
is not well«known. Then the three Hushka <fec. of the 
Turushka family jointly became kings. Then Abhi- 
manyu. Then the third GonaFda. Then Vibhtshana. 
Then Indi'HJita and Havana, father and son, successively 
Lccairi? kings. Another Viblilshnna,* and Sidha. 
Then his son Utpalaksha. After him Hirauyaksha. 
Then Hiranyakulaka. H'n> sou king Vasukula. Then 
Shrimihirakula known as the destroyer of three koti 
[m«v]. After him Vaka. Then king KshitinauiWi 1 ." fMIBlP 
his son Vusnnanda. Another Nam. Then Aksha. Then 
Gopfiditya and Gokarna successively. From him was" 
Narendraditya. His son tlie blind Yudhishthira ; he tfas 
deposed by his servants. PratSpsditya born of another 
family became king. His son Jalauka. His son Tufijlnn. 
Then Vijaya born of another family. His son Jayendra 
who had no children. Then was the minister Sandhi- 
tifma. Then Shrimeghavahana, grandson of Yudhish- 
thira, son of Bhupaditya. When llirough Meghsivahana 
the family of Gonnrdn had become prosperous, 
.then in the kingdom of Knshmlra Pravarasena 

* Kara has beun left out. 


became"' King. His son Hiranya governed the world. . 
Then the kingdom was given to Matrigupta by the 
enemy of the Shakas [Vikramaditya of Uijjayani.] Then 
another Pravurasena, son of Toramana, Hiranya's 
brother's son, obtained the country. Then his son Yudhish- 
thira. Them Narendraditya &nd Ranaditya successively 
became kings. Then his [Ranaditya's] , son Yikrama- 
ditya. Then was Baladitya son of Vikramad.jtya. Then 
Durlabhavarddhana son-in-law of Baladitya. Then his 
son Durlabhaka. Then Chandraplda, his younger 
brother Tarapida, his youuger brother Muktaplda 
became kings. His step brother Kuvalayapida. liukta- 
plda's son Vajraditya. His sons Pritkivyaplda and San- 
gramaplda, became kings. Then Jayaplda and his 
minister Jajja, and then Lalitaplda and Sangramaplda 
i,wu--». U u>?of Jayaplla successively became kings. Then- 
was ShrlchippatajayapTda, son of the elder [Lalitaplda], 
-born of the daughter of Xalpupala. His maternal uncles 
Utpala and others killed him by magic and without 
getting the kingdom themselves, set up by mutual con- 
sent, in Cliippatajayaplda's pla<je, his brother's son Ajita- 
plda. Then "Anaiigapida son of Sangramaplda. He was 
deposed and succeeded by Utpalaplda son of Ajitaplda. 
The minister Shura deposed hjjn [and raised ] Avanti- 
varmma. Utpala's grandson, Sukhavarmma's son, the . 
celebrated hero Shankaravai'mm§ was established in the y 
■ kingdom. His son Gopala. Themhis brother Sarikara 
who was picked up in the streets. Their mother Sugan- 

kings or kAshmira. 319 

tlha, who reigned after murdering Sankata. The Tantri 
infantry made the cripple Nirjjitavarmma, great grand- 
son of ShjjFavifrmma, king, and then Partlia. Then 
Chakrastfrmma and Shiiravarninia, sons of Nirjjitavarm- 
mi^Aftev the death of Chakiuvarouaa, the sinful Um%atta- 
vanti, son of Partha. After him his son Shiiravarmma. 
When he was dethroned, the Dvijus made the minister 
Yashaskara,%ing. His cousin's son Vamata. After him 
his son the crooked fceted Snrigrama got the kingdom. 
Dethroning him, the minister named Parvvagupta obtained 
the kingdom by rebellion. Then his son Kshemagupta. 
Hi^son Abhimanyu. After his death, his son Nandagupta 
who was nursed by his mother, [i. «., who was very 
young]. Theu Tribhuvanagupta. And after his death 
Bhlmagupia. And after his death, the cruel Didda 
who killed her son's son. And after her, she dHBlVBor 
brother's son Saiigramadeva, king. Then his two sons 
Hariraja and Anawtadcva. Ananta's son Kalasha. His"* 
two sons successively Utkarsha and Harsha. Dethroning 
Harsha, Uchchala of the same family got the kingdom. 
TJphchala was born of Malk, the grandson of Jassaraja 
who was Diddii's, brother's son. Uchchala was killed by 
a revolt of servants and in their presence. Radda alias 
Shankharaja became kiag for a short time. He was 
killed by Gurgga, and.S:)lhana step brother of [Radda] 
became king. King Uahchala's powerful brother named 
• SiMsala, son of Malla, tilled Salhan.:i and possessed the 

* Sauibhubardhana has beeu hit out. 


kingdom. He was ovorthrown by the disaffected servants 
aiid for six mouths, king Harsha's grandson named 
Bhikahaohara wus made king. Banishing .kim, Sussala 
again obtained the kingdom. The trusted Luvanyas in 
timekilled tho harassed king Sassala in a civil discord. 
But after destroying the wTttblu of tiie Lavanyas as weli 
as the king Bhikahaohara, king Susaala's,bon king Jaya- 
siipha of great forgiveness ut preseut lives »ud delight ■< 
the world. 

Like the river GodiSvarl with its winding course, 
flowing rapidly through seven mouths, this wave of kmtj-s 
has entered for repose, the great sea like dyiiAsty o; 
king Siirtkauta. 

This is the eighth Taranga of the Rfijataranginl by the 
great poet Shrlkalhaua. 

HerCT&ids the llajatnrynginl by the great poet Kal- 
hana, son of the great and clever minister Champaka 

Printed by I. G. Bose & C'u., Stanknpe Press, 24fr.' 
JiowJJaxar Street, Calcutta.